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MILLIMETERS  . 


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A  SELECTIVE  MICROFILM  EDITION 

PART  IV 
(1899-1910) 


Thomas  E.  Jeffrey 
Lisa  Gitelman 
Gregory  Jankunis 
David  W.  Hutchings 
Leslie  Fields 


Theresa  M.  Collins 
Gregory  Field 
Aldo  E.  Salerno 
Karen  A.  Detig 
Lorie  Stock 


Robert  Rosenberg 
Director  and  Editor 


Sponsors 

Rutgers,  The  State  University  Of  New  Jersey 
National  Park  Service,  Edison  National  Historic  Site 
New  Jersey  Historical  Commission 
Smithsonian  Institution 


University  Publications  of  America 
Bethesda,  MD 
1999 


Edison  signature  used  with  permission  of  MoGraw-Edison  Gompn 


Thomas  A.  Edison  Papers 
at 

Rutgers,  The  State  University 
endorsed  by 

National  Historical  Publications  and  Records  Commission 
18  June  1981 

Copyright  ©  1999  by  Rutgers,  The  State  University  ■  •  • 

All  rights  reserved.  No  part  of  this  publication  including  any  portion  of  the  guide  and  index  or  of 
the  microfilm  may  be  reproduced,  stored  hi  a  retrieval  system,  or  transmitted  hi  any  form  by  any 
means — graphic,  electronic,  mechanical,  or  chemical,  hicludhigphotocopying,  recordhigor  taping, 
or  information  storage  and  retrieval  systems— without  written  permission  of  Rutgers,  The  State 
University,  New  Brunswick,  New  Jersey. 

The  original  documents  hi  this  edition  are  from  the  archives  at  the  Edison  National  Historic  Site 
at  West  Orange,  New  Jersey. 


ISBN  0-89093-703-6 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON  PAPERS 


Robert  A.  Rosenberg 
Director  and  Editor 

Thomas  E.  Jeffrey 
Associate  Director  and  Coeditor 

Paul  B.  Israel 

Managing  Editor,  Book  Edition 
Helen  Endick 

Assistant  Director  for  Administration 


Associate  Editors 
Theresa  M.  Collins 
Lisa  Gitelman 
Keith  A.  Nier 

Research  Associates 

Gregory  Jankunis 
Lorie  Stock 


Assistant  Editors 
Louis  Carlat 
Aido  E.  Salerno 


Secretary 
Grace  Kurkowski 


Amy  Cohen 
Bethany  Jankunis 
Laura  Konrad 
Vishal  Nayak 


Student  Assistants 


Jessica  Rosenberg 
Stacey  Saelg 
Wojtek  Szymkowiak 
Matthew  Wosniak 


BOARD  OF  SPONSORS 


Rutgers,  The  State  University  of  New  National  Park  Service 
Jersey  John  Maounis 

Francis  L.  Lawrence  Maryanne  Gerbauckas 

Joseph  J.  Seneca  Roger  Durham 

Richard  F.  Foley  George  Tselos 

David  M.  Osliinsky  Smithsonian  Institution 

New  Jersey  Historical  Commission  Bernard  Finn 

Howard  L.  Green  Arthur  P.  Molella 


EDITORIAL  ADVISORY  BOARD 

Janies  Brittain,  Georgia  Institute  of  Technology 
R.  Frank  Colson,  University  of  Southampton 
Louis  Galambos,  Johns  Hopkins  University 
Susan  Hockey,  University  of  Alberta 
Thomas  Parke  Hughes,  University  of  Pennsylvania 
Peter  Robinson,  Oxford  University 

Philip  Scranton,  Georgia  Institute  of  Technology/Ha^ey  Museum  and  Library 
Merritt  Roe  Smith,  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology 


FINANCIAL  CONTRIBUTORS 


PRIVATE  FOUNDATIONS 
The  Alfred  P.  Sloan  Foundation 
Charles  Edison  Fund 
The  Hyde  and  Watson  Foundation 
National  Trust  for  the  Humanities 
Geraldine  R.  Dodge  Foundation 


PUBLIC  FOUNDATIONS 
National  Science  Foundation 
National  Endowment  for  the 
Humanities 

National  Historical  Publications  and 
Records  Commission 


PRIVATE  CORPORATIONS  AND  INDIVIDUALS 


Alabama  Power  Company 

Anonymous 

AT&T 

Atlantic  Electric 

Association  of  Edison  Illuminating 
Companies 

Battelle  Memorial  Institute 
The  Boston  Edison  Foundation 
Cabot  Corporation  Foundation,  Inc. 
Carolina  Power  &  Light  Company 
Consolidated  Edison  Company  of  New 
York,  Inc. 

Consumers  Power  Company 
Cooper  Industries 
Corning  Incorporated 
Duke  Power  Company 
Entergy  Corporation  (Middle  South 
Electric  System) 

Exxon  Corporation 

Florida  Power  &  Light  Company 

General  Electric  Foundation 

Gould  Inc.  Foundation 

Gulf  States  Utilities  Company 

David  and  Nina  Heitz 

Hess  Foundation,  Inc. 

Idaho  Power  Company 


IMO  Industries 

International  Brotherhood  of  Electrical 
Workers 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  H.  Katz 
Matsushita  Electric  Industrial  Co.,  Ltd. 
Midwest  Resources,  Inc. 

Minnesota  Power 
New  Jersey  Bell 
New  York  State  Electric  &  Gas 
Corporation 

North  American  Philips  Corporation 
Philadelphia  Electric  Company 
Philips  Lighting  B.V. 

Public  Service  Electric  and  Gas  Company 

RCA  Corporation 

Robert  Bosch  GmbH 

Rochester  Gas  and  Electric  Corporation 

San  Diego  Gas  and  Electric 

Savannah  Electric  and  Power  Company 

Schering-Plough  Foundation 

Texas  Utilities  Company 

Thomas  &  Betts  Corporation 

Thomson  Grand  Public 

Transamerica  Delaval  Inc. 

Westinghouse  Foundation 
Wisconsin  Public  Service  Corporation 


183 


A  Note  on  the  Sources 

The  pages  which  have  been 
filmed  are  the  best  copies 
available.  Every  technical 
effort  possible  has  been 
made  to  ensure  legibility. 


PUBLICATION  AND  MICROFILM 
COPYING  RESTRICTIONS 


Reel  duplication  of  the  whole  or  of 
any  part  of  this  film  is  prohibited 
In  lieu  of  transcripts,  however, 
enlarged  photocopies  of  selected 
items  contained  on  these  reels 
may  be  made  in  order  to  facilitate 
research. 


West  Orange  Laboratory  Records 
Experimental  Expense  Ledger  (1912-1916) 

This  subsidiary  ledger  covers  the  period  March  1908-July  1916, 
although  most  of  the  entries  are  from  1912-1916.  It  consists  of  accounts, 
arranged  alphabetically,  for  various  experiments  at  the  laboratory,  along  with 
accounts  for  Glenmont.  Entries  for  experimental  expense  accounts  include 
the  project  numbers  assigned  in  laboratory  record  books  N-01-03-15  and  N- 
10-07-26.  The  totals  for  these  accounts  were  posted  monthly  to  General 
Ledger  #9  under  the  heading,  "Experimental  Accounts."  There  is  an 
alphabetical  index,  which  also  includes  the  account  numbers  in  Experimental 
Expense  Ledger  (1908-1912).  The  front  cover  is  stamped  "Experiment 
Ledger  No.  9  Thomas  A.  Edison."  A  tag  attached  to  the  spine  is  inscribed 
"Experiment  Ledger  #9  Thos  A.  Edison  from  1908/1916."  The  pages  are 
unnumbered.  Approximately  600  pages  have  been  used. 


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a?- 


Name 

Address 


WEST  ORANGE  LABORATORY  RECORDS 
EQUIPMENT  AND  SUPPLIES 

The  unbound  correspondence,  trade  circulars,  and  other  loose 
documents  in  this  subseries  relate  to  the  purchase  of  equipment  and 
supplies  for  the  West  Orange  laboratory  and  other  Edison  interests.  Many  of 
the  documents  are  unsolicited  promotional  circulars  or  routine  letters 
involving  the  specifications,  availability,  cost,  and  delivery  of  equipment  and 
supplies.  Included  are  memoranda  asking  that  materials  be  ordered; 
requests  for  prices  or  samples;  and  letters  acknowledging  orders  from,  or 
shipments  to  and  among,  Edison's  interests.  Orders  for  equipment,  supplies, 
and  foundry  work  often  include  requisition  numbers,  voucher  numbers,  or 
laboratory  project  numbers  indicating  the  experiment  or  the  Edison  company 
to  be  billed  for  the  order.  In  most  cases  the  information  or  materials  were 
requested  on  Edison’s  behalf  by  members  of  his  laboratory  staff,  including 
Alvin  D.  Caskey,  Fred  C.  Devonald,  and  Frederick  P.  Ott.  Some  of  the 
outgoing  and  incoming  letters  involve  the  work  of  Henry  J.  Harms,  Jr.,  and 
George  E.  Small  on  Edison’s  concrete  house.  A  small  group  of  items 
indicates  Edison’s  direct  oversight  of  individual  requests  or  purchases. 

Less  than  5  percent  of  the  documents  have  been  selected.  In  general, 
only  items  that  indicate  Edison’s  direct  participation  in  the  order,  purchase, 
and  receipt  of  equipment  and  supplies  have  been  selected.  Also  included 
are  several  of  the  Harms  and  Small  letters  and  a  list  of  chemicals  sent  to  the 
laboratory  from  the  defunct  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania  Concentrating 
Works  in  Ogden,  New  Jersey.  Related  documents  that  provide  an  overview 
of  laboratory  purchases  and  expenditures  may  be  found  in  the  laboratory 
account  books. 


J 


Laboratory* 

Orange,  N*J« 

Dear  Sir!  ...  .. 

We  are  in  reoeipt  of  your  order  #11468  for  #25,  #28  aha 

#30  B#  &  S,  Gauge  Iron  Wire  cotton  covered#  We  herewith  enclose 
you  a  sample  of  #31  B,  &  S*  Gauge  soft  iron  wire*  albb  a  sample 
of  #50  B#  &  S*  Gauge  bright  irdrt  Wi^e,  whioh  at*e  tlhe  Only  two  elites 
we  have  in  stfcolc#  Kindly  let  ue  know  £f  yotf  can  use  Cither  of 
th?ee  on  yoqr  tateer  for  #30* 

In  reference  to  the  #33  and  #28,  we  cannot  make  any  lees 
than  one  3tone  on  these  sizes,  which  would  make  about  6$  lbs.  each 
of  the  #28  and  12  lbs*  of  the  #23, 

Kindly  advise  u$  by  return  mail  just  what  kind  of  iron 
wire  you  wish  on  the  order,  whether  it  is  to  be  Norway  or  plain 
charcoal  iron  wire. 


Yours  yery  truly* 

.  k~~* ^ 


Mr.  Thos  A.  Edison, 


Orange  N.J. 

Dear  Sir: 

Agreeable  to  tbB  request  of  our  Vice  President,  Mr. 

W.  H.  Isom,  under  date  of  April  6,  we  are  sending  to  you  today  by. 
express  ,  charges  prepaid,  'one  box  of  Cape  Nome  sand,' weighing  95 
pounds  and  containing  three  sacks,  one  of  sand  in  its  natural  state, 
one  of  tailings  which  have  gone  through  the  rocker  without  mercury; 
and  the  third  of  tailings  through  rocker  with  mercury. 

Yours  very  truly, 

NORTH  AMERICAN  TRANSPORTATION  &  TRADING  00. 


Traffic  Agent. 


-a  i- 

General  Incandescent  Arc  Light  Co. 

G72-578  FIRST  AVENUE,  Con.  33d  Struct. 

New  York. 


.Bales  Bept.EHK 

Kew  Yorl^  Sept.  20th, 3900 


Thomas  A.Bdison,Esq., 

Orange,  H.J: 


Dear  Sir;- 

X  beg  to  acknowledge  with  thanks  receipt  of  yours  of  the 
19th,  inst,  referring  to  two  keyless  sockets  which  you  have  sent  me 
by  express,  and  which  I  have  received. 

They  are  not, however,  the  Baskets  1  want,  and  as  the  matter 
is  a  very  important  one  apparentljr^take  the  liberty  of  returning  the 
blueprint  herewith  with  the  following  explanation. 

I  have  drawn  on  this  blueprint  a  sketch  of  the  socket  which 
you  sent  me.  It  is  one  of  the  forms  of  old  keyless  sockets  Ho.l  of 
the  Bergmann  catalogue  and  not  the  socket  Ho. 6  which  I  am  looking 
for. 


By  reference  to  the  blueprint  you  "dll  readily  recognize  the: 
difference,  and  I  hop's  ma^be  able  to  find  one  of  the  Ho. 6  sockets. 

The  old  Ho .1  socket  is  acorn  shape.  The  Ho. 6  socket’  is  more 
of  a  barrel  shape.  In  the  Ho.l  socket  the  upper  brass  shell  "A" 
simply  checks  or  fits  into  the  lower  brass  shell  "B",  and  the  two 
are  held  together  by  th^epp^  screw  ring  "0",  while  in  tho  Ho. 6 
sookot  the  hrass  shell  "A"  is  furnished  with  a  male  spun  thread  and 
the  brass  shell  "B"  has  the  female  thread,  and  the  two  are  screwed 
together,  and  as  I  remember  it,  the  insulating  ring  "0"  is  not  a 
screw  ring  at  all,  but  a  slip  ring,  which  is  cemented  into  the  shell 


ADDRESS  ALL 


TO  THE  COMPANY. 


CORRESPONDENCE 


"A".  The  shell  "A"  screwing  Into  the  3hell  "B",  of  course,  no  swrevr 
ring  was  necosaary  to  hold  then  tog  ether.  '  ^ 


Very  respectfully  yours,  (~) 

Atty. for  S.Beremann. 


I  received  from  Mr.  Bergmann  your  note, 
requesting  me  to  secure  for  you  a  nuirfber  of  addresses  and  prices 
for  "  rare  metals  ",  which  I  however  understand  to  he  for  preparations 
of  rare  metals  called  "  rare  earths  ", 

The  address  you  indicated  in  your  note  was  very  incomplete, 
hut  as  you  will  see  from  the  enclosed  catalogue  of  E.  de  Haen 
Chemical  Works  "  List  "  Hannover,  1  found  the  party  you  have  been 
in  relation  with. 

1  eliminated  three  concerns  that  come  into  question,  namely, 

The  List  Works  at  Hannover,  Kunheim  &  Co.  Berlin  and  Dr.  0.  Knofler 
&  Co.  at  PlotzenBee,  Berlin. 

The  two  latter  concerns  only  make  the  Thorium  and  Cerium 
■  Nitrates;,  while  the  concern  E.  de  Haen  makeB  preparations  of  a 
number  of  other  rare  metals,  such  as  of  Beryll,  Calcium,  Cerium, 

Didym,  Erbium,  Lanthan,  Thorium,  -Titanium,  Uranium,  Yttrium, 

Zirkonium.  All  these  in  a  number  of  different  combinations, 

I  have  written  this  concern  for  their  best  discounts  for 


Bergmann-JElektromotoren-  und  Dynamo  -  Werke  Aktiengesellscliaft. 


Thomas  A.  Edison,  Esq.,  Oranee,  N.  J.  contd.  19th,  Nov.  1900.  - 


different  quantities  and  hope  to  he  able  to  inform  you  about  this 
by  next  mail. 

Bergmann  requests  me  to  tell  you  that  any  order  you  have 


to  place  for  any  of  these  substances  you  had  beBt  turn  over  to  us 
and  it  shall  have  our  best 


Hoping  to  hear  from  you  on  this  subject,  I  remain  with 
kindest  regards, 


Yours  Faithfully, 


pw. 


v  VW  UjljUJk 

Warren,  Ohio,  Aj\ril  16,  1901. 


Laboratory  Thos.  A.  Edison, 


Yours  of  the  10th  inst.,  at  hand  and  noted.  I  have  written 
the  Superintendent  of  our  mine  to  forward  us  at  once  some  gravel,  and  as 
soon  as  it  is  received  will  forward  fifteen  pounds  of  it,  properly  marked. 
It  will  probably  be  two  or  three  weeks  before  we  receive  it,  but  as  soon 
as  it  arrives  will  forward  it  and  advise  you  also.  If  your  machine  works 
satisfactorily,  we  may  be  able  to  do  some  business  with  you. 

Very  Truly,  Yours, 

S.  B.  Palm, 

Vice  Pres.  Vermejo  Gold  Mining 

■  Co. 


C'l-i.-jlyftl  apparatus 
•  .  'Shipped  to  '  . 

Thomas  A .*  Edison, 
Oran go,  M . .T . , 


' ?•*  «*&«« •  .£U»fcfc«*«344AV ••  - 

13-  ,*8.270  tiest' -tubes  8/0“  x  5"  * 

S  fiimiei^tiibod,  •. 

i  "’?/i  ?!?»  Bvas(?  ^,be  2  r  ions; 

•  W  -i^L  gfaBS  'Mb'®.  2*  long,  .. 

■*$*•.  2’  long,  • 

*"  t0  la"  alld  -l/4«  to  3/0-  dl« 

-  l/lS.*  flasks  #8717,  ,:  :'  ::‘:' 

2C‘^.v°3*  flasks  #8717, 

?~J§£Sh  .VO, 449.  Voider  tS  bottles,  ■ 
triangles  3",  .  ’ 

•n  f,;  .^i6,589  funnels, .  * 

‘^T  M-W6389  *run}ieli5,  •* 
l J&MZ”  #S38.9  funnel, 

6-^"  1^6389  funnels^  •  ' 

.-aporatlng,  . 

^18  but. ter  -ill She's;  ' 

'2  piij.e.h  •  c ocks 

2  P^SS  ?  C‘*M  fleering  paper, 

*  inn  “,h5^8  filtering  paper, 

i-  -■  ^K1°"  Altering  pape^, 

r-i  -  «'  r°vnd  wood  box  ,  chronsimn  oxide  hydrate, 

-o«-»idrbdto4y^“"a;?af"' 

}:  5"*,1!  «;  solution,  [  »„t  lebelod  ) 
bottle  of  acid,  (not  labeled.. 


i<cu1<i  in'tlort 

v  L"  *  ._•  \~  r~.d.  .  •  ’ 


;.  lint  of  oK^rilceis/; 


Thd-iasi  A.'  Xd/.br, 

Or.iM  'ft , 

- -  -  •— -.“0O0X-:  - . .; .. 


1-2  gal. glass  bottle,  l/a  full 
3.-. 1-1/2  "  -  “ 

1-2—  .. 
l-i-i/a- 
1-1  ,  . 

1-1  -.1/2 
1-1 

l-.T  qf. 

1-1 


1-1  ’ 
l-l 


1-1 

i-no'.ox. 
1-10; "  ■  ■ 


1-.20  • 

1-20  ' 
1-20  / 


1-12 

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1-12  i 


1  1/2  ••full 
;•  1/2  fun 

:  •  •  i’ui  i 

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fill 

•  0/4  f.uli 

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:  ,  '.full 

1/2  full 
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•  ‘  •  full 
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full 
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. .  x’/f-  .ft'ii 

4IM 


mar'ced,  flpsuon  oxalate  O.P/  'v/  / 
i:\srt:  ed  <;uro.\un-.r<  soda  CP.  ••••,;„  ;.y.- 
marked,  (  no v  labeled  'J 
marked,  arOTOltlri  fiulifd*  »r,Hv4.;H/i 
narked .  Buffalo  Li  film  watery.’ • 
reartit-l ,  aoetic'.'aold-,. I;'"  • :  ■  -A; 
-  rear?: ad ,  (  no  t  la beled,  1  ’  V ‘ 

marked,.  borryc  0 , 
marked,  00  vied-  linseed.  oil-,  .  ' 
mark-::* ,  puor-pherlo.  acid  50-;$  . 
marked,  Mu*  ,  -  . 

:::arlt-(i,  ammonium' chloride.  o'.  HI, 

marked,  oxalic  acid, 

marl.-d,  uoias.l.m  f L'-ylfl- :yaod,d^., 


marked,; 
marked,  _ 

marked ,  metal  1  . .  _  .  , .. 

marked,  ara.ioii  moIybclAte  j  .•'O/P  .  /  . 
.marked oxalic  a<: Id  Jl . 2 . 03./. <V; v»  H?.< 
marked,  s'ort  hyposulphite,  c  .  l/l* 
marked,  Pa  It 

/narked-,  bsalpho  cyanide  .potass-,-  « 
imarked?-  nhonotathe-.  alkallnei  .■* ■■■ ...  -  ■: 

?:nark*d ,  sodium  -phospha'tSvO . P  .  ,l/2/‘-  : 
f:  mai*kad , ,,  s  od  1  vu.'  au  icinate;  merit ,' ,  - 
: ’narked,  pdtasalius-. txfcsulpJiatft  raer-c,  ; 
r.U’-kod^,/-*!'’  rignbono, '  ••  '  ■ 

.  m^rk'ufr/.bami’ioi!  axulnt.oY  K.K.4/2-  02  ();■  . 
'r:ir3roai<..o-IJ  »rl  larou  with  x 
;3.r’*P»/  '  (  not  lobbied  )'  '  " 

r.avr/i'5. ,  (  not  labeled  -)'  >  • 

carbolic  ae id.  f.  ‘ 

■x'^rusrf  nltra'.e 


J0S.  /  ALLIS-CIHAjjfajERfc  CO., 

OK  A 


.Vy 


P  \r /Sri 


New  York,  Dec.  3rd,  1901. 


nas  A.  Edison, 

Orange  >  l»*— *- 


i — 'V\— ~ 


l/3^— t^L-e^ww 
re' had  the  pleasur< 


a  small  furnace  with  some  fittings.  Hot  having  heard  from  you  since 
we  would  like  to  know  if  you  still  wish  these  quotations  held  open. 

In  going  ober  our  let ter we  notice  a  typographical  error 
which  might  possibly  have  some  bearing  on  your  not  placing  the  order, .> 
viz.:  the  three  #8  slag  pots  should  be  quoted  at  §72.00  instead  of 
$726.00.  •f‘ 


We  also  note  that  the  prici 


i  the  Hreeh  blower,  has  be< 


given  you  as  a  price  on  a  Mo.  1,  while  it  is  reall'y  the  price  of 
No.  2.  We  do  not  exactly  know  how  this  mistake  occurred,  but  thi 
price  on  a  No.  1  Blower  should  he  §190.00  instead  of  §224.00. 

Hoping  that}  you  will  pardon  these  mistakes,  and  also 
hoping  to  hear  from  you,  we  remain. 


Yours  truly, 

" ; : vAIilTS- CH ALMRRS  COMPANY, 


[CA.  1901] 


/lurfc  3  5  n  ye 

,  •  .  .  ^  ^  r 

4>. _ ^  — _ rf— /©-ex — JUJL* 

uic:  "-  cX  j  TT 


Daw  Sir:  — 

Enel 06 ed  please  find  sketch  of  a  special  Fire  Brick 
of  which  Mr.  Chapman  wants  200. 

Also  find  enclosed  quotations  from  Sayre  &  Fisher  Co., 
Sayreville,N.J.  and  Henry  Maurer  &  Son,  of  New  York,  and  alBo  an 
order  for  same,  which  please  O.K.  if  it  meets  with  your  approval, 
and  return  quotations  with  order  and  oblige, 

Yours  truly, 


[ENCLOSURE] 


)  c^aioT  0ci^~y> 


Mr.  Thomas  A.  Edison, 


r^spa— 


uear  nir.-  we  are  in  receipt  of  your  favor  of  the  12th.  and  enclose  you 
herewith  sample  or  the  thinnest  rubber  tissue  which  wo  have  made #  This 
is  about  6/1000  thick  according  to  our  estimate.  It  may  be  possible  to 
Get  this  down  to  a  thickness  of  3/1000  but  it  would  bo  an  experiment  with 
us  and  would  probably  cost  §3.00  to  §5.00.  In  what  quantities  do  you 
expect  to, use  it?  Of  course  if  you  could  use  in  larGe  quantities  wo 
would  be  Giad  to  eat  it  up  for  you,  but  if  you  only  wish  to  use  a  few 
pounds  you  will  readily  understand  it  would  hardly  pay  us  to  Go  to  this 
expense.  We  do  not  believd  it  would  be  possible  to  Got  it  down  to  4wtL«u 
3/1000  of  an  inch.  What  wid.th  do  you  desire  this?  We  should  prefer  not 
to  make  it  over  two  feet  in  width,  if  we  try  it  at  all. 

Await inG  your  reply,  assuring  you  if  wo  can  help  you  we  will  be  clad 


urfeunwf*  d  cc^,  (C^. 

I/U.,-.,  LorJ.  (B.t^  is^aja. 

0-6'  CW  "turu  uu-t^Aj  — 

<=*-*  or  cU-\*^U  u«.  ^ 


Dear  Sir:-  We  duly  received  your  favor  of.  the  19th.  and  are  sending  you 
today  about  l/2  lb.  of  tissue  rubber,  which  as  we  estimate  it,  is  between 
three  and  four  thousandths.  This  you  will  note,  has  quite  a  number  of 
small  pin  holes.  You  speak  however,  of  using  this. in  spall  pieces,  and 
we  believe  it  might  be  possible  for  your  experimental  purposes,  to  cut 
out  what  you  needed  from  these  pieces.  If  not,  undoubtedly  by  preparing 
and  selecting  stock,  we  could  make 'a  sheet,  free  from  all  imperfections, 
but  there  would  be  a  delay  of  probably  two  weeks  in  getting  the  same  rea¬ 
dy.  We  are  accordingly  sending  this.  If  not  satisfactory,  kindly  re¬ 
turn,  and  we  will  make  for  you  a  perfect  sheet.  We  should  alBo  be  glad 
at  the  time  to  hear  whether  this  meets  with  your  requirements  in  every 
particular;  that  is,  as  to  quality  and  thickness. 

Yours  truly, 


[ATTACHMENT] 


■■tlr  eMTU (PjoJLj 
-  IT-cn^a  ^ 


3Lu~ 


— &4mL  ff-o  ev  >i£<*^f  -JK  ut. 

'3-ovs^-  Argjiu  _ 

ip-fcf-vt_^uw  :D  E 
he~fL 


-^<3 Q-.  lA 


■  fcA.«’\>Vv^»tX W  CA«CC~  (\gfc 


i-tny  l-Vitwy..*.. 

htS-fas,  UUdLC. 


— T_  J.  _ l  Uc  .,Ajji 

-  |OA^^  ^ 


c^^karf!^  |-W  U>julc  I  k.«>  i,-wj  ti,. 


_Stpj?s, 

AQ3Ls» 


Mr.  J.  F.  Ott, 

C/o  Edison  Labratory, 
Orange,  ]J.  J. 


Dear  Sir:- 

Again  referring  to  conversation  had  with  your  brother 
to-day,  we  are  prepared  to  furnish  you  with  the  samples  made 
of  steel  which  you  have  left  with  us,  making  no  charge  for  these 
samples,  hut  there  will  he  a  oharge  of  $60.  for  tools  to  draw  off 
the  shell  which  you  have  left  with  us  in  brass. 

If  the  steel  will  answer  your  purpose  as  well  as  the 
sterling  nickel,  it  would,  of  course,  not  he  advisable  for  you 
to  make  these  out  of  sterling  nickel. 

If,  however,  you  care  to  place  the  order  with  us  for  the 
300  pieces  Sterling  nickel,  we  are  willing  on  the  initial  order, 
to  oharge  you  only  $16.00  for  tools,  and  each  for  the  300 
shells,  subject  to  a  further  reduction  provided  we  can  see  our 
way  dear  to  do  so  after  having  made  these  up. 

Awaiting  your  reply,  we  are, 

lours  very  truly, 


P.  S.  We  will  make  you  a  price  in  steel,  you  to  furnish  the  materi¬ 
al,  at  15j£  each  in  quantities  of  300,  and  in  larger  quantities  we  be¬ 
lieve  the  price  could  be  reduced  to  about  one-half,  at  least  we  should 
say,  nojr  less  than  one  or  two  thousand  at  a  time.  f  r 


[ATTACHMENT! 


l 


3  (rf>.  (/jl£e  ccjy-GL^, 


s-ist 

^  ^  jg.  J 

—  -  1L-, 

L?  C^l4 

[- 

<=f"  i  ^  o  J 

CsM'J 

1  „  ? 

Li 

-  .  Nj 

(yr-&Lt-^~o  , 

WORKS  i 
ST.  LOUIS 


g/ks/ 


RAHWAY.  N.  J. 


E.  MERCK'S 
DARMSTADT 
LABORATORIES 
Founded  1668 


MERCK  CO. 

MANUFACTURING  CHEMISTS 

NEW  YORK.  June  1/05 


Edison  Storage  Battery 
Orange 


Co. 


Gentleman:- 

We  thank  you  for  your  order  of  the  3lBt  ult.,  which 
has  had  our  prompt  attention.  We  regret,  however,  that  we  were  unable 
to  include  the  1  lb.  Sodium  Binoxalate,  as  we  do  not  carry  the 
article  in  stock.  Our  Laboratories  manufacture  the  article  and  we 
shall  be  glad  to  import  it  for  you.  Please  advise  us  if  we  shall  do  so. 
Yours  truly, 

Attested MERCK  &  CO. 


H)  uylo/.  adeCfa 

^  J>£r-r -rdQ  ^  ^ 

^SV  La-*-  Or. 


la_*-  i_->  /  — 'T'C. 

dr  $■&  '-f 


wf"  d:,  q  ) 


GEORGE  MERCK 

MERCK  CO. 

MANUFACTURING  CHEMISTS 

WORKS,  0/fep/  NEW  YORK.  June  7/05 

ST.  LOUIS 

And 

RAHWAY,  N.  J. 

E.  MERCK’S 
DARMSTADT 
LABORATORIES 
Founded  1668 

Dear  sir:- 

Replying  to  your  favor  of  the  6th  instant,  we  would 
say  that  Salt  of  Sorrel  (POTASSIUM  BINOXALATE) ,  having  the  formula 
KHCgO^HgO,  is  an  entirely  different  article  from  SODIUM  BINOXALATE 
(Sodium  Acid  Oxalate),  having  the  formula  NaHCgO^.  As  we  advised 
you  in  our  previous  communication,  we  do  not  carry  sodium  Binoxalate 
in  stock,  the  article  being  in  very  limited  demand,  and  we  think  there 
is  some  misunderstanding  in  your  statement  that  you  find  it  in  every 
drug  store  in  Orange.  We  shall,  however^be  glad  to  import  any 
quantify  of  the  article  that  you  may  desire. 

Awaiting  your  further  advices  in  the  matter,  we  are, 
Yours  truly, 


Attested: Q 


MERCK  &  CO, 


WILLIAMS,  BROWN  &  EARLE 


ZZL  Optical  and  Photographic 
7pZ-  Instruments  and  , 

Projection  SuppHeS  .  iSSliSSl  EM=rC« 

oboratory  •  .  0adR. &J.  Beck,  London. 

Apparatus  918  Chesthut  Street 

ZZani  Philadelphia f  ,fe°gg*er  ±*<**90 


Mr.  Thomas  A.  .Edison,  v . 

MW,  ■»,,  i.  (0 

Deop  sin  ' 

We  are  in  receipt  of.  your  favor  of  -the. 86th  Inst,  and  1 
.  .  .  «  **  C.«  jUhsKSv*  "O^chfc^  CCuc.  v" 

beg  to  jadviae  you  that  we  oa*>  supply  you  wlthjt  Beolc  blnooulaf 

tnicrpsoope  'as  illustrated  In  th6^a^ai^^.e,^JBB^Svlt  with~” 
plain  square  stage  like  #120.  We  have  on  hand  a  binocular 
microscope  #166  with  the  oiroular  stage,  which  we  can  offer  * 
to  you  w3,th  objectives  1",  2/3"  and  1/2"  and  one  pair  of  eye- 
pieoes,  at  $82.60.  This  instrument  is  in  first  olass  condition 
but  is  slightly  shop-worn,  and  for  this  reason  we  have  placed 
the  extremely  low  jrice  upon  it.  No  carrying  cdse  is  included. 

Under  separate  oover  we  are  sending  you  later  oopies 
of  the  Book  oataiogue.  To  estimate  ooBts  of  these  instruments, 
oount  on  the  pound  as  $7.60  and  the  Shilling  as  $8# 

We  would  attach  a  plain  square  stage  to  the  instru¬ 
ment  we  have  in  stock  without  additional  ooBt.  Th,ere  would  be 
no  substage  applianoes  supplied. 

We  have  on  hand  several  thousand  Slides,  covering  all 
subjects  and  would  particularly  call  your  attention  to  our  bo- 


it^nlcal  specimens,  iis4  ft  wtiioti  enclose,  We;  oan  Bupply  this 

;8@t  pf  pHdaB  jlie.pp,. 

Wf  that  we  ij^ay  fee  favored  vfith  jrour  prden,  to-  which 

Iff  Pff1  jftfljflLfift  pur.  prompt  apd  papetful  attention. 

Very  truly  yourB, 

Williams,  Brown  A  Earle, 


WILLIAMS,  BROWN  &  EARLE 


Departments  Importers  and  Manufacturers  of 

Engineering  Instruments  and 

SpemSL!kr?,osses“a  Optical  and  Photographic 

. . 


0.4.  Photo  Developing  0 
ing:  Blueprints 

°-5-  Ste%Ztnsnai 
o.  6.  Microscopes 

Supple, 
o.  7.  Physical  and  X-Ray  Apparatus 
o.  8.  Scientific  Novelties, 
o.  9.  Blank  Books,  Stationery  and 
Draughting  Room  Furniture. 


Instruments  and 
Supplies 
918  Chestnut  Street 
Philadelphia ,... 


Photograoliic  Outfits  mid  Supplies 
Photo  Deveiopiugnnd .Printing  :  Pic- 

Commercial  Photography 
Sole  Agents  for  Keuitel  &  Esser  Co., 
and  R.  &  J.  Beck,  London. 


190 

nr.  1»  A.  Edison,  9L 

Orange,  K.  J. 

Dear  Sir;  JLikc  dt 

We  arein  receipt  of  your  favor  of,  tffe  38th  inst.  and  have 
forwarded  by  express  the  Beok  Binocul^r^m! c  ros o o pe^t qko ther  with 
objectives  as  per  our  quotation  of  the  27t3|  inst. 

In  assembling  this  instrument  we  have  included  a  mirror  ( 
should  you  at  any  time  desire  the  instrument  for  ref leoted  light .  ) 

The  1/2"  objeotive  supplied  is  of  the  better  grade  Beok  series,  hav¬ 
ing  a  large  aperature  and  it  is  invaluable  for  binocular  work.  , 

We  trust  that  the  instrument  will  arrive  Bafely  and 
prove  satisfactory. 

Very  truly  yours,  .  :  £ 


k 


Williams,  Brown  &  Earle, 


I  take  the  liberty  of  enclosing  you  a  blue  print  in  cnnection 
with  a  resisting  manhole  frame  and  cover*  The  cut  shows  a  style  of 
manhole  which  will  resist  surface  water.  The  Interborough  R.  R.  Co.  has 
one  in  place  at  Fifty-eighth  Street  near  Ninth  Ave, ,  Hew  York  City,  and 
think  very  well  of  it,  and  we  have  endorsements  from  two  other  companies 
in  Massachusetts.. 

The  N.  Y.  Edison  Co.  has  one  in  their  Yard  at  Fortyfirst  St. 
and  East  River,  delivered  at  the  request  of  Mr.  Stephenson,  Engineer,  of 
the  Duane  St.  office*  , 

I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  commun'd  eating  with  you  and  enclos¬ 
ing  you  this  print,  and  can  refer  you  to  any  of  the  leading  Engineers  in 
New  York  City  as  to  my  standing.  I  would  like  very  much  indeed  to  take 
.this  matter  up  with  you  at  your  convenience,  as  I  am  firmly  convinced 
it  is  indispensible- 

We  have  other  data  which  might  be  interesting  to  you.  I 
would  like  very  much  to  hear  from  you. 


yours  truly, 


-  n,n 


Qyg-  MANUFACTURERS  &  IMPORTERS  OF-^g) 

Chemicals  ^Chemical  Apparatus. 

2  OS  to  211  Third  Ave. 


Mr.  Thos.  A.  Edison, 
Orange,  N.  , 

Dear  Sir: 


7.I 

Utru-ir 

^sjr i>.ctr  ^*-44^ — ^ \L 


The  Jewell  Water  Improvement  Company  of  nhl ca go .  informed 
us  that  they  wrote  you  on  the  39th  ult., quoting  on  theis  JadS^l 

rT  O-JcZ/' 

Steam  Still  #430,  10  gallons  per  hour,  and  #440,  15  gallono  p^r 
hour.  We  wish' to  state  that  we  are  the  eastern  agents  fo:v4he 
Jewell  Water  Improvement  Company,  and  should  you  decide /to  place 
an  order  for  either  of  these  stills,  we  should  be  pleased  to  re¬ 
ceive  same.  We  quote  you  the  same  price  as  the  Jewell  Y/ater  Im¬ 
provement  Company,  and  trust  we  may  be  f avordd  with  your  order, 
which  shall  have  our  prompt  attention. 

Very  respectfully, 

EI1-ER  &  AMEND, 

S  .U .  per 


NO.  14456 


CONTRACT. 

New  York.  Nov.  5,  1908.  / 

SOLD  TO  Thomas  A.  Edison,  Esq.,  ^"11 

Orange,  H.J.  [•'"  :i;jg 

100  lhs.  Block  Balata  Rubber,  ex  store,  @  42j/  per  lb. 

Terms:  Net  cash  in  ten  days  from  date  of  delivery  here.  Payable 
in  New  York  or  Boston  funds. 


DO.  A./AIDEN^&,  CO.., 


605  Dun  Building. 
290  Broadway. 


December  21st, 1900 

Mr.  P.  Brady,  ,  ' 

laboratory.  . 

Dear  Sir: 

You  recently  sent  me  requisition 
covering  2,000  time  sheets  for  the  laboratory. 

1  sent  the  requisition  for  printing  them  to  the 
EssexPress  of  Newark, stipulating  that  it  was  to 
be  billed  at  $2.35  per  thousand.  They  have  just 
replied  that  it  will  be  impossible  to  fill  the 
order  on  this  basis  and. that  their  charge  for  2,000 
will  be  $5.75. 

You  undoubtedly  appreciate  that  the 
price  of  $2.35  per  thousand  which  I  gave  you  over 
the  telephone  reoently  covered  5,000  copies  of  the 
lime  sheets  for  the  Edison  Storage  Battery  Company. 

The  increase  in  the  Essex  PresB  price  is  due  to  the 
decreased  quantity. 

■  Kindly  advise  me  whether  I  shall  fill 
your  order  at  $5.75. 

If  you  can  use  5,000  copies  of  the 
form  we  will  be  ; 

Y 
I 

MZ 


9?ho  Generate  Stool  -  do.,. 

35  Broadway, 

l'Tr,v<  York  City.  ; 

CrontleBinn,' — 

We  would  beplnnsod  to  .receive  your  bataloguo 
and  further  litnratnro  you  have  published  concerning 
roinforood  oonoreto ,eto. 

o  a*o.  the  engineers  for  the  Edison  One  'Bajr 
ITouee,  designing  anti  experimenting  with  the,  view  of 
realising  MJjl^di  son’s  idea,  and  naturally  are  Interested 
in  anything  pertaining  to  Concrete  Construction. 

Yours  very  truly, 

Address : 

Wes srs. Henry  .T. Harms, Jr.  &  George  E. Small, «ooh. -Eng 'rs 
Room  #  31,  Edison  laboratory, 

.  .’Jest  Orange,  H.J.  . 

HJH/JOH. 


THE  CONCRETE-STEEL  COMPANY 


HAVEMEYBR  STEEL,  BARS  EOR  REINFORCING  CONCRETE 


20  Broadway,  New  York 


April  7th  1909. 


Masa.  H.  J.  Harms,  Jr.  &  &.  E.  Small,  Mach.  Eng., 
Room  #31,  Edison  Laboratory, 

West  Orange,  N.  J.. 


Bear  Sirs:- 

Replying  to  yours  of  the  5th  Inst.,  we  are  pleased  to 
send  you  under  separate  cover  a  catalogue  and  other  printed  matter 
descriptive  of  the  Havemeyer  Bar,  which  we  would  he  glad  to  have  you 
consider  in  connection  with  the  jrork  you  have  in  prospect. 

You  will  find  these  bars  the  most  economical  for  use  in 
concrete  construction.  They  have  a  uniform  cross  section,  no  metal 
being  wasted  in  securing  the  strongest  possible  mechanical  bond.  They 
will  bend  readily  in  any  desired  angle  and  can  be  easily  measured. 

Our  bars  are  rolled  from  the  very  best  quality  new  billet  steel. 

If  there  is  any  further  information  you  desire,  please 
call  on  us. 


Very  truly  yours, 

THE  CONCRETES  TEEL  COMPANY. 


Quotations. 


.Tilly  11th  .1909  • 


Chicago  House  '.'.'rooking  Company, 
tfost  35th.  &  Iron  Streets, 

Chicago,  Illinois. 

Gentlemen, — 

Received  your  letter  with  Inolosura,  and  have  gonj\ 
over  same  carefully. 

Irish  to  say  thr.twn  cannot  place  order  with  return 
mail  as  you  expect.  We  are  now  completes  the  moulds,  etc 
for  tho  model  house  and  will  equip  this  complete  for  exhibition. 

It  in  only  adtor  actual  building  operations  commence ,  that 
orders  ohn  ho  placed.  She  operation  will  not  stop  with  100 
housed,  hut  will  aotmiro, very  soon, gigantic  propotionn;  wo  want 
to  know  beforehand,  what  the  house  will  cost,  complete,  and  on 
account  of  tho  very  large  number  required  of  everything,  expect 
rook  bottom  prides ,  and  your  price  seems  to  high  yet. 

As  stated  before,  this  whole  matter  is  in  experimental 
stage  yot,  and  wo  are  just  beginning' to  study  up  different  things 
connected  with  it.  If  we  cannot~huy  heating  plant  nnd  plumbing 
at  bettor  prices,  wo  simply  will  manufacture  them  ourselves. 

yours  very  truly, 


KJH/JOH. 


Mechanical  Engineer, 


elOSEPH  O.  ^IESLIGH, 

■PAINTER  *wb  DE@OR.ATOR, 

REMOVED  TO  315  W.  35th  ST. 

PiiOiNa  1771  33ch  st,  462  QJSHTH  A  V€.\r L‘6, 

Estimates  Furmlshed,  9lc i u 

jt&i).  (tJ? 

CxC.  QAJ  OuU  ' 

'  (Q.  a^nr-  cxs 

.'x’^ —  ^2-»-7  (ZL  ,X2r— 

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.A^-PSr.-  Q?stS2r>4j  ,^?-3»-2. 


Joseph  O.  ^iesligh, 

PAljVTEF?  DESOI^ATOE 

.REMOVED  TO  315  W.  35th  ST. 

PHONE  1771  38r.h  ST.  462  SI(SHTH  AVejVL/6, 

Estimates  Furnished.  “)tciu  ^forli . 190 


Chicago, U.S.A.  July  22,  1909. 


«&.K.  BTKNOOW.  I.M. 


Geo.  E.  Small  &  Henry  J.  Harms,  Jr.,  Mech.  Engs. 

Room  #31,  Edison  Laboratory, 


Dear  Sirs:- 


VTest  Orange,  N.  J. 


Replying  to  yours  of  the  11th  inst.  We  think  we  will  be 
able  to  get  this  price  on  the  complete  steam  heating  plants  for  this 
building  down  to . $200.00  per  plant,  F.O.B.  cars  Chicago,  as  out¬ 

lined  and  covered  by  the  specifications  submitted  you  'in  our  last  let¬ 
ter.  This,  you  understand  includes  the  plant  complete  and  all  brand 
new  material.  This  of  course  on  condition  that  you  will  place  orders 
in  quantities  as  given  in  your  letter  ,  that  is -by',  the  hundred. 

In  regard  to  all  of  the  Plumbing  Material,  we  glso  v/ish.tO 
advise  that  we  think  we  will  be  gble  to  get  this  plant  down  to  some¬ 
thing  like  $75.00,  including  all  the  material  to  complete  the  entire 
installation  of  the  material  above  the  ground  line.  This  price  is  al¬ 
so  P.O.B.  cars  Chicago  and  is  based  on  orders  in  large  quantities,  as 
mentioned  in  your  letter. 

However,  before  lining  up  any  kind  of  exact  proposition  on 
this,  we  think  we  would  prefer  to .have  a  little  further  suggestions 
from  you,  as  to  what  your  own  tastes  in  the  matter  are.  Go  over  our 
catalog  carefully  and  make  a  selection  from  the  various  plumbing  fixa¬ 
tures  listed  and  give  us  some  sort  of  line  on  what  kind  of'  fixtures  you 
think  would  be  the  most  suited  for  these  houses.  If  you  will  make  up 
a  list  in  this  way,  we  will  be  glad  to  make  you  our  bedrock  figures  on 
the  complete  equipment  and  give  you  quotations  on  orders  in  various 
quantities.  .  • 

Let  us  know  if  you  would  insist  on  using  absolutely  "A" 
grade  plumbing  fixtures;  or, -if  you  would  consider  using  fixtures  that 
are  slightly  damaged  in  the  enamel,  which  v/e  will  carefully  repair. 
Fixtures  in  this  clss,  we  could  make  you  a  very  low  price  on  and  at  the 


•-2 


;ST^Si^®5ra!ai»E 

sss^sSsm^m^ 


«**>»•■.  aw  SfSi»SiAnS‘S  J2tSJ«  ‘L5sf‘*  "E"  8r“4a 

any  service  whatever,  hut  they  nrobablv  ’  hi-,?  "ever  seen 

or  rough  handling  in  shipraen/and  we.  .cLSi$  ?hm°M  S^rade^0* 

you  want  them?f  V^simpl^cflle^this'^matf1011^  "A"  eracle  fixt«res  if 
you  would  know  all  tffXo^lK  ^c^Si^ 

-  sHr«!= SSsr  “ 

Yours  very  truly, 

CHICAGO  HOUSE  YffiECKIHG  CO. 


•  ESTABLISHED  II 


ARNOLD. HOFFMAN  8,  CO.  INC. 
PROVIDENCE,  NEW  YORK, 
BOSTON,  PHILADELPHIA  & 
CHARLOTTE, N.C., 


Mr. Thoraae  A. Edison, 


;jNE^O  ( 


IMPORTERS  OF 

50.  DYE- STUFFS. 
STARCHES.  GUMS. 

feb. 28th, 1910  (HS) 

Sltv  * 


1 


Orange 

Dear  Sirs  ll  ( 

Referring  to  ohipraen  ter  < 

/  Liquid  Chlorine 

from  the  Costner  Electrolytic  Alkali  Oo. , Niagara  Malls, H.Y., for  whom 
we  are  selling  agents,  tlfoy  request  that  you  place  a  standing  order  with 
then  covering  your  probable  requirements  ao  that  they  nan  arrange  to 
take  care  of  ,  these  regolarly,  We  understand  they  will  bo  about  2  drums 
a  week  for  the  present, . 

Regarding  the  cylinders, they  state  that  these  aro  somewhat 
different  from  those  they  use  and  they  do  not  know  what  their  capacity 
\4$ •  If  possible, will  you  pluase  advise  them  about  what ^MetweiLthe . eyl> 
inders  are  to  be  charged,  If  you  have  not  a  reoord  of  the  pressure, 
please  adviee  them,  what  weight  of 

Liquid  Chlorine 

the oe  cylinder e  would  contain  When  you  received  them  originally  from 
abroad, 

- . . . regret  having  to  trouble  you, but  the  works  need  this  -infer- 

mat  ion  which  we  trust  you  will  he  able  to  furnish  them. 

Awaiting  your  reply, wo  remain, 

Yours  truly, 

|  Arnold, Hof flnan  Co.  ,lnc. , Agents. 

—Hr 


The  New  Jersey  Asbestos  Company 


ASBESTOS  GOODS 


59-61  PEARL  STREET 
NEW  YORK 


aW0 


July  23,  1910. 


jZ jLjLAst*,  O^air  U&A-*- 


Thomas  Edison,  #sq. , 

Orange,  St.  J. 

°<-A-  l 

D9arSir,V  L - 

We  are  in  rooeipt  of  your  'bhone  message,  requesting  t(s-to 
forward  you  5  oz.  samples  of  all  the  grades  of  &rOund  Asbestos  If 
Asbestos  Fibre  which  we  handle. 

The  field  for  supplying  you  with  these  samples,  is  so  large-* 
that  we  would  ask  you  to  kindly  give  us  some  idea  as  to  What  y.oU  want 
to  use  this  material  for,  and  we  think  we  will  be  able  to  send  you 
samples  of  Asbestos  which  will  be  a  good  deal  more  useful  to  yoU,  than 
if  we  sent  them  at  random. 

Shanking  you  for  your  inquiry,  we .remain, 

"'ours  very  truly , 

The  fflew  •Jersey  Asbestos^Qo, . 


PATENT  SERIES 


The  Patent  Series  for  1899-1910  consists  of:  (1)  one  caveat 
(preliminary  patent  application)  from  1907  relating  to  Edison's  concrete 
house;  (2)  numerous  case  files  for  Edison's  U.S.  patent  applications;  and  (3) 
a  patent  application  book  containing  summaries  of  specifications  by  Edison 
and  other  laboratory  employees  for  the  period  1909-1912. 

The  Patents  record  group  at  the  Edison  National  Historic  Site  includes 
an  extensive  set  of  case  files  relating  to  Edison's  foreign  patent  applications. 
In  addition,  there  are  numerous  patents  by  other  inventors,  many  of  which 
were  subsequently  assigned  to  Edison's  companies.  A  finding  aid  is 
available.  A  related  set  of  case  files  for  Edison's  U.S.  patents  can  be  found 
in  the  National  Archives  (Record  Group  241,  Records  of  the  Patent  Office). 
A  complete  set  of  the  1,093  U.S.  patents  issued  to  Edison  appears  in 
Thomas  A.  Edison  Papers:  A  Selective  Microfilm  Edition,  Part  /,  reels  1 
and  2. 


Numbering  Systems  for  Edison's  Patent  Applications 


Folio  Numbers.  These  numbers  were  assigned  by  patent  attorneys  Richard  N.  Dyer  and  Frank 
L.  Dyer  and  by  the  various  Dyer  partnerships  to  applications  filed  on  behalf  of  Edison  and  other  clients. 
Folio  numbers  generally  appear  on  the  upper  left  comer  ofthe  application  covers.  They  can  also  be  found 
on  other  patent-related  documents  such  as  Patent  Application  Book,  PN-09-01  -21 .  There  are  two  series 
offolio  numbers:  one  beginning  in  the  1 880s  and  continuing  through  1901;  the  other  beginning  in  the  early 
twentieth  century  and  continuing  into  the  1930s, 

Edison  Case  Numbers.  These  numbers,  which  are  often  preceded  by  the  letter  "E,"  were  also 
assigned  by  Edison's  patent  attorneys,  beginning  in  the  late  1870s.  Unlike  the  folio  numbers,  the  case 
numbers  were  used  exclusively  for  Edison's  applications.  Case  numbers  generally  appear  on  the  application 
covers  and  can  also  be  found  on  other  patent-related  documents  such  as  the  patent  application  casebooks 
published  in  Thomas  A.  Edison  Papers:  A  Selective  Microfilm  Edition,  Part  II.  The  case  number  system 
was  discontinued  in  1905. 

Serial  Numbers.  These  numbers  were  assigned  by  the  U.S.  Patent  Office  to  applications  filed  by 
Edison  and  other  inventors.  A  new  sequence  of  numbers  was  used  for  each  year.  Serial  numbers  generally 
appear  on  the  upper  right  comer  ofthe  application  covers  and  on  the  correspondence  between  Edison's 
attorneys  and  thePatent  Office.  They  can  also  be  found  on  other  patent-related  documents  such  as  Patent 
Application  Book,  PN-09-01 -21 

Patent  Numbers.  These  numbers  were  assigned  by  the  U.S.  Patent  Office  to  successful 
applications  by  Edison  and  other  inventors  at  the  time  the  patent  was  formally  issued. 


Caveats 


Until  1910  the  U.S.  Patent  Office  permitted  an  inventor  to  file  an  official 
notice  regarding  work  in  progress.  Caveats  were  valid  for  one  year  and  could 
be  renewed  from  year  to  year  upon  payment  of  a  fee.  If  another  inventor 
subsequently  filed  an  application  for  a  similar  invention,  the  first  inventor  was 
so  notified.  Although  Edison  filed  numerous  caveats  during  the  1870s  and 
1 880s,  there  is  only  one  extant  caveat  from  the  period  1 899-1 91 0. 

The  caveat,  which  was  executed  on  November  27,  1907,  is  entitled 
"Cement  Buildings  and  Process  of  Constructing  the  Same."  In  addition  to  the 
typed  specifications,  the  folder  contains  a  draft  in  Edison's  hand;  two  blueprint 
drawings;  and  a  published  letter  to  the  Scientific  American  by  H.  J.  Le  Comte, 
an  inventor  who  claimed  to  have  anticipated  Edison's  idea  for  a  concrete 
house. 


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PETITION 


TO  THE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS: 

YOUR  PETITIONER,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen 
of  the  United  States,  and  a  ronident  of  and  having  a  Post 
Office  address  at  Llewellyn  Park,  West  Orange,  in  the 
County  of  EBsex  and  State  of  How  Jersey,  represents  that 
he  has  made  certain  improvements  in  CEMENT  BUILDINGS  AND 
PROCESS  OP  CONSTRUCTING  THE  SAME,  and  that  he  is  now  en¬ 
gaged  in  making  experiments  for  the  purpose  of  perfect¬ 
ing  the  same  preparatory  to  applying  for  Letters  Patent 
therefor.  He  therefore  prays  that  the  accompanying  de¬ 
scription  of  his  invention  may  be  filed  as  a  oaveat  in 
the  confidential  archives  of  the  Patent  Office,  and  he 
hereby  appoints  Prank  L.  Dyer  (Registration  Mo. 560),  of 
Orange,  Hew  Jersey,  his  attorney,  with  full  power  of  sub¬ 
stitution  and  revocation,  to  transact  all  business  in  the 
Patent  Office  connected  therewith. 


SPECIFICATION 


TO  AIL  TOOK  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

BE  IT  KNOWN,  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a 
citizen  of  the  United  Statee,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park, 
WeBt  Orange,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey, 
have  invented  an  improvement  in  CEMENT  BUILDINGS  AND  PRO¬ 
CESS  OP  CONSTRUCTING  THE  SAKE,  and  deBiring  further  to 
mature  my  said  Invention,  file  thiB  my  caveat  therefor 
and  pray  protection  of  my  right  until  I  shall  have  matured 
my  invention. 

The  object  of  my  Invention  is  to  construct  a 
building  of  a  cement  mixture  by  a  single  molding  operation; 
all  its  parts  including  the  sides,  roof,  partitions,  bath 
tub,  floors,  etc.,  being  formed  of  an  integral  maBs  of  a 
cement  mixture.  This  invention  is  applifable  to  buildings 
of  any  sort  but  I  contemplate  itB  use  particularly  for  the 
construction  of  dwellings  in  which  the  stairs,  mantelB, 
ornamental  oeilings  and  other  interior  decorations  and  fix¬ 
tures  may  all  be  formed  in  the  same  molding  operation  and 
integral  with- the  house  itself.  A  house  thus  made  is 
practically  indestructable  and  is  much  more  sanitary  than 
houses  as  now  constructed,  and  at  the  same  time  the  oost 
of  oonBtruotion  may  be  enormously  decreased,  and  it  is 
feasible  to  beautify  such  a  house  far  beyond  anything  now 
possible  in  so  cheap  a  manner. 

To  carry  out  my  invention  I  first  construct 
a  complete  double-wall  house  which  forms  a  mold  for  the  re¬ 
ception  of  the  cement  mixture.  This  mold  is  preferably 
constructed  of  cadi  iron  sections  removably  connected  to¬ 
gether  in  any  suitable  manner,  as  by  means  of  boltB,  dowels 

1. 


oto.,  and  adapted  when  the  house  ia  constructed  and  the  ce- 

wixture 

mentflhaa  hardened,  to  he  taken  to  pieoeB  and  removed  and 
used  repeatedly  for  the  construction  of  an  indefinite 
number  of  houses.  When  the  mold  has  been  oonBtruoted  and 
erected  I  connect  a  number  of  distributing  pipes  therewith, 
which  are  preferably  arranged  at  regular  intervals  at  the 
tip  of  the  mold,  the  said  pipes  being  connected  to  a  com¬ 
mon  source  of  supply  whioh  may  conveniently  consist  of  a 
vertical  riser  having  a  funnel  shaped  opening  for  the  re¬ 
ception  of  the  cement  mixture.  I  pref erabJy  use  for  the 
molding  operations,  a  cement  mixture  formed  of  crushed 
stone,  quartz  or  similar  materials  having  partioleB  vary¬ 
ing  from  one-fourth  to  one-half  inoh  in  diameter,  say 
five  partdi  ordinary  sand,  say  three  parts,  and  Portland 
cement,  say  one  part,  although  these  proportions  may  be 
considerably  varied.  TSnough  water  is  used  to  form  an 
emulsion  having  sufficient  fluidity  to  flow  readily  to  all 
parts  of  the  mold.  During  the  setting  of  the  mixture  the 
water  enters  into  chemical  combination  in  the  usual  way, 
and  if  any  surplus  water  is  present  it  will  appear  as  a 
mere  dampness  whioh  quickly  dries  out.  In  order  to  pre¬ 
vent  settling  of  the  crushed  material  during  the  molding 
operation  and  before  setting  commences,  and  the  resulting 
objectionable  seggregation  of  the  ingredients,  I  find 
that  by  adding  a  comparatively  small  amount  of  fine  day 
to  the  mixture  (  say  Z§f>  of  the  oement  used  )  the  tendency 
to  settling  is  greatly  diminished,  v/hile  at  the  same  time 
the  amount  of  water  used  is  sufficient  to  give  a  high  de¬ 
gree  of  fluidity  to  the  emulsion  and  permit  very  successful 
molding.  The  cement  being  properly  mixed  is  elevated  by 
any  suitable  means,  and  poured  into  the  funnel  shaped  open- 

2. 


ing  In  the  riser,  whence  it  is  evenly  distributed  by  the 
pipes  to  the  different  parts  of  the  mold  which  is  gradually 
filled  up  as  the  cement  is  poured  in. 

To  guard  against  the  trapping  of  air  and  conse¬ 
quent  imperfections  in  the  molded  cement  when  finished,  I 
provide  at  various  points  in  the  molds  whore  air  is  likely 
to  be  trapped,  as  for  example,  in  the  floors  and  partitions, 
and  wherever  the  cement  has  to  flow  through  tortuous  chan¬ 
nels,  a  number  of  air  vents  which  will  allow  the  esoape 
of  the  air  but  will  prevent  the  escape  of  the  cement.  One 
way  in  which  X  may  construct  such  air  vontB  is  by  making 
openings  in  the  molds  which  are  closed  by  an  outer  screen, 
Buch  aB  a  coarse  wire  mesh,  and  an  inner  lining  of  filter 
cloth,  through  which  the  air  may  readily  escape  but  through 
which  the  cement  cannot  pass.  Other  forms  of  vents  may, 
of  course,  be  used. 

While  a  house  of  this  charaj  ter  may  be  made  of 
cement  mixtures  alone,  a  much  better  and  stronger  house  may 
be  constructed  if  the  structure  is  reenforced  with  proper¬ 
ly  formed  metal  reenforoing  rods.  Such  roils,  if  used, may 
be  secured  to  the  molds  in  any  way  that  will  afford  proper 
support  to  the  rods  during  the  molding  process,  and  which 
will  not  prevent  the  removal  of  the  mold  sections  after 
the  house  is  completed. 

In  the  accompanying  drawing  forming  a  part  hereof, 

I  illustrate  my  invention  so  far  as  it  is  at  present  complel' 
ed,  Figure  1  being  a  cross-seotional  view  of  a  mold  pre¬ 
pared  for  the  reoeption  of  the  oement  whioh  is  to  form  my 
improved  house;  Figure  2  ,  a  plan  view  of  the  same,  and 
Figure  3  a  oross-seotional  view  of  one  form  of  air  vent.' 

The  house  whioh  I  have  illustrated  comprises  a 
basement,  two  Btories  and  a  roof.  l-,l  dre  the  moldB 
having  spaoeB  2  between  them  for  the  reception  of  the  oe- 


- — V 


merit  mixture;  3  indicates  the  air  vents  which  I  have  shown 
placed  only  in  the  floors,  hut  additional  vents  will  of 
course  he  placed  v/herever  it  is  desired  to  avoid  the  trap¬ 
ping  of  air.  The  vents  as  shown  in  the  drawings  comprise 
flanged  openings  4  in  the  mold  sections,  these  openings 
being  closed  hy  means  of  a  coarse  outer  mesh  5^, and  a  fine 
inner  mesh  6.  which  may  oonveniontly  he  made  of  filter  cloth. 
The  reenforcing  rods  are  shown  at  _7  and  are  so  positioned  in 
the  molds  that  they  will  give  the  greatest  strength  to  the 
finished  house.  X  have  shown  these  rodB  supported  in 
place  in  the  molds  hy  means  of  short  sections  of  wire  8 
wrapped  about  the  rods,  the  ends  of  the  wireB  abutting 
against  the  inner  walls  of  the  molds,  or  extending  through 
the  molds,  hut  any  convenient  supporting  means  for  these 
rods  which  will  allow  the  removal  of  tho  moldB  when  the 
house  is  finished  may  he  used. 

The  hollow  riser  £  1b  connected  to  the  top  of  the 
mold  hy  meanB  of  pipes  or  troughs  10,  and  when  the  cement 
mixture  is  plaoed  in  this  riser  it  will  he  distributed  hy 
the  pipes  to  all  parts  of  the  mold.  I  contemplate  using 
the  Band  which  is  removed  in  digging  the  oellar,  in  con¬ 
nection  with  Portland  cement  for  forming  the  desired  mix¬ 
ture,  thereby  very  materially  reduoing  the  cost  of  construc¬ 
tion.  Openings  are  preferably  made  along  the  upper 
surfaoe  of  the  side  and  end  wallB,  as  at  11,  through  which 
long  poles  may  he  passed,  so  that  during  the  filling  opera¬ 
tion  these  poles  may  he  moved  up  and  down,  with  a  pumping 
motion,  to  better  distribute  the  oement  mixture  throughout 
the  mold,  and  do  away  to  a  large  extent  with  the  poBBihil-  ' 
ity  of  an  imperfect  oasting  and  the  formation  of  air  bub¬ 
bles. 


.  ( 


My  invention  comprises  specifically : 

A  oement  house  oons  tructed  as  hereinbefore  set 

forth. 

An  integral  cement  house  molded  at  a  single 
operation. 


j  The  process  of  constructing  a  house  which  consists 

in  making  hollow  molds  of  all  its  parts  and  pouring  a  ce¬ 
ment  mixture  into  these  molds  to  mold  a  house  at  a  single 
operation. 

The  process  of  making  a  house  which  consists  in 
setting  up  hollow  molds  for  all  its  parts,  arranging  re¬ 
enforcing  rods  between  the  molds,  pouring  a  oement  mixture 
into  the  molds  from  the  top  thereof  to  form  an  integral 
reenforced  oement  house  and  thereafter  removing  the  molds. 

A  mold  section  having  an  opening  therein,  closed 
by  an  outer  layer  of  coarse  mesh  and  an  inner  layer  of 
fine  mesh. 


Ill  WITiiltSS  V/HEREO?,  I  have  hereunto  signed  my 


State  of  New  Jersey,) 

County  of  'Essex.  ) 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  the  above  named 
petitioner,  being  sworn,  deposes  and  says  that  he  is  a 
citizen  of  the  United  States  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn 
Earle,  Nest  Orange,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and  State  of 
New  Jersey,  and  that  he  verily  believes  himself  .to  be  the 
original  and  first  inventor  of  the  improvements  in  CEMENT 
BUILDINGS  ADD  PROCESS  OP  CONSTRUCTING  THE  SAME,,  described 
in  the  annexed  specification. 


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Patent  Application  Files 


These  files  consist  of  formal  patent  applications,  along  with 
correspondence  between  Edison's  attorneys  and  the  U.S.  Patent  Office. 
Some  of  the  folders  also  contain  notes  and  drawings  by  Edison;  draft 
specifications  in  Edison's  hand  and  other  specifications  with  Edison 
notations;  memoranda  from  Edison  to  his  patent  attorneys;  and  related 
correspondence  authored  by  or  sent  to  Edison,  his  associates,  and  his 
companies.  Included  are  applications  pertaining  to  phonographs  and 
phonograph  records,  motion  pictures,  storage  batteries,  ore  milling,  cement, 
and  concrete  buildings.  There  are  also  a  few  applications  relating  to  electric 
lighting,  telephones,  telegraphs,  and  other  subjects  such  as  "flying 
machines." 

Another  set  of  application  files  for  Edison's  U.S.  patents  can  be  found 
in  the  National  Archives  (Record  Group  241,  Records  of  the  Patent  Office). 
The  National  Archives  set  is  nearly  complete  and  available  on  microfilm.  For 
that  reason,  the  formal  specifications  and  the  correspondence  between 
Edison's  attorneys  and  the  Patent  Office  have  not  been  selected  in  the  case 
files  for  the  successful  applications  in  the  Edison  National  Historic  Site’s 
collection.  The  selected  material  from  these  files  consists  primarily  of  notes, 
drawings,  and  draft  specifications  by  Edison,  along  with  occasional 
correspondence  to  or  from  Edison,  his  associates,  and  his  companies.  The 
case  files  for  Edison's  abandoned  or  forfeited  applications  have  been 
selected  in  their  entirety  except  for  duplicates,  printed  patents  by  Edison  and 
other  inventors,  and  other  printed  material.  In  addition,  two  applications  by 
Edison's  son,  William  Leslie  Edison,  have  been  selected. 

The  files  are  arranged  in  chronological  order  according  to  execution 
date— the  date  on  which  the  formal  application  was  signed  and  witnessed. 
On  the  list  that  follows,  each  selected  application  file  is  noted  with  its 
execution  date;  folio  number;  patent  number  (for  issued  patents)  or  serial 
number  (for  abandoned  applications);  and  case  file  title.  In  a  few  cases 
where  the  execution  date  could  not  be  determined,  the  application  date,  if 
known,  or  other  conjectured  date  is  supplied  in  brackets.  Case  files 
consisting  entirely  of  unselected  material  do  not  appear  on  the  list. 


Exec.  Date  Folio#  Ser.  # or  Pat.  #  Abbreviated  Case  File  Title 


02/06/99  2230  Pat.  663,015  Electric  Meters 

02/06/99  2231  Pat.  648,934  Screening  or  Sizing  Very  Fine 

Material 

02/24/99  2242  Pat.  643,764  Reheating  Compressed  Air 

04/10/99  2236  Pat.  641,281  Expanding  Pulleys 

06/21/99  1  Ser.  722,229  Fine  Screening  Plates 

07/05/99  3  Ser.  724,246  Combustible  Engines 

08/22/99  2298  Ser.  729,121  Bricking  Pulverized  Material 

09/12/99  2302  Ser.  731,137  Phonographs 

09/12/99  2303  Pat.  652,457  Phonographs 

10/20/99  2310  Ser.  734,695  Conveying  Belts 

10/28/99  2316  Ser.  736,350  Drying/Screening  Ores  or 

Other  Material  in  Bulk 

[ca.  1899]  2277  [dropped]  Portland  Cement 

01/03/00  2333  Ser.  823  Magnetic  Separation 

01/03/00  2334  Ser.  824  Magnetic  Separators 

01/03/00  2335  Ser.  825  Drying/Screening  Ores  and 

Other  Materials  in  Bulk 

01/24/00  2342  Ser.  3,456  Fine  Screening  Plates 

03/28/00  2369  Ser.  12,069  Stock  Houses  for  Storing 

Material  in  Bulk 

04/10/00  4  Pat.  759,356  Burning  Portland  Cement 

04/10/00  5  Pat.  759,357  Burning  Portland  Cement 

04/30/00  2379  Pat.  657,527  Metallic  Duplicating 

Phonograph  Records 

04/30/00  2383  Pat.  667,662  Duplicating  Phonograph 

Records 

05/15/00  2386  Ser.  20,556  Coating  Phonograph  Records 

or  Other  Articles 

09/28/00  2430  Pat.  703,051  Electric  Meters 

12/21/00  2452  Ser.  41,373  Reversible  Galvanic  Batteries 

[ca.  1900]  2469  [not  filed]  Storage  Batteries 

02/23/01  2486  Ser.  49,453  Reversible  Galvanic  Batteries 

02/23/01  2493  Ser.  52,926  Electrodes  for  Galvanic 

Batteries 

05/07/01  2516  Ser.  59,512  Depolarizers  for  Reversible 

Galvanic  Batteries 

06/17/01  2536  Pat.  692,507  Reversible  Galvanic  Batteries 

[ca.  1901]  2608  [not  filed]  Electrolytically  Active  Finely 

Divided  Iron 

04/05/02  13  Ser.  102,109  Nickel-plating  Articles 

[06/04/02]  14  Ser.  110,159  Making  Sound  Recordings 

[06/04/02]  15  Ser.  110,160  Sound  Records 

09/30/02  18  Ser.  229,245  Reversible  Galvanic  Batteries 

10/13/02  19  Pat.  727,118  Electrolytically  Active  Finely 

Divided  Iron 

22  Pat.  852,424  Storage  Batteries 


11/13/02 


11/13/02 

27 

Pat.  802,631 

Burning  Portland  Cement 
Clinker 

11/13/02 

28 

Ser.  134,018 

Portland  Cement 

12/18/02 

29 

Pat.  750,102 

Electrical  Automobiles 

12/18/02 

30 

Ser.  138,428 

Separating  or  Grading 
Apparatus 

12/18/02 

34 

Pat.  1,014,818 

Giant  Rolls 

02/16/03 

42 

Ser.  147,587 

Storage  Battery  Charging 
Apparatus 

04/27/03 

46 

Pat.  775,965 

Dry  Separators 

05/25/03 

48 

Ser.  159,307 

Dry  Separators 

07/20/03 

54 

Pat.  775,600 

Rotary  Cement  Kilns 

07/20/03 

55 

Ser.  166,520 

Duplicating  Tubular  Sound 
Records 

07/30/03 

57 

Ser.  167,929 

Screening  Plates 

08/11/03 

59 

Ser.  169,334 

Electromagnets  for  Magnetic 
Separation 

08/25/03 

60 

Pat.  772,648 

Vehicle  Wheels 

10/03/03 

65 

Pat.  850,912 

Making  Articles  by 
Electroplating 

11/02/03 

69 

Ser.  179,716 

Duplicating  Phonograph 
Records 

11/11/03 

70 

Pat.  962,081 

Recording  Sound 

11/11/03 

71 

Ser.  180,999 

Recording  Sound 

11/16/03 

72 

Pat.  943,664 

Sound  Recording 

11/20/03 

74 

Ser.  182,427 

Primary  Batteries 

11/20/03 

76 

Ser.  182,428 

Reversible  Storage  Battery 

11/20/03 

77 

Pat.  873,220 

Reversible  Storage  Battery 

06/20/04 

87 

Pat.  861,241 

Portland  Cement 

07/12/04 

107 

Pat.  847,746 

Electrical  Welding  Apparatus 

07/12/04 

109 

Ser.  217,881 

Perforated  Sheet  Metal  for 
Storage  Batteries 

08/23/04 

113 

Pat.  970,615 

Sound  Records 

09/26/04 

120 

Ser.  226,776 

Treating  Graphite  for  Use  in 
Alkaline  Storage  Batteries 

01/16/05 

126 

Ser.  243,492 

Sound  Records 

03/17/05 

136 

Ser.  251,001 

Nickel-plated  Graphites 

03/29/05 

144 

Pat.  882,144 

Storage  Battery  Electrode 

04/11/05 

149 

Ser.  255,079 

Sound  Recording  Apparatus 

04/26/05 

154 

Ser.  257,943 

Electrode  Unit 

05/20/05 

169 

Ser.  261,953 

Phonographic  Recorders 

05/20/05 

170 

Ser.  261,949 

Methods  of  Recording  Sound 

05/20/05 

171 

Pat.  963,362 

Recording  and  Reproducing 
Sound 

09/28/05 

190 

Pat.  1,152,613 

Burning  Portland  Cement 
Clinker 

10/11/05 

193 

Ser.  282,694 

Cement  Kilns 

[10/19/05] 

197 

Ser.  283,529 

Production  of  Thin  Sheet  Metal 

11/28/05 

209 

Ser.  290,336 

Making  Metallic  Films  or  Flakes 

12/06/05 

211 

Ser.  290,712 

Storage  Battery  Receptacles 

12/06/05 

01/09/06 

01/24/06 

[01/27/06] 

02/01/06 

02/24/06 

03/17/06 

05/07/06 

09/11/06 

[09/13/06] 

11/16/06 

11/16/06 

12/28/06 

12/28/06 

02/23/07 

05/08/07 

05/28/07 

06/11/07 

06/11/07 

06/11/07 

06/18/07 

[11/14/07] 

11/21/07 

02/04/08 

02/04/08 

02/04/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 

03/13/08 


212 

Pat.  914,342 

Storage  Batteries 

217 

Pat.  858,862 

Primary  and  Secondary 
Batteries 

219 

Pat.  1,065,597 

Cement  Burning  Kilns 

220 

Ser.  298,282 

Electric  Automobile 

223 

Ser.  299,484 

Feeding  Apparatus  for  Cement 
Kilns 

226 

Pat.  964,096 

Electroplating 

227 

Ser.  306,782 

Electroplating 

234 

Pat.  1,059,661 

Portland  Cement 

263 

Pat.  962,823 

Crushing  Rolls,  Cement 

261 

Ser.  334,411 

Shaft  Bearings 

275 

Ser.  345,043 

Cement  Burning  Apparatus 

276 

Ser.  345,044 

Blast  Furnaces 

280 

Ser.  352,417 

Concentrating  Silver  Ores 

282 

Pat.  1,024,839 

Phonographic  Recording 

Stylus 

296 

Pat.  975,339 

Duplicating  Talking  Machine 
Records 

314 

Pat.  876,445 

Electrolytes  for  Alkaline 

Storage  Batteries 

320 

Pat.  1,163,329 

Filaments  for  Incandescent 
Electric  Lamp 

321 

Ser.  378,891 

Telephones 

322 

Pat.  861,819 

Discharging  Apparatus  for  Belt 
Conveyors 

324 

Pat.  954,789 

Sprocket-chain  Drive 

325 

Pat.  909,877 

Telegraphy 

351 

Ser.  403,043 

Filaments  for  Incandescent 
Lamps 

356 

Pat.  R1 3,434 

Discharging  Apparatus  for  Belt 
Conveyors 

379 

Pat.  909,167 

Water  Proofing  Paint  for 
Portland  Cement  Buildings 

380 

Pat.  896,811 

Metallic  Films  for  Use  with  the 
Storage  Battery  Electrodes 

381 

Pat.  1,182,897 

Recording  and  Reproducing 
Motion  and  Sound 

384 

Pat.  996,625 

Phonograph  Reproducers 

385 

Ser.  421,887 

Phonograph  Records 

386 

Ser.  421,884 

Phonograph  Records  Case  A 

387 

Ser.  421,885 

Phonograph  Records  Case  B 

388 

Ser.  421,886 

Phonograph  Records  Case  C 

389 

Pat.  999,762 

Storage  Batteries 

390 

Pat.  975,340 

Phonograph  Reproducers 

391 

Pat.  944,481 

Artificially  Aging  or  Seasoning 
Portland  Cement 

393 

Pat.  1,013,869 

Bearings 

394 

Ser.  422,650 

Reproducing  Motion  and 

Sound 

05/27/08 

413 

Pat.  909,168 

Water  Proofing  Fibers  and 
Fabrics 

06/08/08 

417 

Pat.  993,294 

Device  for  Feeding  Pulverulent 
Material 

[06/09/08] 

527 

Pat.  1,081,728 

Spark  Plugs  [W.  L.  Edison] 

08/10/08 

422 

Pat.  1,219,272 

Cement  Buildings 

08/10/08 

423 

Ser.  448,292 

Color  Picture  Exhibiting 
Apparatus 

08/20/08 

436 

Pat.  970,616 

Flying  Machines 

10/10/08 

428 

Ser.  457,592 

Phonograph  Records  Case  E 

10/10/08 

430 

Pat.  996,070 

Rotary  Kilns 

11/20/08 

439 

Ser.  463,943 

Water  Proofing  Material  for 
Concrete 

11/21/08 

440 

Pat.  1,148,832 

Utilizing  the  Waste  Heat  in 

Kilns 

12/09/08 

442 

Ser.  467,156 

Treating  Mold  for  Concrete 

12/22/08 

447 

Pat.  1,123,261 

Mold  for  Concrete  Construction 

01/27/09 

454 

Pat.  1,002,504 

Crushing  and  Separating  Fine 
Materials 

02/18/09 

456 

Ser.  479,587 

Phonographs 

02/18/09 

457 

Ser.  479,586 

Sound  Records 

03/02/09 

458 

Pat.  1,158,659 

Phonograph  Records  Case  A 

11/04/09 

547 

Ser.  526,428 

Air  Pumps  [W.  L.  Edison] 

11/09/09 

552 

Ser.  528,323 

Phonograph  Reproducers 

12/04/09 

560 

Pat.  1,056,517 

Reproducing  Sound 

12/04/09 

561 

Ser.  532,074 

Sound  Reproducing  Apparatus 

03/19/10 

587 

Pat.  1,110,428 

Forming  Phonograph  Styluses 

04/14/10 

588 

Pat.  1,019,441 

Sound  Recording  Apparatus 

05/02/10 

596 

Pat.  1,041,983 

Phonograph  Stylus 

05/19/10 

600 

Ser.  563,041 

Can  or  Receptacle 

05/31/10 

602 

Pat.  1,178,062 

Moving  Picture  Apparatus 

05/31/10 

603 

Pat.  1,036,471 

Storage  Batteries 

06/13/10 

607 

Pat.  1,115,463 

Electrode  Elements 

07/02/10 

611 

Pat.  1,167,637 

Utilizing  Waste  Heat  in  Kilns 

08/29/10 

630 

Ser.  579,706 

Vehicle  Wheels 

10/04/10 

645 

Pat.  1,099,241 

Rectifiers 

10/21/10 

655 

Ser.  588,982 

Sound  Records 

12/05/10 

674 

Pat.  1,184,332 

Talking  Machines 

12/07/10 

*649 

Pat.  1,110,382 

Sound  Modifiers 

12/08/10 

675 

Ser.  596,537 

Disc  Sound  Records 

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RICHARD  N.  DYER, 

31  Nassau  Street, 


U  e  ^AT  — 


dA 


Ul 

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j->r^tZZZ 

eft 

'  •  i, _ /?  ho.  4 JL . 


Folio  No.  J  / 


Applicant. 


Serial  No.  /  ~ 

Address. 


Examiner's  Room  No. 


Assignee  ....... 

Ass’g't  Exec . 


Page 


12 .... 

13.. .. 
.  14.:.. 

15.. . 


27.. , 

28.. . 

29:... 

30... 


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6  21 . 

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8..^5..4.^...r.^: 23 . 

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^•;s 


FRANK  L.  DYER,  -3'j,  , 

Counsel,  0" 

■v...  ORANGE,  NEW  JERSEY.  . 

.  ' 


3 


Bbetition. 


Go  tbe  (Commissioner  of  patents: 

vour  petitioner  »  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and 
State  of  Now  .Tersey, 


I  1 


PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPROVEMENT  IN 


HOT!  SCREENING  PLATES 


SPEOIEI CATION. 


L  |  TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

Bo  It  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
>  new  and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  IN  PINE  SCREENING  PLATES  -“AKS-PR©- 
L  CSSS— &g-MAKIMO  THE -SAMS  (Case  No.  1009),  of  which  the  follow, 
ing  is  a  description: 


k 


My  invention  relates  primarily  to  improvements  in 
screens  for  effecting  a  screening  operation  of  particles  of 
extreme  fineness. 

I  have  determined  from  experiment  that  the  screening 
oapaoity  of  a  soreen  plate  depends  almoBt  entirely  upon  tho 
thickness  of  the  plate.  I  have  employed  Bheet  steel  with 
punohed  slots,  the  latter  being  several  times  greater  in 
length  than  in  width,  and  with  such  screens  I  have  deter¬ 
mined  that  a  plate,  for  instance,  .010  of  an  inch  in  thick¬ 
ness  having  slots  punched  therein  .006  of  an  inch  in  width 
will  possess  only  a  small  fraction  of  the  oapaoity  of  a 
plate  having  slotB  of  the  same  width  but  being  itself  of  a 
thickness  of  only  .003  of  an  inoh.  I  find  that  the  thicker 
plate  beoomes  rapidly  dogged  with  particles  of  the  material 
in  process  of  screening,  such  as  iron  ore,  thus  reducing  the 
screening  oapaoity  in  a  very  short  time  to  almost  nothing, 
whereas  if  the  plate  is  of  less  thickness  than  the  width  of 
its  slots,  it  doeB  not  become  clogged  and  can  be  operated 
for  weeks  without  cleaning. 

The  objection  which  I  have  experienced  in  the  use  of 
very  thin  plates  has  been  their  liability  to  wear,  and  it  is 
to  the  accomplishment  of  a  prooess  by  which  this  objection 
may  be  overcome  that  my  presont  invention  also  relates.  To 


fthiB  end, |  the  invention  consists  in  the  use  of  very  thin 
plates  having  orifices,  preferably  Blots,  therein  of  greater 
width  than  the  thickness  of  the  plateB,  the  width  of  the 
orifices  being  adapted  for  very  fine  screening. 

It  is  the  object  of  my  invention  to  obtain  the  high 
screening  oapaoity  resulting  from  the  ubb  of  thin  plates, 
and  at  the  same  time  to  secure  durability  thereof. 

In  order  that  my  invention  may  be  better  understood, 
attention  is  direoted  to  the  accompanying  drawing  forming  a 
part  of  this  specif ioation,  and  in  which  figure  1  is  a 
oross-seotional  view  of  a  Bcroon  plate  embodying  my  present 
invention,  and  figure  2  a  similar  view  illustrating  the  pre¬ 
ferred  process  which  I  carry  out  for  the  partial  hardening 
of  such  plates. 

In  both  of  the  above  views,  corresponding  parts  are 
represented  by  the  same. letters  of  reference. 

A  represents  a  thin  sheet-iron  plate,  suitably 
hardened,  as  I  will  explain,  provided  with  orifices,  prefera¬ 
bly  slots,  a  therein.  The  relation  botween  the  thiokness 
of  tho  plate  A  and  the  width  of  the  orifices  a  is  such  that 
the  former  dimension  is  loss  than  the  latter.  In  the 
specific  instance  illustrated  I  show  a  plate  which  is  in¬ 
dicated  as  being  .006  of  an  lnoh  In  thickness,  and  having 
slots  a  therein  which  are  indicated  as  being  of  a  width  each 
of  .009  of  an  inch.  ^  /f«; 

In  making  my  improved  Boreens  I  prefer  to  proceed 

* 

substantially  as  follows:  A  sheet-iron  plate  A  is  first  se¬ 
cured,  and  tho  orifices  a  are  formed  therein  preferably  in 
a  punch-press  with  gang-dies  or  punohes.  The  plate,  after 
having  been  punched  with  the  orifices,  is  then  dipped  in  a 
bath  of  molten  cyanide  of  potassium  for  a  few  seoonds.  It  i: 
then  withdrawn  and  immediately  laid  upon  a  flat  iron  plate 
such  as  B  (figure  2) ,  over  which  is  looated  a  Corresponding 
-2- 


I 


I  plate  G,  whioh  is  allowed  to  drop  upon  the  punched  plate  A. 
The  sudden  chilling  to  whioh  the  plate  A  will  be  subjected 
by  coming  in  contact  with  the  larger  masses  of  the  plates  B 
and  C,  serves  to  harden  the  plate  A  and  to  keep  it  perfectly 
flat  until  cooled.  Any  tondency  of  the  plate  A  to  warp  or 
buckle  during  the  cooling  operation  is  thus  overcome.  After 

I  the  punched  plate  A  has  sufficiently  cooled,  it  is  then  im¬ 
mersed  in  a  water  bath  to  dissolve  off  the  cyanide  of  potas¬ 
sium,  and  after  this  bath  it  is  dried  and  oiled  in  any 
suitable  and  usual  manner.  As  a  specific  instance  of  a 
I  convenient  process  for  the  proper  hardening  of  plates  .006 
I  of  an  inch  in  thickness  having  punched  slots  therein  each  of 
a  width  of  .009  of  an  inch,  I  will  state  that  the  plate  may 
be  allowed  to  remain  in  the  molten  bath  of  cyanide  of  potas¬ 
sium  for  thirty- five  seconds,  and  during  this  period  the 
|  iron  will  become  carbonated  to  a  depth  of  about  .001  of  an 
inch  on  each  side .  The  surface  hardening  to  whioh  the 
screen  plate  will  be  thus  subjected  between  the  plates  B  and 
C,  will  be  of  a  very  high  order,  while  at  the  same  time  the 
inner  portions  of  the  plate  will  be  left  sufficiently  soft 
and  pliable  as  to  allow  the  plate  to  be  bent  or  otherwise 
manipulated.  If  the  plate  were  allowed  to  remain  too  long 
in  the  bath  of  cyanide  of  potassium,  it  would  be  rendered 
objectionably  brittle,  since  the  absorption  of  carbon  would 
progress  entirely  through  the  same. 

Instead  of  the  special  surface  hardening  process 
above  described  for  the  proper  hardening  of  screen  plates 
of  this  specific  character,  It  will  be  understood  that  sur¬ 
face  hardening  of  said  screens  may  be  carried  out  by  the 
usual  method  of  cementation  by  packing  the  plates  in  char¬ 
coal,  leather  eto.  I  consider  the  speoial  prooesB  above 
described  to  be  preferable  however,  slnoo  It  is  more  expedi¬ 
tious  and  the  depth  of  oarbonation  is  under  entire,  control* 


Having  now  described  my  Invention,  what  I  claim  as 
now  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is  as  follows: 

1.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin 


metal  plate  having  screening  orlfloes  therein  of  greater 
width  than  the  thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as 
set  forth. 

3.  Ab  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  screening 
plate  made  of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and  with 
orifices  formed  therein  of  a  greater  width  than  the  thiok- 
j  ness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  Bet  forth. 

3.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  metal  plate 
J  having  a  hardened  screening  surface  but  with  a  malleable 

j  central  portion,  said  plate  being  of  extreme  thinness  and 
j  having  orifioes  formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the 
thiokness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  screening 
plate  having  hardened  surfaces  and  a  malleable  central  por¬ 
tion,  said  plate  having  elongated  screening  orifices  formed 
therein,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

6.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin 
metal  plate  having  screening  slots  therein  of  greater  width 
than  the  thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  bb  set  forth. 

6.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  screening 
plate  made  of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and  with 
slots  formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the  thickness  of 
said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

7.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  metal  plate 
having  a  hardened  screening  surfaoe  but  with  a  malleable 
oentral  portion,  said  plate  being  of  extreme  thinness  and 
having  slots  formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the  thick¬ 
ness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

8.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture, .a  screening 
plate  having  hardened-  surfaces  and  a  malleable  oentral  p0r- 


jtion,  said  plate  having  elongated  ecreenlng  slots  formed 
therein,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

The  method  of  making  screening  plates  which 
consists  In  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  sheet 
of  malleable  metal,  and  in  subjecting  the  screening  surface 
of  said  m^tal  to  a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

10.  \  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  which 
Iconsists  in  frrst  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate 
of  malleable  meW,  and  in  subjecting  both  surfaces  of  said 
[plate  to  a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  Bet  forth. 

11.  The 'method  of  making  screening  plates  whioh 
consists  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate 
of  malleable  metal,  In  dipping  the  plate  in  a  carbonating 
liquid,  in  then  subjecting  the  screening  surface  to  a  ohill- 
ing  aotion,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate  to  remove  suoh 
liquid,  substantially  as 'set  forth. 

12.  The  method  of.  forming  screening  plates  which 
[consists  in  first  forming  a\eries  of  orifioes  in  a  plate  of 
malleable  metal,  In  dipping  the  plate  in  molten  oyanide  of 
Potassium,  in  then  subjecting  Wie  screening  surface  to  a 
ohllllng  aotion,  and  in  finally hashing  the  plate  to  remove 
the  oyanide  of  potassium,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

13.  The  method  of  making\soreening  plates  which 
consists  in  forming  a  series  of  oriWoes  in  a  plate  of  mal¬ 
leable  metal,  in  dipping  said  plate  in  a  bath  of  molten 
oyanide  of  potassium,  in  chilling  the  (screening  surface  of 
said  plate t  in  maintaining  the  plate  under  a  flattened  pres¬ 
sure  until  cool,  and  in  finally  washing  t&e  plate  for  the 
removal  of  the  oyanide  of  potassium,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

14.  The  method  of  making  screening  piates  which 
consists. in  forming  a  series  of  orifioes  in  a  plkte  of  ^1- 


-6- 


leable  metal, \ in  dipping  the  plate  in  a  bath  of  molten 
oyanide  of  potassium,  in  subjecting  the  plate  to  pressure 
between  two  plates  of  larger  mass,  whereby  the  surfaces  of 
the  screen  plateY will  be  chilled  and  the  plate  will  be  main 
tained  under  pressure  during  the  cooling  operation,  and  fi¬ 
nally,  after  the  said  plate  has  been  cooled,  in  dipping  it 
in  a  bath  of  water  %>r  the  removal  of  the  oyanide  of  potas¬ 
sium,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


-6- 


SPECIFICATK 


WITNESSED 


©atb. 


State  of 

(Count?  of  (sU^c. ^ 


THOMAS  A.  jBJJIBOH,  the  ABOVE-NAMED 
PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  Citizen 

of  the  United  States,  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Kseex  and  State  of  New  Jersey; 

THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  BE  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 

OF  THE  IMPROVEMMT  IN  mm  80REHNING  PIATHB  and  process  op  making 
THE  SAME 

DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 
HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF;  OR  PATENTED  OR  DESCRIBED  IN  ANY 
PRINTED  PUBLICATION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  OR  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY 
BEFORE  HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF,  OH  MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR 
TO  THIS  APPLICATION;  OR  IN  PUBLIC  USE  OR  ON  SALE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  FOR 
MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR  TO  THIS  APPLICATION,  AND  THAT  NO  APPLICATION 
FOR  FOREIGN  PATENT  HAS  BEEN  FILED  BY  HIM  OR  HIS  LEGAL  REPRESENTATIVES  OR 
ASSIGNS  IN  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY.  x?  ' 


SWORN 


BEFORE 


THIS^/J 


Witnesses, 


;entor 


Department  of  the  Interior, 


Washington,  D.  C.,y. ...fl89I&. 

f/  7 


jj  with  Fifteen  Dollars  {if  the  first  fee  payable  thereon . 

£  The  papers  are  duly  fled,  and  your  application  for  a  patent  will  be  taken  up  | 

®  £ 
■§,  for  examination  in  its  order . . . . . . .  '= 


Yon  ivill  be  duly  advised  of  the  examination. 

Very  respectfully, 


Case  will  be  taken  up  for 
examination  in  about  one  month. 


Commissioner  of  Patents 


— In  order  to  constitute  nn  application  for  a  patent,  Hie  inventor  is  by  law 
No  application  is  considered  ns  complete,  nor  can  any  official  action  be  had  thereon,  not” 


T 


DEPARTMENT;  P5  THE  INTERIOR, 

UMTED  STATes^pATENT  OFFICE, 


;wa,h,nq™.  d-°-  A«g.,  nj,.ia*9— -- 

It  ’  ,!u.s.:?ATe.Nr‘pPFieE, 


Car*  Dy«r,Bdnnnda  a  »yer,£ff 
it1'  '  ax  Nassau  at.,  ' '  iff 
Mew  York  aityy;*  . 


A  Or,  to  i.po!) 


••  I';  AU,G 

Please  find  below  a,  communication  from  the.  EXAMINER  in  ol Large  of  your  appUc^ion^y  -  '.^  H;yr 

#722,229,  for  Jine  Screening  Plato  a,  and  Procesa  of  Making  "the  Same, 
;.f  Had  .time  89,  1899.  ;,.j 


m 


i:- 


Commissioner  of  <Patenli.  '-  . 


Rwle  41  of  the  Rule*  of  Vtmtit*  In  this  Office,  prof  ides 
.that  machine,  a  profleaa,  and  a"7produot,  are  separate  and  lndep*n- 
d<mt  j$?#‘nWtm8»  •^d  el&iae  for  each  must  be  preaanted  in  ^^ioate 
•  application*.  Claim*  l  t»  8,  Inclusive,;  are  fdran  article'' *hl  oh  ; 
ordinarily,  forme  part  of  a  machine,  and  claims  9  to  13,  for;  method 
or  propose.  Under  the  rnI*,,dfyl^Wi,ia  required,  and  inflow  qf  th* 
decision  in  case  ef  Rappleye,  as  jd.o,,  809«t  it  ie  required., that  di- 

vielon.  be  mad*  before  notion  onftlie  aerate.  •  4. _ , 

^Wl.th.  the  view  of  aiding  ap^lioent  in  malting  division  reference 
/As  madd^tro  .the  followingi  -  Hea34|,  a07,173,r  Aug.  go,:.  1B78;  Wtlarft 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 


PINE  SCREENING  PLATES 
AND  PROCESS'®  MAKING 
THE  SAME 

PILED  JUNE  29,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  722,209 


ROOM  NO.  243. 


! HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 

S  I  R  :- 

In  the  above  entitled  application,  the 
following  amendment  is  submitted: 

Change  the  title  of  the  invention  to  — —  IMPROVE¬ 
MENT  IN  PINE  SCREENING  PLATES  - 

In  the  petition,  erase  the  words  "AND  PROCESS  OP 
MAKING  THE  SAME". 

Page  1,  lines  5  and  6,  erase  the  words  "AND  PROCESS 
;OF  MAKING  THE  SAME". 

Page  3,  after  the  last  line  insert  -  I  do  not 

I  claim  herein  the  process  involved  in  the  manufacture  of  fine 
jsoreening  plates  by  the  surface  hardening  thereof,  either 
Ibroadly  considered  or  specifically,  by  dipping  said  plates 
in  a  bath  of  molten  cyanide  of  potassium  as  explained,  since 
that  process,  both  specifically  and  generioally  considered, 
|is  embodied  in  a  separate  application. - 

Cancel  claims  9  to  14  inclusive. 

Action  on  the  merits  is  respectfully  requested. 

The  several  references  to  which  the  Examiner  has 
‘called  applicant's  attention  have  been  oarefully  considered. 
So  far  as  can  be  determined,  they  all  show  ordinary  screen¬ 
ing  plates  of  the  usual  thickness.  Applicant's  invention 
relates  specifically  to  screening  plates  which  are  micro¬ 
scopically  thin,  whereby  the  effective  screening  of  extreme¬ 
ly  fine  material  can  be  carried  out.  Applicant  is  entirely 
trilling  to  acknowledge  the  references  and  any  other  ordinary 


screening  plates.  In  the  sense  of  the  specification,  the 
expressions  "very  thin"  and  "of  extreme  thinness”  mark  a 
Yory  wide  distinction  from  anything  that  is  disclosed  in  tho 
references.  The  second  claim  is  limited  to  a  screening 
plate  "made  of  hardened  metal",  the  third  claim  to  a  plate 
having  "a  hardened  screening  surfaoe  but  with  a  malleable 
central  portion",  and  tho  fourth  claim  is  limited  to  a  plate 
having  "hardened  surfaces  and  a  malleable  central  portion". 
The  sixth,  seventh  and  eighth  claims  are  correspondingly 
limited  to  plates  such  as  above  recited  having  screening 
slots  therein.  There  does  not  seem  to  bo  any  question 
that  these  claims  are  fully  distinguished  from  the  refer¬ 
ences. 


Hew  York,  January  19,  1900. 


f.  A,  Tt&iaan, 


fife.  788#  839, 


•  8 .  J  °]*8  bm  .  plate-la  for  sign  to  the  ease  under  eonsid- 

tho  citations  above  ftado  ara  n&do  merely  with  the//v$ISIn-M .' 
of  showing  the  atate  of  the  art  and  not  bedanae  fchey^ero  considered^"''* 

811(1  **  beinfr-a, aatfeer  of  connon  knowledge  that 
nm  ?T  fOf**"  better  resist  wear  than  a  Soft  one, 

'  »t*»' «;«•  «*J««ted  for  laokMof  patentable  novelty'  &  '. 
j  ^  f  th*  ftrt  e»  diaoloaed  by  the  reference*  cited. 


:|f/ 


THOMAS  A.  HD  IS  ON 


I7NH  G GREENING  PLATES  AND  PR003BS  OP 
MAKING  SAME 

PILED  JUNE  29,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  722,229 


ROOM  NO.  243. 


HON.  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENT3,  i 

S  I  S'! 

Plop.se  amend  as  follows 

Pcice  2,  after  line  25,  insert - ■ - in  practice 

I  find  that  ny  improved  screening  plates  can  be  made  to  vary 
in  thickness  between  approximately  .035  of  an  inoh  having 
slots  .2  of  an  inoh  in  width  for  the  thickest  plates,  down 
to  .006  of  an  inoh  in  thickness  with  slots  .009  of  an  inch 
|  in  width  for  the  thinnest  plates,  and  in  the  following 
claims  where  reference  is  made  to  very  thin  plates  or  to 
plates  of  extreme  thinness,  I  have  reference  to  plates  not 

greater  in  thickness  than  .035  of  an  inch. _ 

It  is  hoped  that  in  view  of  the  abovo  amendment,  by 
which  a  definite  limitation  is  imposed  on  the  claims,  the 
case  may  bo  allowed.  All  the  references  show  relatively 
thick  plates,  that  is  to  say,  plates  having  a  thickness  of 
at  least  four  times  the  thickness  of  the  maximum  figure 
adopted  by  applicant.  With  very  thin  plates,  such  as  ap¬ 
plicant  uses,  case  hardening  is  necessary.  With  relatively 
thick  plates,  such  as  the  references  employ,  such  an  expedi- 
mt  is  entirely  unnecessary. 

Very  respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 

By  ,  ^Cz/V^V-J 

JUs  Attorneys. 

New  York,  January  24,  1901. 


.  WashVn^xoim,-  D.-C., 

Thomas  A.  3?di80j,#  ' 

'.'y®**'®  Pyort  Sdmonda  *  Dyer, 

n°«  81  Nassau  StVeet.'  i  . I 

•  '  Mj.  .  ;  i 

York  Olty^-ffT  y— . 

Pleas? 'find  below  a  «ommunicatiou  fniiy'llie  EXAMINER  in  charge -of  your  application,  ' 

#722,289,  filed  June  29  1099  -M 

or  ****  w.  .  *  **"  *""*  w‘*“  - 


'  **?  .  '  [  :  '  V; 

Commissioner, nf,  Patents. 


:  1 1  h.r«  J “w"""'-  *  '*»  "»•-  0«.r.  a—  „  „ 

}|  herM  U  <U,d  th*  «*«•  i»  «»ally  re  Jested. 


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nivislea  XXV. 


nml  U^S^taSZdSS^TJS!? ” imortc<1  io  “» »PPH«*tIou  must 'boipi 


2—24G. 


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Department  of  the  Interior, 
United  States  Patent  Office, 
Washington,  d.  c., 

Thomas  A.  Edison, 

Care  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

Edison  Laboratory,  Orange,  H. J. 


a  'r  y 

Eeb.  15,  19^ 


,Fla^ 


B.S. •?■■■'  !  '  -I 

FEB  15  19G3  J 


Piea«6  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 


|  |  #722,829,  filed  June  29,  1899,  for  Screening  Plates  and  Process  for 
J  I  Making  Same,. 

II  ’ 


ii 

li 


g-9 

s  3 

si 

if 


Answer  to  appeal, 


In  the  United  States  Patent  Office. 


Application  Ho. 7 22, 229, 
Thomas  A.  Edison, 

Pine  Screening  Plates  and 
Process  of  Making  Same, 
Piled  June  29,  1899. 


i  Before  the 

1  Hon,  Board  of  Kxaminor s-ln-Chief , , 
> j  On  Appeal. 


Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer  for.  applioant. 


Examiner*  s  Statement. 


The  claims  On  which  this  appeal  is  based  are  the  following* 


"1.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin  metal  plate 
having  soreening  orifloeB  therein  of  greater  width  than 
the  thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"2.  As  a  new  artiole  of ''manufacture,  a  soreening  plate  made 
of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and  with  orifices 
formed  therein  of  a  greater  width  than  the  thickness  of 
said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

*3.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  metal  plate  having  a 
hardened  soreening  .  surf aoe  but  with  a  malleable  central 
portion,  said  plate  being  of  extreme  thinness  and  having 
orifices  formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the  thick¬ 
ness  Of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"4.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufaoture,  a  screening  plate  hav¬ 
ing  hardened  surfaces  and  a  malleable  oehtral  portion, 
said  plate  having  elongated  soreening  orifices  formed 
therein,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"5.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufaoture,  a  very  thinmetal  plate 
having  screening  slots  therein  of  greater  width  than  the 
thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"6,  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufaoture,  a  soreening  plate  mafla 
of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and  with  'slots 
formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the  thickness  of. 
said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"7.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  metal  plate  having 

a  hardened  screening  surface  but  with  a  malleable  central 
portion,  said  plate  being  of  extreme  thinness  and  having 


-- 2— 


alota  formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the  thioknoss 
of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set,  forth. 

"8,  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  .screening  plate  hav¬ 
ing  hardened  surfaoes  and  a  malleable  central  portion, 
said  plate  having  elongated  screening  slots  formed  there¬ 
in,  substantially  as  setf  forth,  ■ 


The  references  on  which  the  above-named  claims  were  finally  .rejected 
are  as  follows* 

•  /  207,178,  Heald,  Aug.  20,  1878} 

^  256,325,  Oastler,  •  Mar oh  21,  1882; 

*'479,617,  Borthelet,  July  28,  1892; 

S  683,032,  Cross,  May  25,  1897, - 

Mills,  Ore  and  Coal,  SifterB  and  Screens} 

/  340,542,  Bates,  April  27,  1886, — 

Thrashing,  Shaking  Screens}  and 
"Workshop  Receipts  for  Manufacturers,  Mechanics,  and  Scientific 

Amateurs,"  (3d  Series,  pp.  274,  281,)  by  C.O.W,  look - -Patent 

Office  library* 

"  For  answer  to  the  appeal  the  Examiner  respectfully  submits  the 
following  extract  from  offioe  letter  of  Pebnary  3,  1900} 

vl  -The  terms  fvery  thin 4  l claims  1  and  5)  and  ^extreme  thinness''/, 
(claims  2,  3,  6  and  7)  are  relative  terms  without  special  or 
definite  significance,  A  plate  or  screen  may  be  thin,  or 
very,  thin,  or  extremely  thin,  when  measured  by  one  standard, 
and  thick,  or  very  thick,  when  measured  by  another.  Metal 
soreens  having  bean  made  from  plates  of  different  thickness, 
as  shown  by  the  references  before  cited,  the  thickness  of 
plate  whioh  applicant  has  selected  for  his  purpose  is  merely 
a  matter  of  degree  and  devoid  of  patentable  novelty. 

The  references  show  screens  made  of  sheet  metal  with  ; 
elongated  slots  therein  whose  width  is  greater  than  the  thiok- 
ness  of  the  plate,  and  these  therefore  meet  the  construction 
defined  in  the  olaias. 

In  a  work  entitled  Workshop  Receipts  for  Manufacturers, 
Mechanics,  and  Scientific  Amateurs'?,  3d  Series,  by  C.O.W.LoOk, 
a  copy  of  whioh  may  be  found  in  the  library  of  this  offioe, 
is  described  (page  274)  a  process  of  oase-hardening  thin  arti¬ 
cles  by  heating  the  same  and  then  placing  them: "between  2  bold 
iron  plates".  On  page  281  of  the  same  work  the  use  of  Prus- 
siate  of  Potash  in  ;easewhardenihg  is  set  forth,  this  subs times 
being  employed  on  account  of  its  oarboniaing  properties.  How¬ 
ever,  the  method  employed  by  applicant  for  case-hardening  his 
soreen  plate  is  foreign  to  the  oase  under  consideration,  and 
the  oitations  above made  are  made  merely  with  the  view  of 


showing  the  state  of  the  art,  and  not  because  they  are  consid¬ 
ered  to  have  any  special  bearing  upon  this  oase.  Thin  plates 
having  before  been  hardoned,  and  it  being  a  matter  of  oommott 
knowledge  that  a  hardened  plate  or  screen  will  better  resist 
wear  than  a  soft  one,  there  is  no  invention  in  oaserhardenlng 
a  punohad  plate,  whether  of  extreme  or  ordinary  thinness,  in 
the  manner  in  which  wnpunohed  or  imperforate  plates  have  boon 
hardened.'7 


Examiner* 

.  Division  XXV. 


Room  243,  U.8. Patent  Office, 
Peb.  1(5,  1902, 


0 


. - for  a  patent  for  an  improvement  in 

. . . 

fled  .f^fAyL^X^  S.ffj jCffg^  t  t&fh7n.  Serial  JV ,  will  be  heard  by  the 
JSxaminers-in- Chief,  ■./.ZLjbfQ _ 


If  appellant,  or  his  attorney,  shall  not  appear  at  that  time  the  hearing  will 
be  regarded  as  waived,  and  the  case  will  be  decided  upon  the  record, 
f  ,  .  Very  respectfully, 


aX 

Commissioner  of  Patents. 


I  The  present  invention  relates  to  improvements  in 

screening  plates  of  the  type  oovered  by  Edison  patent  number 
678,067  of  May  28,  1901.  In  that  patent  the  use  of  short 
stationary  screens  with  slotted  screening  openings  is  dis¬ 
closed,  the  idea  being  to  give  the  material  a  maximum  oppor-j 
tunity  to  pass  through  the  screening  openings.  In  conduct¬ 
ing  experiments  for  the  screening  of  very  fine  material  with 
screens  having  slots  ranging  from  .2  of  an  inch  to  .009  of 
an  inch,  the  ordinary  stock  sheetB  were  slotted  and  material 
passed  over  the  same.  It  was  then  observed  that  the  screen¬ 
ing  effect  secured  became  proportionately  reduced  as  the 
width  of  the  slots  was  decreased.  It  was  finally  discover¬ 
ed  that  with  the  very  narrow  slots,  the  thiokness  of  the 
plateB  was  relatively  so  great  that  many  of  the  particles 
beoarae  wedged  into  the  slots  so  as  to  olog  the  same  and  re¬ 
duce  the  screening  effect .  It  was  found  that  by  making 
plates  always  thinner  than  the  width  of  the  slots,  as  good 
results  oould  be  seoured  with  very  narrow  slots  as  with 
wider  slots.  The  invention  of  this  application,  therefore, 
oonsists,  in  the  first  place,  of  a  screening  plate,  the 
openings  in  whioh  are  of  greater  width  than  the  thiokneBS 
of  the  plates. 

The  making  of  these  plates  of  extreme  thinness  en¬ 
countered  another  and  equally  serious  difficulty,  namely  the 
rapid  wearing  of  the  plates  in  use.  What  is  dons,  there- 
1 


I  fore,  is  to  case-harden  the  plates  so  as  to  give  them  prefor 
ahly  a  hard  soreening  surfaoe  and  a  malleable  central  por¬ 
tion,  so  as  "to  allow  the  plate  to  be  bent  or  otherwise 
manipulated"  (page  3  lines  21-22).  The  preferable  prooeca 
described  in  the  specification  for  case-hardening  the  plates 
consists  in  first  punohing  the  plate,  then  dipping  it  in  a 
bath  of  molten  cyanide  of  potassium  for  a  few  seconds,  and 
finally  ohilling  it  between  two  cold  plateB  of  sufficient 
mass  to  quickly  radiate  the  heat  and  also  to  prevent  any 
warping  or  buokling  of  the  soreening  plate  during  the  cool¬ 
ing  operation  (page  3  lines  6-7).  The  screening  plate  is 

I  then  washed,  dried  and  oiled  in  the  UBUal  way. 

We  know,  of  course,  that  plates  for  the  soreening 
of  ooarse  material,  such  as  coal  for  example,  have  been  made 
of  less  thickness  than  the  width  of  the  soreening  openings, 
but  with  such  apparatus  the  desirability  of  observing  a 
definite  relation  between  the  width  of  the  openings  and  the 
thickness  of  the  plates  had  not  apparently  been  observed. 

In  order  that  the  olaims  might  be  limited,  therefore,  to  the; 
making  of  extremely  thin  screening  plates,  we  added  to  the 
specification  by  the  amendment  of  January  24th  1901  the  fol¬ 
lowing  statement: 

"In  practice,  I  find  that  my  improved  soreening 
plates  can  be  made  to  vary  in  thiokneas  between  ap¬ 
proximately  .035  of  an  inch  having  slots  .2  of  an  inch 
in  width  for  the  thickest  plate3,  down  to  .006  of  an 
inoh  in  thickness  with  slots  .009  of  an  inoh  in  width 
for  the  thinnest  plates,  and  in  the  following  olaims 
where  reference  is  made  to  very  thin  plates  or  to 
plates  of  extreme  thinness,  I  have  reference  to  platos 
not  greater  in  thickness  than  .035  of  an  inch." 

The  olaims  are  as  follows: 

"1.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin 
metal  plate  having  screening  orifioos  therein  of  great¬ 
er  width  than  the  thickness  of  said  plate,  substantial¬ 
ly  as  set  forth. 

3.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  soreening 
plate  made  of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and 

2 


^thJL,0J,i,flee8  fome<*  therein  of  a  greater  width  than 
the  thioknese  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth 

3.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufaoture,  a  metal  plato 

haring  a  hardened  screening  surface  but  with  a  mallea¬ 
ble  central  portion,  said  plate  being  of  extreme  thin¬ 
ness  and  having  orifioes  formed  therein  of  greater 
width  than  the  thiokneBs  of  Baid  plate,  substantially 
as  sot  forth*  * 

4.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  screening 
plate  having  hardened  surfaces  and  a  malleable  oentral 
portion,  said  plate  having  elongated  soreening  orifioos 
formed  therein,  substantially  aB  set  forth. 

8.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin 
metal  plate  having  soreening  slots  therein  of  greater 
width  than  the  thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

„  ^S1®  manufacture,  a  soreening 

plate  made  of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and 
with  slots  formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the 
thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

7.  As  a  now  artiole  of  manufaoture,  a  metal  plato  I 
having  a  hardened  soreening  surface  but  with  a  malleable 
an2t^^L^S0rt^0?,  £aid  b®in3  of  extreme  thinness  1 

8lota  termed  therein  of  greater  width  than 
the  thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth] 

*8,v  A?  a  ”OTrJ.arH°l0  of  manufaoture,  a  soreening 
plate  having  hardened  surfaoeB  and  a  malleable  oentral 
portion,  said  plate  having  elongated  soreening  slots 
formed  therein,  substantially  as  set  forth." 

These  olaims  are  self-explanatory  arid  need  not  be  speoifi- 
oally  considered.  It  is  sufficient  to  say  that  the  last 
four  olaims  correspond  exactly  with  the  first  four,  except 
that  they  are  limited  to  the  employment  of  slots  as  the  pre¬ 
ferred  form  of  soreening  openings. 

The  Examiner  rejeots  the  1st  and  5th  claims  on  cer¬ 
tain  TJ.  S.  patents,  and  the  remaining  olaims  on  thoee  pat¬ 
ents  taken  in  connection  with  a  publication  whioh  describes 
applicant's  process  as  applied  to  the  oase-hardening  of 
"thin  artioles",  the  T&aminer's  argument  being  that  in  view 
of  the  latter  reference,  no  invention  would  be  required  to 
case-harden  the  plates  of  the  several  United  States  patents 
which  he  cites. 


In  his  answer  to  the  appeal,  the  Examiner  practical¬ 
ly  rests  on  his  foraer  letter  of  February  3rd  1900,  in  which 
he  soys: 


I  "The  terms  'very  thin'  (olaims  1  and  5)  and  ' extrema! 

thinness'  (olaims  2,  3,  6  and  7)  are  relative  terms 
without  special  or  definite  significance.  A  plate  or 
screen  may  be  thin  or  very  thin  or  extremely  thin  whon 
measured  by  one  standard,  and  thick  or  very  tKTSEf  when 
measured  by  another.  Metal  screens  having  been  made 
from  piateB  of  different  thickness,  as  shown  by  the 
references  before  oited,  the  thickness  of  plate  whioh 
applicant  has  selected  for  his  purpose  is  merely  a 
matter  of  degree  and  devoid  of  patentable  novelty. " 

We  direct  the  attention  of  the  Examiners  in  Chief  to  the 
faot  that  subsequent  to  this  letter,  and  in  an  effort  to 
meet  the  Examiner's  views,  we  submitted  our  amendment  of 
January  24th  1901,  in  which  the  meaning  of  the  tennB  "very 


thin"  and  "extreme  thinness"  was  definitely  explained,  name¬ 
ly  as  relating1 * * 4^  plates  not  greater  in  thickness  than  .035 
of  an  inoh".  So  far  as  the  references  are  oonoerned,  they 
obviously  oover  plates  whioh  are  of  greater  thickness. 

Heald  describes  a  soreen  for  sifting  tacks,  Oastler  a  stono 


I  screen,  Bates  a  flaxseed  screen,  Berthelet  a  cement  soreen, 
and  Cross  a  ooal  soreen.  These  soreens  are  all  used  for 
heavy  work  and  are  all  much  thicker  than  .035  of  an  inoh. 
Furthermore,  the  screens  of  Heald  and  Berthelet  are  of 
greater  thickness  than  the  width  of  the  screening  slots, 
so  that  these  two  patents  can  be  disposed  of  on  that  con¬ 
sideration  alone. 

So  far  as  the  rejection  of  olaims  2,  3,  4,  6,  7  and 
8  is  oonoerned,  we  submit  that  it  is  without  Justification. 
The  appellant  has  produced  a  new  article  of  manufacture  con¬ 
sisting  of  a  soreening  plate  whioh,  while  having  the  proper 

proportions  to  give  a  maximum  soreening  effeot,  la  at  the 
same  time  sufficiently  durable  for  praotioal  use.  That  in¬ 
vention  was  made  as  a  result  of  the  discovery  that  a  screen 

4 


for  the  screening  of  Tery  fine  materials  should  he  of  even 
less  thickness  than  the  width  of  the  slots,  and  the  further 
recognition  of  the  faot  that  screens  of  this  extreme  fine¬ 
ness  aould  he  made  durable  and  sufficiently  tough  hy  a  case- 
hardening  operation.  We  submit,  therefore,  that  the  de¬ 
cision  of  the  Ibcaminor  should  be  reversed. 


Wo. 24, 009. 


U.  S.  Patent  Office,  March  /c 5"  ,  1902. 

Before  the  Exomincrs-in-Chicf ,  on  Appeal. 

Application  of  Thomas  A.  Edison  for  a  patent  for  an  im¬ 
provement  in  Pine  Screening  Plates  and  Procoss  of  Making  Bane,  fil¬ 
ed  June  29,  1899.  Serial  Wo. 722,229. 

Messrs.  Pyer,  Edmunds  ft  Pyer  for  appellant. 


The  claims  appealed  arc: 

"1.  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin  notal 
plate  haviriR  screening  orifices  therein  of  proa  tor  width  than  the 
thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"2.  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  screening  plate  m 
made  of  hardened  metal  of  oxtromo  thinness  and  with  orifices  formed 
therein  of  a  groator  width  than  tho  thickness  of  said  plate,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  set  forth. 

"3.  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  metal  pluto  having 
a  hardened  screohing  surface  but  wi th  a  malloablo  contrul  portion, 
said  plate  being  of  oxtromo  thinness  and  having  orifices  foraori 
therein  of  greater  width  then  the  thickness  of  said  plut.o,  substan¬ 
tially  as  sot  forth. 

,  "4.  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  screening  plate 

having  hardened  surfaces  and  a  malleable  central  portion,  said 
plate  having  elongatod  screening  orifices  formed  thoroin,  substan¬ 
tially  as  sot  forth. 

"5.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  vory  thin  metal 
plate  having  screening  slots  therein  of  groat ur  width  than  tho 
thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"G.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  uorocning  plate 
made  of  hardened  metal  of  oxtromo  thinnoes  and  with  olotB  formed 
therein  of  greater  width  than  tho  thickneso  of  said  plate,  substan¬ 
tially  as  sot  forth. 

"7.  As  a  new  articlo  of  manufacture,  a  metal  plate  having 
a  hardened  screening  surface  but  with  a  malloablo  central  portion, 
said  plate  being  of  extreme  thinness  and  having  slotB  formed  there¬ 
in  of  greater  width  than  the  thickneea  of  said  plate,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

"U.  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  ocroening  plate  hav¬ 
ing  hardened  surfaces  andAmalloablo  central  portion,  said  plate  hav¬ 
ing  elongated  screening  slots  formed  therein,  substantially  as  set 
forth.”  . 


The  references  aro  pat  onto  to 

Ho aid,  Augus t  20,  1070,  Ho. 207, 170; 

Ons tier,  March  21,  1682,  Ho. 25b, 32ft; 

Hat os ,  April  27,  1806,  Ho. 340, 542; 

Borthale t,  July  26,  1892,  Ho. 479, 617; 

Cross ,  Hay  25,  1897,  Ho. 503,032; 

"Workshop  Receipts  for  Manufactures,  &c.",  Rock. 

The  references  show  screens  of  thin  shoot  metal  having 
slots  wider  than  the  thickness  of  tho  'metal. 

They  are  ample  as  anticipations  of  thouo  of  these  appeal¬ 
ed  claims  which  rely  on  that  particular  of  construction. 

The  operation  is  the  samo  whether  or  not  tho  plate  be  so 
thin  as  by  the  passage  boforo  the  claims  those  plates  must  bo. 

The  relative  dimensions  of  tho  plates  and  orifices  being  tho  name , 
tho  operation  will  ho  tho  same  rogardless  of  the  size  of  the  screen. 
In  other  words,  a  thick  scroen  having  been  so  made,  there  can  bo  no 
new  invention  in  unking  that  soroen  of  the  samo  proportions  but  of 
cl  imini  sh  od  ~thicl<itess. 

This  applicant  is  dealing  with  tho  separation  of  grades 
of  very  fine  material.  Ho  finds  that  the  slots  of  tho  largo  screen 
must  be  narrowed  or  all  of  tho  material  will  pass  through  them. 

Ho  makes  them  narrower,  thus  destroying  their  old  sizo  relatively 
to  the  thickness  of  tho  old  scroen,  and  then  finds  that  the  long 
parallel  walls  of  the  narrowed  slots  cause  the  fine  material  to 
pack  in  tho  slots.  Thereupon  he  makes  those  walls  shorter  by  using 
than  plates,  whore  upon,  having  got  back  to  the  proportions  of  the 
original  screen  and  obtained  it.  in, diminutive  sizo,  it.  works  on 
fine  material  just  as  it.  did  when  of  large  size  on  coarser  material. 

Wo  find  nothing  in  these  claims  beyond  making  an  old 
screen  of  proper  sizo  for  the  character,  of  tho  matorial  to  be 
screened. 

The  other  feature  of  the  claims  is  the  case-hard oning  of 
the  surface  of  the  thin  plates  to  make  thorn  strong  and  durable. 


(laso-hurdening  of  notal  plates  is  an  old  process, 
commonly  known,  ancl  appear  a  by  the  references  cited  for  thoa 
poses,  mid  its  result  is  the  same  on  thick  and  on  thin  plat o 
T/o  find  no  new  invention  in  tkeso  claims. 

1’he  decision  of  the  Examiner  is  affirmed. 


> 


3rd.  member  abi 


|  THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
i  FINE  SCREENING  PLATES 
PILED  JTMR  29,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  722,229 

HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 

SIS  : - 

In  the  above  entitled  applioation 
we  hereby  appeal  to  the  Commies loner  in  person  from  the  de¬ 
cision  of  the  Board  of  Examiners  in  Chief,  who  on  Marah  15th 
1902  affirmed  the  decision  of  the  Primary  Examiner  on  all 
the  olaime  of  this  application,  and  in  support  hereof  we  as¬ 
sign  the  following  reasons  of  appeal: 

1.  The  Examiners  in  Chief  erred  in  deciding  that 
the  references  of  record  anticipate  the  terms  of  the  olaima. 

2.  The  Examiners  in  Chief  erred  in  holding  that 
the  references  of  record  anticipate  the  subBtanoe  of  said 
olaima . 

3.  The  Examiners  in  Chief  erred  in  not  allowing 
said  claims. 

An  oral  hearing  is  requested. 

Respeotfully, 

Attorneys  for  Appellant; 

Hew  York,  March  7,  1903. 


In  tho  matter  of  the. 

Application  of 

Thomas  A.  Edison, 

Pino  Screening  Plates  On  Appeal  to  tho  commissioner* 

&  Process  of  Making  Same, 

Piled  Juno  29,  1899, 

Ser.  NO.  723,338. 


You  aro  hereby  inforrcod  that  a  hearing  on  tho  above 
appeal,  from  tho  decision  of  the  Examinoro- in-Chlcf,  has  been 
fixed  for  Thursday,  March  36*  1903  at  10  A.  J.f, 

By  direction  of  tho  Commissioner. 


Chief  clerk*  ' 


Thomas  A*  Edison, 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer* 

#31  Nassau  street, 

Hew  York,  H.  Y* 


UNITED  STATES  PATENT  OFFICE, 
WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


March  18th,  1903, 


In  the  matter  of  the 
Application  of 

Thomas  A.  Edison,  On  Appeal  to  the  Commissioner. 

•  Pine  Screening  Plates*  &c, , 

Piled  Juno  29,  1899, 

Sor.  NO,  722,229. 

Sir: 

You  are  hereby  informed  that  the  hearing  on  the  above 
appeal  has  been  continued  to  Tuesday,  April  28,  1903  at  10  A,  M, 
By  direction  of  the  commissioner. 


Chief  clerK, 


Thomas  A.  Edison, 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

#31  Nassau  street* 


New  Yorlt,M.  Y, 


UNITED  STATES  PATENT  OFFICE. 
WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


April  37th,  1902, 


In  the  matter  of  tho 
Application  of 

Thonaa  a.  Edison  On  Appeal  to  the  conjaiwsionar. 

Pino  screening  Plato3  etc,, 

Piled. June  39,  18 90, 

XSer.  ifo,  733,339, 

S3*:' 

You  arc  hereby  informed  that  the  hearing  on  the  above 
appeal  ha3  been  continued  to  Tuesday,  Hay  5,  190S  at  10  A.  IS. 

By  direction  of  the  Coranissioner.  • 

Vary  respectfully,  .  p. 

Chief  Clerk, 

Thoiras  A.  Edison,  *  ■ 

c/o  By or,  Bdmonda  &  Dyer, 

Edison  Laboratory, 

Orange,  N.  j. 


flTITED  STATES  PATENT  OPPICE. 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
PINE  SCREENING  PIATES 
PILED  JUNE  29,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.'.-  722,229 

Honorable  Commissioner  of  Patents 
Sir: 

The  undersigned  presents  an  amendment  in  the 
above  entitled  application,  Which  it  is  respectfully  re¬ 
quested  may  be  accepted  and  entered.  The  purpose  of  this 
amendment  is  not  to  change  or  broaden  the  invention  in  any 
way,  but  to  more  clearly  and  positively  identify  .the  in¬ 
vention.  V/hile  it  is  necessary,  to  secure  a  high  screen¬ 
ing  efficiency,  that  the  thickness  of  the  plates  Bhould  be 
less  than  the  width  of  the  screening  openings,  it  is  equal¬ 
ly  important  that  the  plates  should  be  as  thin  as  possible. 
This  feature  has  always  been  a  part  of  my  invention  and  I 
havo  made  oath  to  that  faot  by  a  separate  supplemental  oath. 
Unless  the  amendment  is  accepted,  my  invention  will  not  be 
properly  and  adequately  protected. 

Very  respoctfully, 

^  A*. 


IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  PATENT  OOTICE, 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
I  pine  SCREENING  I 
I  PILED  JUNE  Z^f  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  722,229 


t  APPELLANT. 


The  proaont  application  involve a  an  invention  of  Mr. 
Edison  relating  to  screens  for  screening  very  fine  materials 
The  openings  are  preferably  in  the  fora  of  slots  as  covered 
by  Edison  patent  No.  675,057  dated  May  28,  1901. 

Prior  to  Mr.  Edison's  invention,  the  screening  of  very 
fine  materials  was  an  operation  which  was  always  attended 
by  serious  difficulties  since  tho  efficiency  of  tho  screens 
was  extremely  low.  While  with  very  coarse  scroons  tho  effic¬ 
iency  might  be  fairly  good,  yet  with  very  fine  screens, 
|moasurod  in  tenths,  hundredths  and  thousandts  of  an  inch, 
the  efficiency  would  only  be  a  small  fraction  of  that  scoured 
with  coarse  soroons.  These  low  efficiencies  in  vory  fine 
soreons  have  been  accepted  by  manufacturers  apparently  as 
inevitable. 

Under  the  old  practice  followed  by  manufacturers  prior 
to  Mr.  Edison', s  invention  and  even  at  tho  present  time,  the 

openings  in  "the  scroons  wore  and  are  produced  by  means  of 
1  .  used  being  relatively 

punches,  the  /thickness  of  the  metal  y --AU .  ..~y 

great,  and  being  determined  largely  by  tho  capacity  of  the 

punches.  In:  the  caso  of  extremely  fine  Boreons,  the  metal 
seleoted,  was,  in  thickness,  frequently  double  the  width  of 
the  slots,  ^ind  as  the  mosh  was  increased,  tho  thickness  of 
jmetal  was  a^Lso  increased,  but  not  in  tho  same  ratio,  so  that 
with  coarser,  spreens  the  thickness  of  tho  plates  was  equal 
to  the  width  oif  the  slots,  while  with  very  coarse  screens, 
the  slots  were;- 'several  times  wider  than  the  thickness  of  the 
plates.  In  evorjic  instance  however,  the  plates  wore  relatively 
- 


thick  and  were  always  Selected  with  reference  to  durability 
and  not  to  efficiency*  Those  facts  appear  from  the  affidavit 
of  Mr.  Chapman  submitted  herewith. 

As  a  result  of  experiment ,  Mr.  Edison  discovered  that 
in  order  to  soouro  an  efficient  screening  operation,  a  defi¬ 
nite  ratio  between  the  thickness  of  the  plates  and  the  size 
of  the  screoning  openings  must  be  observed.  In  other  words, 
he  found  that  the  plates  should  not  only  bo  thinner  than  such 
width,  but  that  the  plates  in  fact  should  bo  made  of  the  min¬ 
imum  practical  thickness,  the  only  limitations  being  the 
oommorcial  possibility  of  securing  the  plates  of  sufficient 
thinness  and  that  their  strength  should' be  suffioiont  to 
properly  sustain  the  load.  This  Increase  of  offloionoy  is 
not  to  be  measured  by  mere  fractions,  but  is  in  fact,  fre¬ 
quently  as  high  as  eight  times  that  Becurod  .with  fine  screens 
antedating  the  Invention.  These  facts  are  also  explained 
from  Mr.  Chapman's  affidavit,  who  points,  out  the  remarkable 
peculiarity’ of  Mr,  Edison's  screens,  homely,  that  .although 
very  much  thinner  than  any  soreons  heretofore  proposed,  they 
are  just  as  durable  as  the  muoh  thiokprv,  screens,  so  far  as 
conoerns  the  total  bulk  of  material  whldh  passes  through  them 
in  their  life-time. 

In  the  original  application,  the  .sp'pcifio  character  of 
the  invention  was  not  jpf  clearly  Bet  ouSbA  as  it  should  have 
boon.  The  invention  consists  of  more  .than  merely  making  the 
plates  thinner  than  the  width  of  the  soi|.eq'ning  openings,  but 
consists  in  making  the  plates  of  a.  mini^im  t^olmess  bq  long 
as  they  give  proper  support  to  the  load,!  and  p^ferably 
cany  times  thinner  than  the  width  of  . the’. screening  openings, 

A  proposed  amendment  is  submitted  herewith,  bringing  out 
this  fact  and  suggesting  three  substitute  claims,  the.amend- 
nent  being  supported  |y  a  propter  supplemental  oath.  It  is 
bppdd  that  this  amendment  may  bo  accepted,  and  that  the  now 
claims  will  be  considered  on  this. appeal^ 

t'. 


\  . 

■  \ 

It  ‘\Is  not  necessary  to  consider  the  References  in  de¬ 
tail  sineijo  it  is  evident  that  they  do  not  show  instances  of 
the  use  of  metal  of  a  minimum  practicable  thiokness,  and  h 
hence  do  npt  ahticipate,  in  substance  at  least,  Mr.  Edison^ 
invention. > 

It  is  obvious  that  in  the  patents  to  Heald  and  to  Berthe 
let,  the  'thickness  of  the  plates  is  greater  than  the  width 
of  the  screening- openings/  so  that  these  patents  may  be  dis¬ 
missed  at  the  outBet  as  having  no  bearing  on  the  appealed 
■  olaims,  In  fact  it  would  appear  to  be  Heald’s  idea,  to  make 
the  slots  with  long  parallel  walls  as  shown  in  Figure  3  of 
his  patent.  So  far  a3  the  patent  to  Batos  Is  concerned,  it 
.  is  not  possible  to  say  with  that  degroo  of  certainty  neoes- 
sary  in  the  case  of  a  reference,  that  the  screening  openings 
are  wider  than  the  thiokness  of  the  plates.  Nothing  is  said 
in  the  patent  as  to  the  importance-  of  this  ratio,  and  in  the 
drawings  the  Screens  0  and  R  are  certainly  shown  as  being 
thicker  than  , the  size  of  the  openings.  Apparently  the  screer 
H  is  thinnor  than  the  width  of  the  slots  M»,  but  these  pro¬ 
portions  may  be  due  to  the'  caprice  of  the  draftsman.  Whether 
this  is  so  or  not,  it  is  clear  that  the  thickness  of  metal 
used  by  Bates  Is  certainly  many  times  thicker  than  that 
which  might  bo  used.  Furthermore,  attention  is  called  to  th< 
fact  that  wi%  the  only  slotted  screen  of  the  Bates  patent, 
the  slots  extend  transversely  of  the  travel  of  the  material, 
and  hence' are  : no  more  efficient  than  round  holes. 

So  far  as'; concerns  patents  to  Oastler  and  to  Cross^ 
both  of  these  references  relate  to  ordinary  coarse  screens, 
whiolj:  ini  praoliice' with  one  inch  slots,  are  made  of  metal, 
about  fivo-sixtoehths  of  an  inch,  the  width  of  the  slot*) 
being  somewhat'.less  than  four  times  the  thiokness  of  thA 
plates.  With  coarso  screens  of ‘ft his  size,  Mr.  Edison  has  • 
used  metal  onl#  pne-thirty-second  of  an  inoh  in  thiokness, 
the  width  of  the  dLots  being  3S  times  the  thickness  of  the 
plates,  and  the  efficiency  of  the  screens  has  boon  inoreas- 
_ „  : _ _ _ 


ed  more  than  six  fold.  It  is  evident  that  all  the  reference! 
illustrate  tho  common  practice  referred  to  in  the  affidavits 
of  Mr,  Edison  and  Mr.  Chapman,  the  manufaoturSi^  merely  se¬ 
lecting  a  suitable  metal  capable  of  being  readily  punched, 
apparently  Solely  with  reference  to  durability  and  without 
any  regard:  whatever  for  efficiency.  Yet  as  above  pointed 
out,  the  use,  of  thicker  metal  does  not  result  in  an  increase 
of  durability,  so  that  tho  Edison  screens  are  not  only  cheap- 
or,  more  efficient,  and  more  rapid  in  operation,  but  they 
are  also  just  as  durable  whon  the  total  bulk  of  material 
which  passes  over  them  is  considered. 

Tho  Exo^inors-in-Chief,  in  their  decision  state  that 
the  roferonoojs  "show  screens  of  thin  sheet  metal  having  slots 
wider  than  t^o  thickness  of  the  metal."  'While  those  propor¬ 
tions,  speaking  generally,  may  be  observed  in  tho  patents  to 
Cross  and  to- pastier,  it  is  evident  that  whon  tho  Edison 
invention  is/.opnsiderod  in  its  final  analysis,  it  is  not  an¬ 
ticipated-.  No  one  sp  far  as  is  known,,  prior  to  Mr,  Edison, 
over  made  the  'observation  that  tho  plates  should  be  of  tho 
ninimum  thioknos3  so  as  to  thereby  secure  a  screen  of  equal 
durability  and  of  enormously  greater  capacity. 

The  Examinees -in-Chi ef  further  states 

"Tho  relative  dimensions  of  tho  plates  and  orifices 
being  the  same, '-the  operation  will  be  the  same,  regardless 
of  tho  size, , of  the  soreon.  In  other  wordn.  n 


tssumption '^}iioh.; has  no  real  basis  in  fact.  While  with  the 
dison  invention  before  theA,  it  might  seem  to  be  a  simple 


screen  having/ ,been  so  made,  there  can  bo  no  new"  invention 
in  making-  t|ha^  screon  of  the  same  proportions  but  of  di¬ 
minished  thickness'*,  . 

This  aiplxoaiit  .  is  dealing  with  the  separation  of 
grades  of  very;  fine  imatorial.  He  findB  that  tho  slots  of 
tJL^,lare°  eQrbens  must  be  narrowod  or  all  of  the  material 
Will  pass  •  through .  thip;  Ho  makes  them  harrower,  thus  de¬ 
stroying.  tho;Lr  \old  size  relatively  to  the  thickness  of 
the  old  sah^bn.  ^and  thon  finds  that  the  long  parallel 
walls  of  the'  narrowed  slots  cause  the  fine  materio.l  to 
paok  in  the',1  sloth.  Thereupon  he  makes  those  walls  short¬ 
er  by  usin^j  thin  plates  *  whereupon  having  got  back  to  the 
proportioM'\of  the.  original'  screen  and  obtained  it  in  di- 
minutivo.'size,  it  works  on  fine  material  just  aB  it  did 
whon  of  large  sizo  oh  coarser  material." 

This  argument;  of  the  Examiners-in-Chief  is  a  mere 


and  obvious  thing  to  make  the  platsB  of  extremely  thin  mater¬ 
ial,  yet  the  fact  remains  that  that  was  never  done,  and  man- 
ufaotuors  of  lino  soreons,  without  a  single  oxo opt ion,  al¬ 
ways  employed  relatively  thiok  material  in  the  construction 
of  Buoh  screens.  This  fact  very  clearly  appears  not  only 
from  the  affidavits  of  Mr.  Edison  and  Mr.  Chapman,  hut  alBo 
from  the  catalogue  of  the  Allis-Chalmors  Co.,  one  of  the 
largest  manufactuers  in  the  world,  of  screens  of  all  sorts. 
The  true  explanation  of  the  case  is  that  no  one  prior  to  Mr. 
Edison  ever  discovered  the  cause  of  the  low  efficiency  of 
very  fino  screens.  If  it  was  generally  known  by  manufaotuer  j 
that  the  reason  why -fine  screens  were  so  inefficient  was  be¬ 
cause  the  plates  were  too  thick,  it  might  bo  admitted  than 
no  invention  would  be  required  to  make  the  plateB  thinner. 

In  that  case  however,  there  would  probably  be  no  necessity 
for  the  present  appeal,  because  the  Examiner  would  then  have 
had  no  difficulty  in  finding  complete  anticipations,  as  it 
is  inconceivable  that  manufaotuers  of-  ano  screens'  knowing 

how  their  efficiency  might  be  increased,  would  oontoirit thom- 

•  * 

solves  with  the  manufacture  of  fine  BoreenB  whioh  wore  of 
very  low  efficiency.  When  the  microscopic  character  of  fine 
screens  is  considered,  it  is  submitted  that  the" inward  eye 
of  the  imagination  was  required  to  produoe  the  Invention 
hero  claimed  rathef.  than  the- exorcies  of  ordinary  mechanical 
skill  or  judgement  aisx  suggested  by  the  Examinors-in-Chiof . 

It  is  thought  therefore  that  the  olaims  should  bo  al¬ 
lowed. 

jRos'jpoctfhiLly  submitted, 

;  THOMAS  A.  EDISON 

•M  '  \  ,  By  ;  ^ 

i/  '  .  his  Attorney. 


STATES  PATENT  OPPICE. 

BEEOHE  THE  COMMISSIONER 
IN  PERSON. 

Affidavit  of  Gloyd  M.  Chapman. 

State  of  Now  Jersey 
County  of  Essex 

Cloyd  K.  Chapman,  having  first  beon  duly  sworn  on  oath 
doth  depose  and  say  as  follows: - 

I  am  by.  profession  a  meohanical  and  mining  engineer  and 
was  educated  at  C|r|nell  University.  Por  more  than  four  year: 

I  past,  I  have  heon  employed  hy  Mr.  Edison  as  a  mining  engin¬ 
eer  and  during :  that  time  hatfc  bean:  Almost.  continuously  em¬ 
ployed  on  experiments  relating  to  mining  processes  and  in¬ 
volving  the,  screening  of  fine  materials.  These  experiments 
[were  conducted, by  me  at  the  Edison  laboratory,  Orange,  Now 
Jorsey,  anjljal'so  in  New  Mexico.  In  these  experiments,  I  de¬ 
termined  conclusively,  that  in  the  screening,  of -very  fine 
material,  the  use  of  thin  plates  permits  of  a  much  more 
efficient. .Screening  operation,  than  when  the  screening  open¬ 
ings  are, 'formed  in  relatively  thick  plates.  Por  instanoo, 
with  spre on jj  having  .01  inch  openings,  formed  In  plates  say 
.02  inch  in (thickness,  the  efficiency  is  no.moro  than  20  % 
of  jhat  secured  when  the  screen  plates  are  about  .006  inch 
in  thickne.'sji.  The  best  results  wore  secured  whore  the  platet 
were  as  thip,  as  possible,  although  of  course,  thore  is  a 
limit  to  the  possible  thinness  of  tho  plates  to  make  them 
strong  enou’gh  to  carry  tjjje  load  of  material. 

Steelier  iron  plates  less  than  ,006  inch  in  thiokness 
are  not  n?w  avail^bl^,  and  in  this  material  screening  slots 
have  been  vfomed|ranging  :£rom  .009  to  ,160  inoh.  In  the'"  ' 
firBt  #*se  (.006  to  .009)  the  plat sb  hd^Shbe.efi:two -thirds 


IN  THE  UNITED 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON  ; 

NINE  SCREENING  PLATES  j 

I  PILED  JUNE  29,  1899  ‘ 

SERIAL  NO.  722,229  : 


I  as  thick  as  the  width  of  the  slots,  and'  in  the  latter  case  , 
(.006  to  .150)  the  plates  have  been  only ■ one-twenty- fifth 
as  thick  as  the  width  of  the  slots.  The  highest  efficienc¬ 
ies  are  secured  When  the  plates  are  many  times  thinner  than 
the  slots  are  wide5  in  fact,  the  plates  .-should  he  of  the 
minimum  thickness.  In  the  case  of  the  \:,6p9  inch  screen, 
greater  efficiency  would  he  secured  with  metal' only  .00l' 
inch  or  less  in  thickness,  hut  such  metal  cannot  he  obtained 
I  have  however,  used  brass  plates  only  ,<|o3  inch  thick  with 
increased  efficiency.  -' 

I  have  found  as  a  result  of  my  experiments,  that  with 
very  fine  screens  ranging  from  .009  inoh  upwards,  in  width 

I  of  the  screening  openings,  the  efficiencies  |ust  as  high  as 
with  very  much  ooarsef  screens,  provided;  the  proper  ratio  of 
thickness  of  plate  to  width  of  screening', opening  is  maintain- 
ed.  In  the  practical  manufacture  o*  fine  screening  plates, 
it  is  not  yet  known  by  manufacturer*  oth^  than;.\tr,  Edison’  ' 
that  the  ratio  between  the  thickness  of  ,'t'ie  plate*,  and  the 
width  of  the  slot  has  anything  to  d*  wi^jtho  ’efficiency  pf 
the  screen.  .  It  is  the  aim  in  fact  of  ail  manufacturers  of 
fine  screening  plates  to  use  relatively  thii^k  mptal,  appareni; 
ly  in  order  to  secure  the  groatest  durability,  The  thick¬ 
ness  of  metal  employed  by  other  manufacture^  Wind'd  v 
largely  on  the  capacity  of  the  punches,  i^ biting  obvious ' 


i 


that  a  very  fine,  relatively  sharp  punch  must  'used  on 
thinner  metal  than- coarse  punches,  and  plso  thit\slot  punch¬ 
es  can  be  used  on  coarser  motal  than  round  hold  «puiiches. 

An  example'  of  the  present  practice  followed  by  theimahufact- 
urors  of  soreon  plates,  is  shown  in  catedogue  of  illis-ahal- 
mors  Co.,  which  i  attach  heroto  and  maMc  Exhibit  A.  We 
Alii s-Chalmers  Co.,  is  one  of  the  largest  anct  best  known  man- 
ufaoturers  of  screen  plates  in  the  .wo^ld.  On  page  1.3  of  \ 
this  catalogue- i*  given  "A  Tabfe  for  Punching  Ke^dle-Slot-\ 
Screen  S'",  which  are  the  kind  of  sorperis-particularly  refer- 


V 


rad  to  by  Mr,  .'Edison  in  Mb  patent  application.  ThoBe 
noodle-slot-screens  vary  in  width  of  slojfc  from  .0135  inch  up 
to  ,058  inoh  and  the  thickness  of  the  metal  varies  from  .022 
of  an  inch  to  ,065  inc|s;  In  every  case',!  the  motal  is 
sidorably  tMoker  then  the  width  of  the/slots.  If  the  Allis- 
Chalmers  Co . ,  had  appreciated  the  important  results  which 
aro  .derived  from  the  use  of  exoessivelyithin  plates  they 
would  punch  their  ,058  inch  soreens  in  metal  ,022  of  an  inch 
or  less,  in  thickness,  since  by  doing  sp:<,thoy>;would  produce 
a  screen  having  a  much  groater  capacity  arid  efficiency  than 
the  screen  which  they  sell.  The  Alli3-|halmerB  Co.,  how- 
evor,  meroly  follow  the  aoceptod  praotiq'e  .and,  since  their 
.058  inch  punches  are  capable  of  perforating  thicker  motal 
than  their  .0135  inch  punohes,  they  use '.{the\ thinker  motal  in 
[preference  to  the  thinner  motal.  She ■  islet  that  all  manufac¬ 
turers  boforo  Mr.  Edison  selected  material  largely,  with  . 
roforonco  to  the  capaoity  of  their  punches  instead  of  with 
regard  to  the  efficiency  of  the  screens,:  is  illustrated  by 
the  table  on  pago  34  of  tMs  catalogue,  in  referenc'd,  to  rouni 
hole  screens,  A  round  or  square  punoh  is  obviously  i'qss 
capable  of  perforating  a  sheet  of  a  given  tl\iokndBS  than'  a 

slot  punch.  Consequently  the  maximum  tMcknbcsj  of -'metal 
'  ;  '  f  !  /••<.. 

v&Lich  can  be  used  in  a  round  hole  screen  -is  less  than>with 

noodle-slotrscreen.  ,  TMs  fact  ie  shown  ^nr-junstancehytho 
.05906  inch  screen  reforrod  to  -on  page  34  of  ^  da!talogue,\ 
The  width  of  the  screening  openings  in  this  scrioeh  is  orily  ' ' 
about  .001  of  an  inch  more  than  that  of  the  ,05m  in^  screen 
reforrod  to  on  page  13,  Yet  in  the  case  of  the Ineidle-sid.t- 
soroon  the  tMoknoss  of  motal  used  is  ,065  inch, \  while  in  \ 
tho  case  of  the  round  hole  screens  the  thickness Uf  mVtal  \ 
lused  is  *049  inch.  '  •’ 


The  use  of  relatively  tMck  motal  by  the-  AllE&i-fChalmors 
;Co.,  and  all  other  manufacturers,  does, not  soouroi relative 
durability,  since  the  efficiency  is  so  low  that  thbijload  of 
Imaterial  has  to  be  passed  ovor  the?  scions  fen;  a  loirrespon; 


ingly  greater  period  of  time,  and  consequently  the  wear  is 
very  rapid.  Thus  with  an  Edison  screen  having  six  times 
the  efficiency  of  an  Allis-Chalmers  screen^  only  one  sixth 
the  material  roquiros  to  ho  passed  ovor  the  former  to  socuro 
tho  same  hulk  of  screened  material  as  the  latter,  and,  sneak  - 
ing  generally,  tho  wear  will  he  only  one- sixth  as  great,  and 
consequently  tho  plate  may  he  made  only  one-sixth  as  thick, 

A  relative  reduction  of  tho  metal  to  this  c-xtont  would  result 
in  a  greater  increase  in  efficiency  than  600  por  cent,  so 
that  the  Edison  screen  is  fully  as  durable,  if  not  more  so, 
than  the  old  screens, 

Tho  Allis-Chalmers  Co.,  catalogue  referred  to  was  pub-  ^ 
lished  in  February  1892,  and  was  received  at  tho  Edison  lab¬ 
oratory  in  April  of  that  year.  So  far  as  I  know,  no  ono 
prior  to  tho  date  of  Ur.  Edison's  application,  other  than 
2£r.  Edison  ever  made  a  very  fine  scroon  in  which  the  plate 
was  thinner,  end  preferably  very  much  tliinnor  than  tho  width 
of  the  screening  openings,  or  obsorvod  that  the  ratio 
between  tho  thickness  of  plate  and  width  of  slots,  has  any' 
bearing  on  tho  question  of  efficiency. 


Sworn  to  and  subscribed  before  mo  this 
1903. 


IH  THE  TOTTED  STATES  PATENT  0E3TCE 

BEPORE  THE  OOIMTSSIOHER 
IH  PERSOH. 


Affidavit  of  Thomas  A.  Edison. 

State  of  Hew  Jersey 

S.S,  :l 

County  of  Ebbox 

Thomas  A.  Edison,  on  oath  doth  depose  and  say  as  : 
follows:  \ 

I  am  the  applicant'  above  -named,  I  have  read  the  affi¬ 
davit  of  Oloyn  M.  Chapman,  verified  on  the  day  of 

1903,  and  find  that  Mr.  Chapman1  has  c'qrroctly  stated  the 
facts  in  reference  to  my*  inveritfon  and  also  in  reference  to 
the  practice  followed  by  other  manufacturers  of  fine  screens 
at  the  present  time,  and  for  years  prior  to  my  invention. 

As  a  practical  instance  of  the  practice  followed  by 
other  users  and  makers  of  fine  screens,  I  recall  the  fol¬ 
lowing  incident: 

About  the  time  that  the  above  application  was  filed,  I 
used  a  large  number  of  fine  screens  involving  the  Invention 
here  claimed,  at  my  ore  milling  plant  at  Edison,  H.  J,  Very- 
superior  results  were  'secured  with  those  soreens}  in  fact 
the  efficiency  was  very  much  higher  than  with  any  aoroens 
then  known.  The  Hew  Jersey  Zinc  Go.,  had  a  plant  located 
at  Eranklin,  H,  J,  ,  a  few  miles  from  Edison,  and  wore  using 
ordinary  fine  screens  pun oho d  in  relatively  thick  plates  but 
with  very  poor  results.  Officers  of  the  How  Jersey  Zinc  Co. 
frequently  oomplained  to  me  of  the  poor  offioionoy  of  their 
screens  and  were  always  surprised  to  hoar  of  the  high  effic¬ 
iencies  whioh  I ; was  securing,  I  finally  loaned  the  Hew  Jer¬ 
sey  Zino  06*,  a  set  of  my  soreens,  and  told  them  to  have  the 

_ •  i  .  *r.  >•;  l 


THOMAS  A.  HDISOH  : 

EIHE  SCREEHIHCt  PLATES  : 

ElliED  JTOE  29,  1899  • 

SERIAL  HO.  722,229  ; 


scroons  reproduced,  Either  on  the  instructions  of  tho  Zinc 
Co,,  or  on- the  manufacturers  judgement,  the  roproduood 
soreons  made  for  tho  oompany  were  constructed  of  considerab¬ 
ly  thicker  metal  than  the  set  which  I  loaned  tho  company,  so 
that  when  installed  they  wore  as  inefficient  as  those  pre¬ 
viously  used.  ITeithor  tho  Zinc  Co.,  not  the  manufacturer  of 
their  soreons  oould  explain  tlie  loss  in  efficiency,  and  fin¬ 
ally  attributed-  tho  loss  to  differences  in  material,  and  in 
conditions  of  operation.  It  was  npt  until  I  . eapminaddtha 
scroons  thus  installed  hy  the  Zinc  Co,,  that  I.  saw  what  the 
trouble  was. 


UNITED  STATES  PATENT  OFFICE 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON  : 

PINE  SCREENING  PLATES  j 

PILED  JUNE  29,  1899  i 

SERIAL  NO,  722,229  : 

HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS 

SIR: 

I  desiro  to  amend  the  above  entitled  application 

by  erasing  from  line  11,  page  i,  to  Lino  26,  page  2,  in- 

eluding  the  matter  introduced  by  amendment  of  Jan  25th,  1901 
and  by  substituting  the  following: 

— - — —  Pine  screening  plates  oon- 

structed  prior  to  my  invention  and  ranging  in  mesh  or  width 

of  screening  openings  below  ,2  inoh,  have  been  of  extremely 
lo w  efficiency,  With  such  screens  only  from  10  to  20  %  of 
particles  sufficiently  fine  to  pass  through  the  scroening 

<*„.K  ' 

openings,  would  in  fact  pass  through  such  openings.  These 

low  efficiencies  were  regarded  as  neoessarily  oharaotorizing 
very  fine  screens.  With  the  prior  soreens,  the  screening 
openings  in  the  fom  of  round  or  square  holes  or  slots,  have 
been  punched  in  metal  plates,  the  thickness  of  which  has 

been  largely  determined  by  the  oapacity  of  the  punohes.  Ob¬ 
viously,  the  cutting  capacity  of  a  punch  is  determined  by 

o 

the  ratio  between  the  cross  sectional  aroa  and  the  perimeter 
of  the  opening,  and  consequently  a  round  hole  punch  of  the 

same  diameter  is  more  efficient  than  a  square  hole  punch  of 

the  same  diameter,  while  a  slot  pfinoh  is  still  more  efficient 

■ 

Por  this  reason,  it  is  a  fact  that  with  fine  screens  consi¬ 

V-1 

st  ruoted  prior  to  my  invention  and  having  reference  to  any 

.4  ■ 

particular  mesh,  slot  soreens  havo  been  of  thicker  metal 

than  round  hole  screens,  which  in  turn  havo  been  thiokor 

t^an  square  hjple  screens.  In  the  prior  practioe,  manufact¬ 

O 

urers  have  n(jt  necessarily  used:  the  very  thickest  metal  which 

Nl 

1  ;  /  ;  •*-  ; ' 

can  too  perforated  by  the  different  punohes,  hut  apparently, 
having  in  mind  the  single  question  of  durability,  the  prior 
screens  have  been  formed  in  sheets  as  thick  as  practicable. 
It  may  be  stated  generally,  aB  illustrating  the  practice 
followed  before  my  invention,  that  with  screens  of  a  minimum 
mesh,  plates  of  a  maximum  relative  thickness  have  been  em¬ 
ployed,  sometimes  almost  double  the  width  of  the  screening 
openings,  while  as  the  mesh  increases  the  proportionate 
thickness  of  the  plates  has  not  been  retained,  so  that  in 
the  case  of  considerably  coarser  screens,  the  width  of  the 
screening  openings  becomes  equal  to  the  thickness  of  the 
plates,  while  in  the  oase  of  very  coarse  screens  (say  an 
inch  or  more  in  mesh),  the  width  of  the 'screening  openings 
is  several  times  greater  than  the  thickness  of  the  plates. 

In  this  practice  however^  manufacturers  have  boon  guided 
solely  by  the  question  of  durability  and  not  of  efficiency, 
and  so  far  as  I  know,  no  one  prior  to  my  invention  evor  sug¬ 
gested  the  cause  of  the  low  efficiency  of  fine  screens  . or 
observed  that  the  thickness  of  metal  used  in  proportion  to 
the  width  of  the  .screening  openings  determines,  in  any  way, 
the  efficiency  of  tho  screen, 

I  have  determined  from  experiment  that  the  screening 
capacity  of  a  screen  plate  depends  almost  ontirely-  upon  tho 
thickness  of  the  plate  and  have  found  that  in  order  to  se¬ 
cure  tho  maximum  effioienoy  the  plates  should  ho  of  the  min¬ 
imum  thickness,  preferably  vory  much  thinner  than  the  width 
of  the  screening. openings.  At  the  present  time  sheet  iron 
or  steel  cannot  be  secured  in  platos  of  an  available  siae, 
thinner  than  ,006  of  an  inch,  and  in  this  material  I  have 
formed  screening  openings  ranging  from  ,009  of  an  inch  up 
to  .15.  In  the  latter  case  the  thickness  of  the  plates 
has  been  only  one-twenty-fifth  of  the  width  of  the  screen¬ 
ing  openings.,  while  in  the  fjpise  of  tho  ,009  inch  screen,  the 
thickness  of  the  plato  is  two-thirds  the  width  of  the  soreen  • 


ing  openings.  In  the  case  of  the  screen  last  referred  to, 
it  is  impracticable  |jt  the  present  time  to  use  metal  less 
than  .006  inch  in  thickness  because  thinner  metal  is  not  av 
available,  but  more  efficient  results  could  be  secured  if 
metal  only! .O0l  of  an  inch  or  even  lesB  could  bo  obtained. 

Tho  possible  thinness  of  metal  w|iich.;.aam>-Jbe-s-  actually,  use^^s 
determined,  also,  to  a  certain  extent,  by  the' oharaotor  of  ' 
material  being  screened,  it  being  obvious  that  in  the  screen¬ 
ing  of  a  very  gritty,  erosive  material  like  iron  ore,  -  the  „ 
wear-  on  a  very  thin  plate  would  bo  more  objectionable  than  ir 
the  case  of  -  a  soft  material  such  as  a  ground  Portland  Cement 
mixture,  or  ."chalk”,  previous  to  calcination.  \Shon,  howovor, 
the  plate  ..is  thick  enough  to  resist  ordinary  wear  and  strong 
enough  to  support  tho  load,  I  find  that  the  question  of  dur¬ 
ability  i s  unimportant ,  since  tho  enormously  greater • effic¬ 
iency  of  the  screons  makos  their  cost  practically  negligible, 
Por  example,  in  one  set  of  screens  which  I  have  uBQd  in  prac* 
tico,  I  passed  more  than  50,000  tons  of  matorial  over  each 
screen  bofore  tho  latter  beoamo  worn  sufficiently  as  to  re¬ 
quire  removal,  and  each  screen  was  then  replaced  at  a  cost  - 
of  less  th|>n  $2.00.  Moreovor,  I  find  that  when  the  attempt 
is  made  to.;  secure  durability  by  tho  employment  of  thicker 
metal,  thej efficiency  of  the  screen  is  so  reduced  that  al¬ 
though  the|. screen  lasts  longer,  no  more  material. passes 
through  it;beforo  It  becomes  worn  out,  than  would  bo  the 
case  with  a  very,  thin  screen  of  much  greater  efficiency. 

Por  thl^|reason,  my  improved  fine  screens  when  made  of  metal 
as  thin  as  practicable  to  give  the  necessary  strength,  aro 
not  only  ehomoasly  more  efficient  and  consequently  more 
rapid  in  action,  but  aro  as  durable  as  far  as  capacity  is  ■ 
concerned,  as  the  very  much  thicker  screens  which  wore  made 
prior  to  m^  invention, 


My  invention  therefore  consists  of,  a  soreon  formed  with 
screening  openings,  preferably  slots,-  in  a -metal  plate  of 
the  minimum  pr-acti cable  thickness,  whereby  its  efficiency 


Will  bo  greatly  increased  without  a  proportionate  sacrifice 
og  durability,  and  the  invention  preferably  consists  of  such 
a  plate  having  a  case  hardened  screening  surface,  and  a  mall¬ 
eable  central  portion,  all  as  I  shall  horewith  describe  and 
claim. 

It  is  the  object  of  my  invention  to  obtain  a  very  high 
screening  capacity  resulting  from  the  use  of  plates  of  a  min¬ 
imum,  practical  thickness  without  a  proportionate  sacrifice 
of  durability. 

In  order  that  my  invention  may  bo  bettor  understood, 
attention  is  direotod  to  the  ao companying  drawing  forming  a 
part  of  this  specification, . and  in  which  Jlguro  1,  is  a  cross 
sectional  vi ew  of  a  screon  plato  embodying  my  present  invent¬ 
ion  and  iiilguro  2,  a  similar  view  illustrating  the  preferred- 
process  which  I  carry  out  for  the  partial  hardening  of  such 
plates,  .  .  .... 

In  both  of  the  above  drawings  corresponding  parts  are 
represented  by  the  same  letters  of  reference, 

A,  represents  a  thin  sheet  Sron  plate  suitably  hardened 
as  I  will  explain,  provided  with  orifices,  preferably  slots . 
a,  therein.  Ihq  relation  between  the  thickness  of  the  plato 
A  and  the  width  of  the  orificoB  a,  is  such  that  the  formor 
dimension  is  loss,  and  preferably  very  mu  oh  less,  than  the 
latter.  In  the  specific  instance  illustrated,  I  show  a 
Plate  which  is  indicated  as  being  .Q06,!  of'  an  inch  in  thick¬ 
ness  and  having  slots  a,  therein,  which /.are  indloatod.  as  boS 
ing  of  a  width  each  of  .009  of  an  inch.!  This  screen  may  be- 
considered  as  representing  the  minimum  yidth  or  fineness  of 
nosh  and  as  representing  the  maximum  ,r  jail  lo  between  ;  the  width 
Pf  slot  and  the  ..thickness  of  the  platlek  ' :I  have  pointed  out* 
bhat  at  the  present  time,  metal  lossjipiaii'.  .006  of  an  inch  in 
thickness  h;ot  available,  but  if  euch  metal  could  be  ..secur¬ 
ed  it  should  be  employed.  •  Erom  this' minimum  width  of  slot, 

:ho  sorcons  may  bo  .inoroased  in  mesh  without  an  increase  in 
ihiokness  of.'mctal.  With  obmh  material^,  a  screen  having  a 


16,  inch  mesh  oan  "bo  formed  in  the  same  plates.  The  . host 
results  are  sooured  in  practice  when  the  width  of  the  screen 
ing  openings  is  not  only  greater  than  the  thickness  of  the 
plates,  hut  when  such  width  is  many  times  (30  or  more)  groat 
or  than  suoh  thickness. 

The  reason  why  my  improved  screens  are  more  efficient 
than  the  soroons  used  prior  to  my  invention,  is  that  with 
the  latter ,  the  thicker  plates  become  clogged  with  particles 
of  the  material  in  process  of  screening,  thus  reducing  the 
screening  capaoity  in  a  very  short  time,  to  almost  nothing, 
whereas,-  if  the  plate  is  much  less  in  thickness  than  the  . 
width  of  the  slots,  it  does  not  become  clogged  and  oan  ho 
operated  for  weeks  without  cleaning.— — — 

Cancel  the  olalms  and  substitute  the  following. 

(1)  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  screen  having 
openings  formed  in  a  plate  of  minimum  thickness,  less  than 
the  width  of  said  openings.;  and  sufficient  only  to  offer 
proper  support  to  the  material  passed  over  the  same,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  and  for  the  purpose  set  forth, 

(2)  As  a  new  artiole,  of  manufacture,  a  soroon  having 
slots  formed  in  a  plate  of  minimum  thickness,  loss  than 
the  width  of  said  openings,  and  sufficient  only  to  offer 
proper  support  to  the  material  passed  over  the  same,  sub¬ 
stantially  as,  and  for  the.  purposes;' set 'forth. 

(3)  As  a  new  article;,  of  manufacture,  a  screen  having 
opehings  formed  in  a  plat'e  of  minimum,  thickness,  less  in 
width  than  said  openings,  sufficient  only  to  offer  proper 
support,  to  the  material  passed  over  ture  same,  and  having  a 
hardened  screening  surface; and  a  malleable  central  portion,' 
substantially  -  as  and  for  the  purposes',  sot  forth, 

A  supplemental  oath  is  filed,  herev^th*  in  order  to 

i> 


meet  any  possible  objection  to  the  amendment b  above  made. 

Very  respectfully,  ' 

THOMAS  a.  EDISOjfrf 

"by 

•his  Attorney* 


Orange,  IT.  J.,  May  4,  1903. 


State  of  New  Jersey 
County  of  Essex 


THOMAS  ALVA  EDISON,  whose  application  for  let'tors  patenl 
for  an  improvement  in  EINE  SCREENING  PIATES,  Serial  No. 
722,229  was  filed  in  the  United  States  Patent  Office  on  the 
29th  day  of  June  1899,  haying  been  duly  sworn,  deposes  and 
says  that  the  subject-matter  of  the  foregoing  amendment  was 
part  of  his  invention,  was  invented  before  ho  filod  his 

I  original  application,  above  identified,  for  such  invention, 
Was  not  known  or  used  before  hi3  invention,  was  not  patented 
or  described  in  a  printed  publication  in  any  country  more 
that  two  years  boforc  his  application,  was  not  patented  in  a 
foreign  country  on  an  application  filed  more- than  seven 
months  before  his  application,  was  not  in  publio  use  of  on 
sale  in  this  country  for  more  than  two  years  before  the  date 
of  his  application,  and  has  not  boon  abandoned. 


Sworn;  to  and'  subscribed  before  mo  this  ^  ^  day  Pf 
Ijltay,  1903. 


United  States  Patent  Office. 

Bx  parto  Thomas  A.  Edison. 


Pine  Screening  Plates. 


Appeal  from  Bxaminors-In-Chief. 

Application  filed  June  29,  1899,  Ho.  722,289. 

Mr.  Prank  1..  Dyer  for  applicant. 

This  is  an  ep  peal  from  a  decision  of  the  exaalners-in- 
chiof  affirming  the  rejection  by  the  examiner  of  the  following 
claims: 


*1.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin  metal 
plate  havine  screening  orifices  therein; of  greater  width  than 
the  thickness  of  said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"2.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  screening  plate 
made  of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and  with  orifices 
formed  therein  of  a  greater  width  than  tho  thloknesB  of  said 
plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"S.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  metal  plate  having 
a  hardened  screening  surface  but  with  a  malleable  central 
portion,  said  plate  being  of  extreme  thinness  and  having 
orifices  formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the  thickness  of 
said  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

"4.  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  screening  plats 
having  hardened  surfaces  and  a  malleable  central  portion,  said 
plate  having  elongated  screening  orifices  formed  therein, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

•R.  As  a  now  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  very  thin  metal 
plate  having  screening  slots  therein  of  greater  width  than  the 
thickness  of  said  plats,  substantially  as  sot  forth. 

"6.  As  a  new  artiole  of  manufacture,  a  screening  plate 
made  of  hardened  metal  of  extreme  thinness  and  with  slots  form¬ 
ed  therein  of  greater  width  than  the  thickness  of  said  plate, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

*7.  As  a  new  artiole  .of  manufacture,  a  metal  plate  having 
a  hardened  screening  surface  bpt  with  a  malleable  central 
portion,  said  plate  being  of  extreme  thinness  and  having  slots 
formed  therein  of  greater  width  than  tho  thickness  of  said 


f 


Plata,  substantially  as  set  forth, 

.  "?•  A®  a  arttole  of  manufacture,  a  screening  Plate 

’5Urfnoes  nnrt  a  eialloable  central  portion,  said 
Plata  haying  elongated  screening  alota  formed  therein, 
substantially  an  oat  forth."  * 

The  references  are  as  follows; 


Heald,  August  20,  lfiv/s,  }?0.  207,17(5; 

Oastler,  March  .,21,  1662,  Uo.  38»,38B; 

Bates,  Apri.1  37,  1866,  Bo.  340,843; 

Berthalat,  July  26,  1698,  Ko.  479,617* 

Crons,  Hay  35,  16f»7,  s0.  863,032; 

"Workshop  Receipts  for  Manufactures,  Ac"  Look. 

These  patents  show  screens  made  of  sheet  metal  and  they 
are  provided  with  openings  which  are  wider  than  the  thioknoas  of 
tho  plats. 


In  soma  of  these  patents  the  openings  are  formed  in  the 
shape  of  slots  and  in  those  tihe  width  of  the  slots  is  greater  than 
the  thioknesa  of  the  metal  plate.  The  applicant  contends  that 
in  his  invention  the  width  of  tho  openings  in  the  plate  has  a; 
ratio  to  the  thickness  of  the  plate,  but  that  the  plato  must  be 
as  thin  as  possible,  its  thickness  boing  limited  only  by  its  capaoi- 
ty  to  support  the  material  boing  aoreoned.  These  alleged  differ¬ 
ences  are  ones  of  degree  merely,  and  do  not  amount  to  invention. 

The  case  hardening  of  the  metal  plate  is  a  common 
expedient  as  shown  by  the  references  cited  by  the  examiner  and 
its  result  is  wall  known.  This  feature  does  not  confer  patent¬ 
ability  on  claims  which  lnoludo  it. 

The  decision  of  the  oxaminers-in-ohief  is  affirmed. 

c£e 

May  26,  1903.  Commissioner. 


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Patent  No. . 


"•  /  "X 

I 


Page 


{petition 


tto  tbe  Commissioner  of  patents : 

your  petitioner,  THOMAS  A,  EDISON,  n  oitieon  of  the  Uni  tod 
Bte.toa ,  re  Biding  ut  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and 
State  cf  Nev/  .Tarsoy, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPROVEMENT  IN 
COMBUSTION  ENGINES 


SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET.  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT.  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 
BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON. 


SPEOIFIOATION. 


TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN; 

|  Be  it  Known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 

the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  State  of  Now  Jorsoy,  have  invented  a  certain 
new  and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  IN  COMBUSTION  KN3INES  (0a3e  No. 
1010),  of  which  the  following  is  a  description;:; 


!  My  invention  relates  to  improvements  in  combustion 

engines,  and  my  object  is  to  produce  a  relatively  simplo  de¬ 
vice  wherein  high  efficiency  may  bo  secured. 

I  or  patent,  filed  by  me  February 
G,  I  describe  an  improved  device 
d  to  compressed  air  by  directing 
h  an  enclosed  source  of  burning 
'  by  directing  the  romaining  por- 
into  proximity  with  the  source  of 
o  be  hoatod  therefrom  by  radia- 
rtiona  of  the  air  so  directly  and 
nitod  and  being  used  for  any  Indus 
covered  that  the  heat  so  imparted 
n  a  very  great  increase  of  the 
I  am  enabled  to  utilize  the  air 
nder  for  the  performance  of  uso- 
said  cylinder  a  compressor  for 
the  compression  of  the  air,  \  By  thus  compressing  air  under 
favorable  conditions  and  utilising  it  in  an  efficient  engine 
cylinder,  I  am  enabled,  by  interposing  a  suitable  heating 
device  between  the  compressor  an\  said;  engine  cylinder,  to 
secure  a  very  considerable  surplus  ajiergylat  the  shaft,  and 


-1- 


there'll  obtain  a  combustion  engine  wherein  a  relatively 
large  percentage  of  the  energy  derived  from  the  burning  oom-| 
bustiblo  may  be  converted  into  usoful  work. 

My  invention  therefore  consists  in  the  combination 
with  an  air  compressor,  of  an  air  motor  or  engino  connected 
thereto  and  driving  the  same,  and  a  heating  device  inter¬ 
posed  between  the  compressor  and  motor,  and  by  which  air 
compressed  by  the  confessor  may  derive  heat  directly,  and 
preferably  also  indirectly*  from  a  source  of  burning  com¬ 
bustible,  tho  added  efficiency  thus  imparted  to  the  com¬ 
pressed  air  serving  to  operate  tho  motor  with  a  sux'ficient 
excess  of  power  as  to  bo  ut tillable  in  the  accomplishment  of 
work. 


\ 


In  the  preferred  embodiment  of  my  invention,  I  om- 
ploy  a  single-acting  compressor  and  a  single-acting  engine 
or  motor,  both  connected  to  a‘ single  shaft*  tho  heating  de¬ 
vice  being  carried  adjacent  to  the  cylinders  of  both  the  en¬ 
gino  and  compressor,  whereby  a  very  simple,  compact  and 
light  apparatus  will  be  secured. 

In  order  to  improve  the  efficiency  of  tho  apparatus, 
I  employ  roller  or  wheel  bearings  for  the  shaft  and  for  the 
oross-hoads  of  tho  compressor  and  motor,  and  by  means  of 
whioh  friction  will  be  reduced  to  a  minimum. 

In  order  that  the  invention  may  bo  better  understood 
I  have  illustrated  in  the  accompanying  drawings  a  good  form 
of  my  present  invention,  and  wherein  figure  1  is  a  plan 
view.;,  figure  2  a  side  elevation;  figure  3  an  end  view; 
figure  4a  longitudinal  section  through  the  shaft  and  engino 
oylinder;  figure  6  a  section  taken  at  right-angles  to  fig¬ 
ure  4,  the  line  of  section  being  through  the  inlet  valve  of 
the  engine;  figure  6  a  view  taken  on  line  6—6  of  figure  4; 
figure  7  a  section  through  the  compressor;-  figure  8  a  sec- 
-2-  V,  . 


tion  on  line  8--8  of  figure  7;  figure  9  a  vortioal  section 
through  the  heater;  und  figure  10  a  diagrammatic  view, 
showing  the  regenerator. 

In  all  of  the  above  viowa,  corresponding  partB  arc 
represented  by  the  some  numerals  of  roforenco. 

1  represents  a  base,  preferably  cast,  from  which  is 
carried  a  plate  2  by  the  standards  3,  3.  The  plate  2  car¬ 
ries  a  compressor  cylinder  4,  an  ongine  cylinder  6,  and  a 
heater  6.  The  compressor  is  preferably  of  the  a ingle -act it  5 
type,  Its  cylinder  being  provided  with  a  long  plunger  pistol 
7  therein,  said  piston  having  a  series  of  ^oneentrlo-  groove* 

0  to  form  an  air  packing.  The  piston  rod  9  of  the  compres¬ 
sor  oonnocts  with  a  oross-hoad  10  carrying  the  anti-friotlor 
rollers  11,  which  work  in  the  guidos  12  bolted  proferably 
with  the  plate  2,  said  guides  boing  connected  at  their  lowor 
ends  by  the  braces  13.  The  antifriotion  rollers  11  are 
made  as  largo  as  possible  in  order  to  reduce  friction  to  a 
minimum.  The  connocting  rod  14  of  the  compressor  oonnoots 
the  cross-head  10  with  the  crank  IB  of  the  shaft  16.  The 
top  of  the  compressor  cylinder  4  is  provided  with  a  oast 
head  17  mado  hpllow  (soo  figure  7),  with  a  diaphragm  18  sep¬ 
arating  the  inlet  and  discharge  chambers ,  The  inlet  cham- 
bor  is  provided  with  a  port  19  opening  into  the  cylinder  ant 
normally  closed  by  an  inlet  valve  20  of  well  known  form, 
the  valvo  and  it3  casing  boing  introduced  into  the  inlet 
chamber  through  the  plugged  opening  21.  In  the  outlet 
chamber  is  normally  seated  a  discharge  valvo  22,  which  may 
be  introduced  through  the  plugged  opening  23.  Both  the  in¬ 
let  valvo  and  dia charge  valve  20  and  22  respectively  aro 
normally  maintained  seated  by  spring  pressure,  as  3hown. 

TJw  engine  cylinder  5  is,  like  the  compressor,  also 
preferably  singlo-aoting,  and  is  provided  with  a  Jacket  24 


and  a  plunger  piston  having  a  suitable  air  packing,  as  shown. 
Preferably  this  piston  is  filled  with  a  packing  of  mineral 
wool  or  other  suitable  non-conducting  material,  as  illus¬ 
trated,  in  order  to  prevent  loss  of  heat  by  radiation.  The 

I  piston  rod  28  of  the  engine  cylinder  connoota  with  a  cross- 
head  26  similar  in  all  respects  to  the  cross-head  10  and 
provided  with  antifriction  rollers  27  which  work  in  the 
guides  28.  The  connecting  rod  29  connects  the  cross-head 
26  to  the  crank  30  on  the  shaft  16.  The  cranks  IB  and  30 
?  are  preferably  so  disposed  that  as  the  engine  piston  starts 
on  its  operative  or  down  stroke,  the  piston  7  of  the  com¬ 
pressor  will  start  on  it?  operative  or  up  stroke,  the  inten¬ 
tion  being  to  oppose  the  greatest  resistance  at  the  compres¬ 
sor  with  the  greatest  effective  enorgy  at  the  ongine  cylin¬ 
der.  The  engine  cylinder  8  carries  a  relatively  small  valvo 
casing  31  provided  with  an  inlet  opening  32  connected  with 
the  ports  33,  33,  ns  shown.  heading  into  tho  ongine  cylin¬ 
der  5  is  an  inlet  port  34,  and  normally  covering  said  port 
is  a  piston  valvo  35  which  works  in  tho  valve  casing  31  bet¬ 
ween  tho  ports  33,  33,  whereby  the  said  piston  valvo  will  bo 
always  balanced  in  said  valvo  casing.  Tho  valvo  36  is  op¬ 
erated  by  an  air-packed  valve  rod  36  oonneoted  at  its  outer 
end  to  an  arm  37  mounted  on  the  rock  shaft  38,  said  rock 
shaft  carrying  an  arm  39,  which  connects  by  a  rod  40  with  a 
lover  41  having  an  antifriotion  roller  42  at  its  end  working 

*f  /  juo  ttLAUrV  -Lw^£e4iL 

,  on  a  cam  43  carried  by  the  shaft  16.  A  spring  44  maintains 

iff '  A 

the  roller  42  always  in  contact  with  tho  ■cam  43.  Tho  cam 
43  is  so  formed  that  at  each  rotation  of  tho  shaft  16,  the 
valve  35  will  open  and  close  tho  inlet  port  34,  the  opening 
taking  place  at  the  commencement  of  the  down,  stroke  of  the 
piston,  and  the  dosing  of  tho  inlet  port  being  effected  af¬ 
ter  the  piston  has  partially  completed  that  stroke,  whereby 


an  expansion  offset  will  take  place,  a3  will  bo  explained. 

The  engine  cylinder  5  is  provided  with  an  exhaust  port  45 
normally  covered  by  a  valve  46.  Tho  stem  of  the  valve  46 
oonnocts  with  a  lever  47,  the  other  ond  of  which  oouneets  by 
i  rod  40  to  an  arm  49  carried  on  the  rook  shaft  50.  An  arm 
Jl  on  the  other  end  of  this  rook  shaft  oonnocts  by  a  rod  52 
Vlth  a  lQvor  53  carrying  a  roller  54  which  works  on  the  cam 
>5  also  carried  by  the  Wft  16  at  tho  side  of  I 

1.  spring  56  is  omployed  to  keep  tho  roller  64  in  constant 
ngagemont  with  the  cam  55.  The  cam  66  is  so  proportioned 
o  to  open  the  valve  46  on  the  up  stroke  of  the  engine  pis- 
on,  and  to  keep  it  open  during  the  entire  up  stroke.  If 
esirsd,  an  exhaust  pipe  57  may  connect  with  tho  exhaust 
port  45  and  lead  to  any  desired  place,  the  lever  47  working 
n  a  slot  in  said  pipe.  Preferably,  however,  tho  exhaust 
] ipo  67  leads  through  a  regenerator,  a3  shown  in  figure  10, 
end  as  will  be  explained,  whereby  a  saving  in  tho  operation 
' 111  be  0 footed,  by  absorbing  heat  from  the  products  of  the 
<  xhaust . 

The  heater  6  is  of  the  general  type  described  in  my 
application  for  patent  before  referred  to.  It  consists  of 
1  ■  cylinder  68  provided  v/ith  a  grate  or  grid  59  therein,  on 
vhich  is  placed  a  quantity  of  preferably  solid  combustible 
such  as  very  fine  pea  or  anthracite  coal  or  coke.  I  prefer 
1o  use  a  solid  combustible  for  this  purpose,  since  the  pred¬ 
icts  of  oombustion  are  practically  "free  ^'^ogift^and>^a 
Jence  do  not  clog  or  otharwiso  interfere  with  the  proper 
eperation  of  the  motor.  The  cylinder  is  provided  with  a 
t  ottora  60  bolted  in  pluoe  and  having  a  central  opening  there¬ 


in  through  which  ash  may  bo  romovod.  This  opening  is  ad- 
Eptod  to  be  closed  by  a  cover  61  secured  in  place  by  a  screw 
63  working  in  a  bridge-piece  63.  The  top  of  the  cylinder 


58  is  provided  with  a  similar  cover  64  secured  in  position 
in  the  name  way.  Surroiuiding  tho  cylinder  58  is  a  jaokot 
65,  whereby  a  heating  chamber  66  will  bo  formed  on  the  out¬ 
side  of  said  oylinder.  A  pipe  67  load3  into  said  boating 
chamber  at  one  aide,  and  a  pipe  60  loads  out  of  the  said 
chamber  diametrically  opposite  thereto.  A  by-pa3s  pipe  69 
leads  from  the  pipo  67  into  the  bottom  60  of  tho  heater,  and 
a  corresponding  pipe  70  lead3  from  the  top  of  the  heater  in¬ 
to  the  pipe  68.  A  valve  71  is  interposod  in  the  pipe  67  so 
as  to  cause  a  drop  in  the  pressure  between  the  pipe  67  and 
the  pipe  68,  and  thereby  produce  a  flow  of  air  through  the 
by-pase  pipe  69,  heater  6  and  pipe  70.  The  pipe  69  is  prof, 
erably  provided  with  a  valve  72  therein,  which  may  be  closed 
when  a  new  quantity  of  combustible  material  is  to  be  placed 
within  tho  oylinder  68. 

Tho  arrangement  of  piping  when  a  rogonorator  is  not 
usod  is  shown  particularly  in  figure  1.  An  inlot  pipe  73 
leads  to  tho  inlet  chamber  of  tho  compressor,  and  an  outlet 
pipe  74  loads  from  tho  outlet  side  of  the  compressor  to  a 
suitable  receiver  or  reservoir  75,  in  which  a  supply  of  com¬ 
pressed  air  will  bo  maintained.  I  prefer  to  uso  a  reooivor 
or  reservoir  interposod  between  tho  compressor  and  heater  in 
order  that  smoothness  of  operation  may  be  secured,  and  to 
prevent  the  Jioator  from  boing  directly  subjected  to  tKS  in¬ 
termittently  recurring  action  of  the  compressor.  The  re¬ 
ceiver  75  acts  in  the  apparatus  in  very  much  the  same  way  as 
the  air  oylinder  of  a  force  pump,  allowing  a  praotioally 
uniform  flow  of  air  at  a  substantially  constant  prossure  to 
pass  into  tho  heater.  From  tho  receiver  or  reservoir  75 
the  pipe  67  loads  to  tho  hoator,  and  from  tho  heater  the 
pipe  68  leads  into  tho  Jacket  24  of  the  engine.  Prom  the 
Jacket  24  at  a  diametric  point  a  pipe  76  leads  to  the  valve 
chamber  31  of  the  engine. 


-6- 


Instead  of  connecting  tho  exhaust  pipe  07  directly 
v/ith  the  atmosphere,  1  profor  to  direct  the  exhaust  through 
a  regenerator  Interposed  between  tho  receiver  or  reservoir 
and  the  hoator,  in  order  that  hoat  my  bo  absorbed  from  tho 
products  of  the  exhaust  and  an  economy  in  that  respect  there, 
by  effected.  Such  an  arrangement  is  shown  particularly  in 
figuro  10,  wherein  tho  pipe  67  is  divided  into  a  plurality 
of  branches  77,  each  branch  being  provided  with  a  jacket  76 
connected  with  the  exhaust  pipe  57,  as  shown.  In  this  way, 
most  of  tho  hoat  carried  by  tho  products  of  tho  exhaust  will 
bo  absorbed  by  tho  relatively  cold  air  passing  from  the  re¬ 
ceiver  to  tho  hoator.  I  prefer  to  employ  a  regenerator  of 
this  general  typo,  whoroin  tho  hot  exhaust  air  travels  in  an 
opposite  direction  from  the  incoming  cold  air,  since  in  this 
way  tho  oxhanst  air  will  during  its  passage  through  the  ro- 
gonorator  bo  constantly  subjeotod  to  fresh  quantities  of 
cold  air  and  tho  hoat  will  bo  more  effectively  extracted 
therefrom  than  if  the  reverao  operation  took  place. 

In  the  operation  of  all  hot  air  onginos  with  which 
I  am  familiar  and  which,  so  far  as  I  know,  offer  tho  olosost 
analogy  in  general  type  to  my  present  dovice,  the  effective 
horse  powor  at  tho  shaft  has  boon  always  enormously  lower 
than  the  indicated  horse  power  in  the  cylinder.  This  loss 
of  powor  is  due  to  tho  friotion  which  is  necessarily  generat¬ 
ed  in  engines,  having  a  relatively  largo  mass.  In  order 
that  an  economy  may  be  effeotod  in  this  rospoot,  I  provide 
tho  working  parts  of  my  improvod  engine  7/1  th  wheel  or  roller 
bearings,  whoroby  friotion  will  bo  vory  groatly  rodeoed. 

To  this  end,  I  provide  the  croos-hoads  of  tho  engino  and 
compressor  cylinders  v/ith  vhool  or  roller  boarings,  as  I 
have  already  oxplainod,  and  I  intorposo  betweun  tho  upper 
ends  of  the  connecting  rods  of  both  the  engino  and  oomprese- 


-7- 


I! 


or  and  the  respective  cross-heads  thereof  a  roller  bearing 
79  (soo  particularly  figures  4  and  5),  and  between  the  lowor 
end  of  said  connecting  rod  and  the  respective  crank  a  roll¬ 
er  bearing  80  is  used,  and  I  carry  the  main  shaft  16  in 
wheel  or  roller  bearings  81  mounted  in  dust-proof  boxes  83 
(see  figure  4) .  In  order  further  to  reduce  friction,  I 
dispense  with  packing  rings  on  the  pistons  of  tho  engine  and 
compressor  cylinders  and  utilize  instead  thereof  the  ooncon- 
trio  grooves  already  described,  whioh  constitute  air  pack¬ 
ings,  and  I  finally  prefer  to  air-pack  the  stem  36  of  the 
main  engine  valve  for  the  same  reason,  and  also  the  valve 
itself,  as  shown.  By  thus  dispensing  with  all  friction- 
creating  packings,  and  by  providing  the  working  parts  of  the 
engine  with  wheel  or  roller  boarings,as  explained,  I  am  en¬ 
abled  to  produce  a  device  of  this  general  type,  wherein  a 
very  much,  loss  disparity  between  the  offeetive  and  indicated 
horse  powers  will  bo  socured  than  with  any  hot  air  or  simi¬ 
lar  engine  heretofore  constructed. 

In  order  to  secure  uniformity  of  rotation  of  the 
shaft  16,  I  employ  one  or  more  fly-wheels  secured  to  said 
shaft,  as  shown. 

Tho  operation  of  tho  dovioo  will  bo  as  follows :- 
A  suitable,  preferably  solid,  combustible,  of  which  instanc¬ 
es  have  boon  given,  is  placed  on  the  grid  or  grate  69  of  the 
heater  6,  und  said  combustible  is  ignited  in  any  suitable 
way,  as  for  instance  by  burning  waste,  after  which  the  cover 
64  is  placed  in  position  and  clamped  down  so  as  to  exclude 
exterior  air  from  tho  cylinder  58.  Tho  shaft  16  is  now 
given  a  few  turns  by  hand  or  in  any  other  Buit&ble  way,  and 
tho  compressor  will  bo  started.  At  oach  ddwn  stroke  of  tho 
compressor,  air  will  bo  drawn  through  the  pipe  73,  past  the 
valve  30  Into  the  compressor  eylindor,  and  on  each  up  strok* 
-8- 


tho  air  will  bo  forced  out  through  the  valve  2?.  into  the 
reservoir  or  rocoivor  75,  and  tho  air  therein  will  be  plaoed 
under  pressure.  In  order  to  increase  the  efficiency  of  the 
compressor,  it  is  obvious  that  it  should  be  maintained  as 
cool  as  possible,  whereby  tho  heat  duo  to  compression  may 
bo  permitted  to  radiate  therefrom.  For  this  purpose  it  may 
bo  cooled  by  a  water  jacket  in  the  well  known  way,  but  pref¬ 
erably  it  is  provided  with  a  3eries  of  cooling  wings  83 
(figure  8),  as  is  common.  Tho  compressed  air  from  tho  res¬ 
ervoir  or  receiver  onoounters  a  resistance  ut  the  valve  71, 
and  a  port  of  the  air  will  therefore  bo  forced  through  tho 
pipe  69  into  the  cylinder  58  in  direct  contact  with  the 
burning  combustible  material,  and  heat  thorofrom  will  there¬ 
fore  be  imparted  directly  to  the  air.  Tho  air  from  the 
chamber  58  passes  out  through  the  pipe  70,  and  in  entering 
tho  pipe  68  moots  and  mingles  with  tho  remaining  portion  of 
the  air  from  which  it  was  deflocted,  which  portion  has 
reached  the  pipe  68  by  passing  through  tho  heating  chambor 
66  around  tho  cylinder  58.  In  passing  through  tho  heating 
chamber,  tho  air  will  bo  heated  by  radiation  and  convection, 
as  will  bo  understood.  By  regulating  tho  valve  71,  any  do- 
sirod  drop  in  pressure  may  bo  produced  between  the  pipe  67 
and  the  pipe  68,  and  in  oonsequonoo  any  desired  quantity  of 
tho  air  may  bo  defloetod  to  tho  heater.  I  find  from  exper¬ 
ience  that  it  is  only  neoessary  to  deflect  through  the  hoat- 
or  a  very  small  quantity  of  the  air,  only  sufficient  to  sup¬ 
port  combustion,  but  that  tho  amount  of  heat  absorbed  di¬ 
rectly  thnroin  will  be  a  very  much  greater  proportion  than 
will  be  absorbed  by  tho  air  from  which  it  was  doflected  by 
radiation  and  convection  in  the  heating  chambor  66.  The 
highly  ho  at,  ad  air  from  the  heater  enters  the  pipe  68  and 
passes  into  the  spaoe  enclosed  by  the  Jaoket  24  of  the  en- 
-9- 


glno  o  ii3  to  impart  hoat  to  1;ho  cylindor  0,  and  from  tho 
jaoket  tho  air  pan 3 on  into  tho  vnlvo  chamber  31.  At  the 
coinmunoemcmt  of  tho  down  strolco,  tho  comp  reused  air,  from 
which  nomo  hoat  has  boon  extracted  in  the  jacket  24,  antors 
tho  cylinder  0  to  force  tho  piston  thereof  downwards,  and 
after  said  piston  has  moved  part  way  on  its  stroke,  the 
valve  35  will  bo  closed  so  as  to  cut  off  tha  air.  For  tho 
completion  of  tho  operativo  stroke  of  tho  engine,  X  rely 
upon  tho  expansion  of  tho  air  in  tho  cylinder  due  to  the  ab¬ 
sorption  of  hoat  from  tho  heated  walls  of  the  cylinder,  so 
that  when  tho  operative  stroke  of  the  piston  has  been  com¬ 
pleted,  tho  t.orapor ature  of  the  air  therein  will  be  much  ro- 
ducod.  On  tho  up  stroke,  the  cam  65  opens  tho  exhaust  valve 
4(5,  and  tho  air  from  the  cylinder  will  bo  forcod  out  of  tho 
same.  When  a  regenerator  is  employed,  the  air  from  tho 
engine  oylindor  will  be  directed  through  tho  Jackets  78,  so 
that  heat  from  tho  exhaust  air  will  be  extracted  thorofrom 
and  absorbed  by  tho  cold  air  passing  from  the  reservoir  into 
tho  heater. 

She  oyoio  above  describod  will  bo  repeated  through¬ 
out  the  op oration  of  the  ongino.  By  regulating  tho  valve 
71  to  adjust  tho  flow  of  air  through  tho  heater,  tho  con¬ 
sumption  of  tho  combustible  thorein  can  be  rogulatod  and  tho 
speed  of  the  ongino  thus  adjusted.  When  it  is  desired  to 
roplonish  tho  supply  of  combustible  material,  tho  valves  71 
and  72  are  closed  so  as  to  cut  off  the  engine  and  maintain 
the  supply  of  air  in  the  reservoir  75,  after  which  the  cap 
64  is  removed  and  the  frosli  material  deposited  upon  the  grid 
or  grate  59.  If  any  considerable  quantity  of  ash  accumu¬ 
lates  in  the  bottom  of  the  heater,  it  may  bo  removed  at  this 
tirao  through  the  cap  61.  If  desired,  the,  pipe  70  may  be 
provided  with  a  valvo  corresponding  to  the  valve  72,  so  that 


-10- 


during  tho  operation  of  replenishing  the  sujiply  of  combust¬ 
ible  material,  both  of  said  valves  may  bo  closed  and  the 
valve  71  allowed  to  ronain  opon.  In  this  way  sufficient 
heat  will  be  received  from  the  walls  of  the  heater  6  as  to 
keep  the  engine  in  operation  for  the  short  time  required  to 
supply  tho  desired  combustible  material. 

Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  I  claim  as 
sew  therein  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is  as 
follows: 

1.  In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 

sngine  cylinder,  an  air  compressor,  and  a  heater  for  heating 
the  compressed  air  prior;  to  its  admission  to  tho  engine  cy¬ 
linder,  said  hoator  boing\supplied  with  a  solid  combustible 
md  the  air  being  directed  >into  actual  contact  with  aaid 
Jombustiblo  to  support  combustion  thereof,  substantially  a3 
3et  forth.  \ 

2.  In  a  combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
Jngino  cylinder,  an  aiA  compressor,  a  heater  for  heating 
;ho  compressed  air  prioAto  its  admission  to  the  ongino  cy~ 
.inder,  said  boater  being\supplied  with  a  solid  combustible 
ind  tho  air  being  dirocted^into  actual,  contact  with  said 
jombustiblo  to  support  combustion  thereof,  and  a  regenerator 
located  between  the  compressoA  and  heater  and  connected  with 
;ho  engino  exhaust,  substantially  as  3Gt  forth. 

3.  In  a  combuVtion  ongwio ,  tho  combination  of  an 
mgine  cylinder,  an  air  compressor,  and  a  heater  for  heating 
;ho  compressed  air  prior  flb  its  admission  to  the  ongino  cy~ 
.inder,  said  hoator  being  supplied  with  a  solid  oombustiblo, 
i  part  of  tho  air  boing  dirdetod  into  actual  contact  with 
;ho  oombustiblo  to  support  oMnbustion  thereof  and  tho  re¬ 
gaining  portion  of  the -air  beinte  directed  into  proximity  with 


jtho  combustible  so  aA  to  be  heated  by  radiation  and  convec- 
tion,  the  air  thus  difteetly  awl  Indirectly  heated  being  re- 
|united  before  entering^11®  eng ine  cylinder,  substantially  as 
t  forth.  \ 

4.  Ia  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
[engine  oylinder,  Urn  air  compressor  operated  therefrom,  and 

•  boater  for  heating  the  comprossod  air  prior  to  its  admie- 
ion  to  the  engine wylindor,  3aid  heater  boing  supplied  with 
a  solid  combustible  wnd  the  air  being  diroctod  into  actual 
contact  with  said  combustible  to  support  combustion  thereof, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

5.  In  a\ combust ion  engine,  the  combination  of  « 
ongino  cylinder,  an  air  compressor  operated  thorofrom,  and  a 
heater  for  heating  the  compressed  air  prior  to  its  admission 
to  the  engine  cylindoV,  said  heater  being  supplied  with  a 
solid  combustible,  a  pJn*t  of  the  air  being  directed  into 
actual  contact  with  the\combustible  to  support  combustion 
thereof  and  the  romaininAportion  of  the  air  being  directed 
into  proximity  with  the  combustible  so  as  to  be  heated  by 
radiation  and  convection,  air  thus  diroetly  and  indi- 
reotly  heated  being  reunited \ef ore  entoring  the  ongine  cy¬ 
linder,  substantially  as  set  fft-th. 

6.  In  a  combust ion  ongine,  the  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder,  a  \20inprassor  operated  thorofrom,  a  receiver 
connected  with  said  compressor,  and  a  heater  between  the  re¬ 
ceiver  and  the  ongine  cylinder,  substantially  as  sot  forth, 

7.  In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 


engine  oylinder,  a  ooj)^ 
connected  with  said  co^ 
or  and  the  engine  cylin 
recoiver  and  heater  and  1 


issor  operated  therefrom,  a  receiver 
jssor,  a  heater  betvaion  the  recolv- 
and  a  regenerator  between  the 
iectod  with  the  exhaust  of  the 


engine,  substantially  as  ndt  forth,... 

8.  In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 

-ia- 


into  actual  contaot  with\« 
tion  t ho roof,  substantia]™ 


ongina  cylinder,  a  oomArosaor  operated  therefrom,  a  rocoivor 
oonnocted  with  said  conlireosor,  and  a  heater  supplied  with  a 
burning  combua tibia,  ai^from  the  rocoivor  being  directed 

.id  combustiblo  to  support  combus- 
ns  sot  forth. 

combustion  ongino,  tho  combination  of  an 
origins  cylinder,  a  compressor  operated  thorofrom,  means  for 
cooling  the  oomprassoru  and  a  boater  botwoen  tbo  compressor 
and  the  engine  oylindeAfor  heating  tho  compressed  air  be— 
if  ore  its  admission  into\  the  ongino  cylinder,  substantially 
|as  sot  forth. 

I  Mf.  In  a  cdWistion  ongino,  tho  combination  of  an 
ongino  cylinder,  a  heating  chambor  surrounding  tho  same,,  a 
heater  for  ’mating  alrj\a  conduit  for  conducting  tho  heated 
air  from  tho  heater  intm  the  heating  chamber  of  tho  ongino, 
and  a  conduit  for  convoying  tho  air  from  said  boating  cham- 
jbor  into  tho  engino  cylinder,  substantially  as  sot  forth. 

yX.  In  a  cwmbustibn  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder,  a  heating  chambor  surrounding  tho  same,  a 
hoator  for  heating  air a  conduit  for  conducting  the  heated 
air  from  the  heater  into,  the  heating  chamber  of  tho  ongino, 
a  conduit  for  convoying  mo  air  from  eaid  ho at  tag  chamber  ir 
to  the  engino  cylinder,  aim  a  regenerator  through  which  tho 
air  passes  before  entering  Y'«aid  hoator,  said  rogor.orati 
being-  connected  with  the  exhaust  of  the  engine,  substantial¬ 
ly  as  set  forth. 

s3  Jtar»  In  a  combustion  ongino,  the  combination  of 
engine  oylindor,  a  heating  chamber  surrounding  tho  same,  a 
hoator  supplied  with  a  solid  combustible,  means  for  foroing 
air  through  said  burning  combustible  to  maintain  combustion 
thereof,  a  conduit  for  conveying  tho  hoated  air  from  the 
heater  to  the  heating  ohambe^  of  the  engino,  and  a  conduit 


-13- 


Tor  convoying  the  afir  from  said  boating  chamber  into  tho 
engine  cylinder,  substantially  aa  sot  forth. 


In  a  corn  oust  ion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
engine  cylindor,  a  heating  chamber  surrounding  the  sane,  a 
compressor  operated  by  tr\o  engino,  a  heater.,  a  conduit  con¬ 
necting  tho  compressor  v/i the  heater,  a  conduit,  oonnocting 
tho  heater  with  the  heating Nohamb or  of  tho  engine  cylinder, 
and  a  conduit  connecting  sa.id\hoat  ing  chamber  with  tho  en¬ 
gine  cylinder,  substantially  aav  set  forth. 

£  In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 

engino  oylinder,  a  boating  ohamb or  surrounding  tho  same,  a 
compressor  operated  by  \ho  ongino,  a  hoator,  a  conduit  con¬ 
necting  the  compressor  with  tho  heater,  a  regenerator  in 
said  conduit  connected  wi'hh  tho  engine  cylinder,  a  conduit 
connecting  the  heater  withWhe  heating  chamber  of  the  engine 
oylinder,  and  a  conduit  conflicting  said  heating  chamber  with 
the  engine  oylinder,  substantially  aa  set  forth. 

i"  yef.  In  a'lcombustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
5ngino  cylinder,  a  floating  chamber  surrounding  the  same,  a 
heater  supplied  withfla  solid  combustible,  u  compressor  oper¬ 
ated  by  the  engine  cylindor,  a.  conduit  connecting  tho  com¬ 
pressor  with  the  intorUor  of  bho  heater,  whereby  air  from 
the  compressor  will  bo  directed  into  contact  with  the  burn¬ 
ing  combustible  to  suppoVt  combustion  thereof,  a  conduit 


connecting  the  interior 


1  tho  heater  with  the  heating  cham- 


>er  of  the  engino  cylindeA.  and  a  conduit  connecting  said 
leating  chamber  with  the  ermine  cylinder,  substantially  as 


■y  In  a  combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 

ingine  oylinder,  a  heating  chamber  surrounding  the  same,  a 
leater  supplied  with  ausolld  combustible,  a  Jacket  surround- 
,ng  said  heater,  a  conduit  for  conveying  air  within  said 


1 


-14- 


Jacket,  a  oonduit  fbr  conveying  air  from  the  Jacket  to  the 
heating  chamber  of  the  engine  cylinder,  a  by-pass  extending 
between  said  oonduitaVnd  including  the  interior  of  the  heat, 
ar  for  conveying  a  portion  of  the  air  into  direct  contact 
with  the  burning  combustible  to  support  combustion  thereof 
and  a  conduit  oonnoctinA  the  boating  chamber  of  the  engine 
cylinder  with  the  interi*-  of  said  cylinder,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

Xf.  In  a  Combustion  engine,  the  combination  of 
engine  cylinder,  a  moating  chambor  surrounding  the  same,  a 
heater  supplied  wlth\a  solid  combustible,  a  Jacket  surround¬ 
ing  said  hoater,  a  conduit  for  conveying  air  within  said 
Jacket,  a  conduit  for  Conveying  air  from  the  Jacket  to  the 
heating  chamber  of  the  Engine  cylinder,  a  by-pass  extending 
between  said  conduits  am  including  tho  interior  of  the  heat¬ 
er  for  conveying  a  portidk  of  tho  air  into  diroct  contact 
with  the  burning  combustible  to  support  combustion  thoroof, 
a  oonduit  connecting  the  heating  chambor  of  tho  engine  cy¬ 
linder  with  the  interior  of^said  cylinder,  and  a  compressor 
operated  by  the  engine  cylinder  for  supplying  air  to  the 
hoater,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

£j  In\k  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 

engine  cylinder,  a\ heating  chamber  surrounding  the  same,  a 
heater  supplied  wlMi  a  solid  combustible,  a  Jacket  surround¬ 
ing  said  hoater,  a  conduit  for  conveying  air  within  said 
Jacket,  a  oonduit  fori  conveying  air  from  the  Jacket  to  the 
heating  chamber  of  tna  engine  oylindor,  a  by-poBs  extending 
between  said  oonduits'lnd  including  the  interior  of  tho 
beater  for  conveying  apportion  of  the  air  into  direct  eon- 
fcaot  with  tho  burning  combustible  to  support  combustion 
thereof,  a  oonduit  connecting  the  heating  chamber  of  the  en- 
5ine  oylindor  with  the  interior  of  said  oylindor,  a  ooaproe- 


a  receiver  between  the  compressor  and  said  heat¬ 


er,  substantially  as 'get  forth. 

j  ^  In  a  combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder,  a_h eating  chamber  surrounding  the  same,  a 

eiCto..  /it,  n-iy  _ 

heater  for  boating  air,  a  conduit  connecting  the  heater  with 
said  heating  chamber,  a  conduit,  connecting  tho  heating  cham¬ 
ber  with  the  interior  of  tho  cylinder,  and  a  valve  for  ad¬ 
mitting  air  from  tho  heating  chamber  into  the  engine  cylinder 
during  apart  only  of  its  operative  stroke,  whereby  an  ex¬ 
pansion  effect  thereof  will  bo  soctirod,  substantially  as 


Jls  jxf*  In  a  combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
engine  oylinder,  a  heating  chambor  surrounding  the  same, a 
hoator  for  heating  air,  a  conduit  connecting  tho  heater  with 
said  heating  chamber,  a  conduit  connecting  the  hoating  cham¬ 
ber  with  the  interior  of  the  cylinder,  a  valvo  for  admitting 
air  from  tho  hoating  chamber  into  tho  engine  oylinder  dur¬ 
ing  a  part  only  of  its  oporativo  stroke,  whereby  an  expansion 
effoct  thoroof  will  be  seourod,  and  a  compressor  oporatod 
by  tho  engine  for  supplying  air  to  the  heater,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

i[n  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder,  a  hoating  chambor  surrounding  the  same,  a 
heater  for  heating  air,  a  conduit  connecting  the  heater  with 
said  heating  chamber,  a  conduit  connecting  tho  heating  cham¬ 
ber  with  the  Interior  of  the  cylinder,  a  valve  for  admitting 
air  from  the  hoating  chambor  into  the  engine  cylinder  during 
a  part  only  of  its  operative  stroke,  whereby  an  expansion 
effect  thereof  will  be  secured,  a  compressor  operated  by  the 
engine  for  supplying  air  to  the  heater,  and  a  receiver  bet¬ 
ween  the  Oompreaaor  and  the  heater,  substantially  as  set 


-10- 


In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
jengine  cylinder,  a  heating  chamber  surrounding  the  same,  a 
heater  supplied  with  a  solid  burning  combustible,  means  for 
directing  air  through  the  heater  into  direct  contact  with 
aid  oombustiblo  to  support  combustion  thereof,  a  conduit 

[onnecting  the  interior  of  the  heater  to  said  boating  cham- 
er,  a  conduit  connecting  tho  heating  chamber  with  the  in- 
erlor  of  tho  cylinder,  and  a  valve  adapted  to  admit  the  air 
rom  said  heating  chamber  into  tho  interior  of  tho  cylinder 
uring  ft  Part  only  of  the  operative  stroke  of  tho  engine, 


whereby  an  expanding  offeot  will  bo  seourod,  substantially 
is  set  forth. 

In  a  combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
engine  cylindor,  a  heating  chamber  surrounding  the  same,  a 
heater  supplied  with  a  solid  burning  combustible,  means  for 
directing  air  through  the  heater  into  direct  contact  with 
said  combustible  to  support  combustion  thereof,  a  conduit 
connecting  tho  interior  of  the  heater  to  said  heating  oham- 
aer,  a  conduit  connecting  the  boating  chamber  with  the  in¬ 
terior  of  the  cylinder,  a  valve  adapted  to  admit  tho  air 
from  said  heating  chamber  into  the  interior  of  the  cylinder 
luring  a  part  only  of  the  operative  Btroko  of  tho  engine, 
whereby  an  expanding  effect  will  be  secured,  and  a  com¬ 
pressor  operated  by  the  engino  for  forcing  air  through  said 


!  eater,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

( !■  In  a  combustion  ongine,  the  combination  of  an 
nginf  cylinder,  a  heating  chamber  surrounding  the  same,  a 
eater  supplied  with  a  solid  burning  combustible,  means  for 
lireetlng  air  through  the  heater  into  direct  contact  with 
mid  combustible  to  support  combustion  thoroof,  a  conduit 
connecting  the  interior  of  tho  heater  to  said  heating  bliam- 
>or,  a  conduit  connecting  the  heating  ohamber  with  the  in- 


-17- 


tor lor  of  the  oylindor,  a  valve  adapted  to  admit  the  air 
from  said  heating  chamber  into  the  interior  of  the  cylinder 
during  a  part  only  of  tho  operative  stroke  of  the  engine, 
whereby  an  expanding  effect  will  be  secured,  a  compressor 
operated  by  the  engine  for  forcing  air  through  said  heater, 
and  a  receiver  between  tho  compressor  and  said  heater,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  sat  forth. 


fj Jn  a  combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
jengino  cylinder,  a  heater,  a  jacket  surrounding  tho  boater, 
conduit  leading  into  said  jacket,  moans  for  forcing  air 
through  said  conduit,  a  conduit  loading  from  tho  Jacket  to 
the  engine  cylinder,  a  by-pass  connecting  tho  first  of  said 
Conduits  with  the  second  of  said  conduits  and  extending 
through  tho  heater,  and  a  valve  in  tho  first  of  said  con¬ 
duits  for  causing  a  drop  in  pressure  of  tho  air,  whoroby  a 
portion  of  tho  air  will  be  directed  through  tho  heater,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  set  forth. 

In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
Jengino  cylinder,  a  heater,  a  Jaoket  surrounding  the  heater, 
conduit  leading  into  said  jaokot,  means  for  forcing  air 
through  said  conduit,  a  conduit  leading  from  the  jacket  to 
the  sngino  cylinder,  a  by-pass  connecting  tho  first  of  said 
conduits  with  the  second  of  said  conduits  and  extending 
through  the  heater,  a  valve  in  tho  first  of  said  conduits 
for  oausing  a  drop  in  pressure  of  the  air,  whereby  a  portion 
it  the  air  will  bo  dlreoted  through  the  heater,  and  a  sourco 
>f  burning  combustible  in  tho  heater,  into  direct  engagomont 
*ith  which  a  portion  of  the  air  will  be  directed,  substan- 
;ially  as  set  forth. 

fjj ft  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
Jingine  cylinder,  a  heater,  a  j  ackot  surrounding  the  heater, 
conduit  leading  into  said  Jacket,  means  for  forcing  air 
-18- 


through  said  conduit,  a  conduit  loading  from  tho  jacket  to 
tho  engine  cylindor,  a  by-pass, connecting  the  first  of  said 
conduits  with  the  second  of  said  conduits  and  extending 
through  tho  heater,  a  valve  in  the  first  of  said  conduits 
for  causing  a  drop  in  pressure  of  the  air,  whereby  a  portion 
of  tho  air  will  be  directed  through  tho  hoator,  and  a  com¬ 
pressor  operated  by  tho  engino  cylindor  for  forcing  air  into 
tho  first  of  said  conduits,  substantially  as  sot  forth. 

/$  In  a  combustion  ongino,  the  combination  of  an 

engine  cylindor,  mo.4m  for  supplying  hot  air  to  tho  same,  an 
inlot  port  therefor,  V.  valve  chest  ovor  tho  inlet  port,  two 
entrance  ports  into  the  valvo  chest,  and  a  valvo  located 
between  tho  entrance  poVt3  and  normally  closing  the  inlet 
port  of  tho  cylinder,  wiVeby  the  valve  will  be  maintained 
in  balance,  substantiality  as  set  forth. 

29.  In  a\combnstion  engino,  the  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder,  a  shaft  driven  therefrom,  a  compressor 
driven  from  said  shaft\  and  a  heater  between  the  compreesor 
and  ongino  cylinder,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

30.  In  a  Combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
engino  cylinder,  a  shaft  driven  therefrom,  a  compressor 
driven  from  said  shaft*,  a  heater  between  tho  compressor  and 
engino  cylindor,  and  a  .Vegonorator  between  the  compressor 
and  hoator  and  connoctodftto  tho  exhaust  of  tho  ongino  cy¬ 
lindor,  substantially  as  wjt  forth. 

31.  In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
engino  cylinder,  a  shart  driven  therefrom,  a  compressor 
driven  from  said  shaft, %a  receiver  connected  with  said  com¬ 
pressor,  and.  a  hooter  bolwoon  said  receiver  and  engine  cy¬ 
linder,  substantially  as'Jaot  forth. 

32.  In  a  combustion  engine,  tho  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder,  a  short  driven  therefrom,  a  compressor 


-19- 


driven  from  said  shaft,  a  receiver  connected  with  said  com¬ 
pressor,  a  heater  between  said  reeoivor  and  engine  cylinder, 
and  a  regenerator  between  the  receiver  and  heater  and  con¬ 
cocted  to  the  exhaust  oj\tho  engine,  substantially  as  sot 
forth.  \  \\  _ 

33.  AXhot  air  or  oombustion  engine,  provided  with 
wheal  or  roller  hearings  on  its  moving  parts,  substantially 
set  forth.  \ 

A  iW  air  or  oombustio^engino,  having  an  air- 
paokod  piston  and  provided  with  wheel  or  roller  bearings  on 
its  moving  parts,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

36.  A  hot  air  or  combustion  engine i  having  wheel' 
roller  baaringsW  its  cross-head,  connooting  rod  and 

ahart,  substantiallAaa  set  forth. 

\  A  hot  air  or  oombustion  engine,  provided  with 
an  alr-paokad\  piston,  an  air-packed  \pon  trolling  Waive,  and 
wheel  or  roller  bearings  on  its  moving  parts,  substantially 
set  forth.  V 

37.  In  aVsombustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder,  meaba  for  supplying  hot  air  thereto,  a 
oross-head  operatod  wv  the  piston  of  said  cylinder,  and  roll 
or  boarings  carried  by\qaicl  cross-head,  substantially  as 
set  forth, 

36..  In\a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of  an 
engine  cylinder*  means  for  supplying  hot  air  theroti 
cross-head  operatec^by  the  piston  of  said  cylinder,  roller 
■d  oro38-hoad,  a  compressor  operated 
roller  bearings  carried  i?y  tiie 


[pressor  and  said  engine 

forth. 


[bearings  carried  by 
from  the  engine  oylim 
cross-head  of  said  comptassor,  and  a  heater  between  the  com- 


rlindor,  substantially  as  sot 


39.  Y\  In  a  combustion  engine,  the  combination  of 
an  ongino  cylinder,  means  for  supplying  hot  air  thereto,  a 
oross-head  oonmioaod  with  tho  piston  of  said  cylinder,  roll¬ 
er  bearings  for  s&»d  cross-head,  a  main  shaft,  a  crank  on 
said  shaft,  a  connoting  rod  between  aaid  cross-head  and 
crank,  and  roller  bearings  between  said  connecting  rod  and 
crank,  substantially  a\  sot  forth. 

40.  In  a  hot  full*  engine,  tho  combination  of  an  en¬ 
gine  cylinder,  moans  for  Supplying  hot  air  thereto,  a  cross¬ 
head  oonnocted  with  tho  platon  of  said  cylinder,  roller 
bearings  for  said  cross-hoao^  a  main  shaft,  a  crank  on  said 
shaft,  a  coxinocting  rocl  between  said  cross-head  and  orarik, 
roller  bearings  between  said  connecting  rod  and  crank,  and 
roller  bearings  for  said  shaft,  substantially  as  sot  forth. 


-21- 


Inventor 


Witnesses 


Att’ya. 


Witnesses 


Inventor 


Witnesses. 


Inventor 


Att’ys. 


^QL 1.  ' 

-ro\  08 

Witnesses 


Inventor 


AU'ysA 


Witnesses. 


Inventor 


Witnesses 


Inventor 


I  have  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  the  petition,  specification,  oath,,  and  f 


IS  drawing  of  yoar  alleged  Improvement  in . 

Si" . . . 


|  with  Fifteen  Dollars  as  the  first  fee  payable  thereon. 


e  duly  filed,  and  you? 


•jj  for  examination  in  its  order _ 


application  for  a  patent  will  he  take ; 


You  will  he  duly  advised  of  the  examination. 


Case  will  be  taken  up  for 
examination  in  about  six  weeks. 


C2.  I 


. . 

No  application  is  considered  as  complete,  nor  can  any  official  action  lie  had  thereon,  until  a 
lished  in  due  form  by  the  inventor  or  applicant. 


In  reply  to  your  favor  of  the  15th  in.t.,  I  be*  to  en- 
eloee  you  herewith  the  blue  print,  ana  drawing,  mentioned  in  your 
lett  er. 


Room  NCM.9.S - 

“Tho  Commitiioner  of  Patents, 


DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR, 

United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d.  c..  Oct. 6,  1899. 


Thomas  A.  Edi son, 
c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 
#31  llassau  st., 

II.  Y.  City. 


l&CEl  ,£> 
. \  /«  ogr  -C 


3=^ 

.Please  find  below  a  communication  front,  the  EXAMINER  in,  charge  of  your  application. 

Combustion  Engines,  Piled  July  18,  1899,  Serial  #724,246. 


CZ-, 


(At;... 


The  pivotal  supports  for  levers  41  and  53,  shown  in  figure5,  should 
be  lettered  and  described. 

On  page  1,  lines5-  6,  the  words  "case  Ho.  1010"  should  be  canceled. 
The  description  from  line  19  of  page  1  to  line  13  of  page  2  is  in¬ 
distinct,  It  is  understood  that  the  heat  imparted  to  the . compressed  , 
air  would  add  to  the  total  energy,  but  it  is  not  clearly  brought  out 
/'  how  such  addition  of  heat  would  result  "in  a  very  great  increase  of  the 
efficiency  thereof". 

The  description  of  the  packing  grooves  as  "concentric  grooves"  is 
objected  to  as  incorrect;  the  several  grooves  do  not  have  a  common  cen-  • 
ter. 

The  description  on  page  4,  lines  10  -  15,  is  indist  inct. 

Xf_the_j 


tlio  papers  previously  filed,  mid  writ) 


CaseNo^? . Papor'Na.../. . 


#724, 246. 

-2- 

a  solid  combustible  contains  less  volatile  hydrocarbons  than  a  fluid 
combustible,  it  should  be  amended  to  clearly  so  state;  at  present,  its 
meaning  is  not  clear. 

The  severs!  statements  throughout  the  description  that  the  valve 
71  is  far  the  purpose  of  causing  a  drop  in  the  pressure  between  pipe 
67  and  pipe  68  are  objected  to  as  indistinct.  • 

The  matter  contained  on  page  3,  lines  16  -  18,  is  wholly  in  the  na¬ 
ture  of  advertisement  of  applicant’s  apparatus,  and  should  therefore 
be  canceled. 

The  description  on  page  10,  lines  7  -  13,  is  indistinct  and  partly 
incorrect.  Since  the  walls  of  the  cylinder  can  be  no  hotter  than  the 
air  which  has  imparted  heat  thereto,"  they  cannot  impart  heat  to  said 
air  until  the  temperature  of  the  air  has  been  lowered 'by  expansion. 

The  initial  expansion  of  the  air  is  due  to  the  heat  contained  in  it, 
but,  of  course,  afterthe  air  has  cooled  down  in  expanding  a  small  amount 
of  heat  would  be  absorbed  from  the  cylinder  walls. 

In  the  several  claims  which  cover  the  engine  cylinder,  air  compress 
or,  heater,  or  receiver,  the  connections  between  these  elements  should 
be  directly  included. 

The  words  "said  heater  being  supplied  with  a  solid  combustible" 
occurring  in  the  claims,  is  not  a  proper  patentable  limitation,  and 
should  be  canceled. 

The  words  "air  being  directed",  occurring  in  many  at  the  claims, 
are  objected  to  as  indistinct  and  functional;  the  means  for  "directing" 
the  air  in  the  manner  referred^to  diould  be  directly  included  in  such 
claims.  :  •  . -  : 

Claim  II  "is  indi  stinct  and  functional  in'  the  words  "  a  regenerator 

CasoKo...>J!....P^Ko;: . /... 


. V  ' 


#724,246. 

through  which  the  air  passes  before  entering  said  heater". 

Claims  19,  20,  21  are  indistinct  and  functional  in  the  words  "a 
valve  for  admitting  air. ..into  the  engine  cylinder  during  a  part  only 
of  its  operative  stroke";  the  construction  and  arrangement  by  which 
the  valve  is  enabled  to  perform  its  function  should  be  specified  in 
the  claims. 

Claims  22,  23,  24,  are  indistinct  and  functional  in  the  words  "  a' 
valve  adapted  to  admit  air... during  a  part  only  of  the  operative  stroke 
of  the  engine". 

Claims  25,  26,  27  are  indistinct  in  the  words  "a  valve... for  caus¬ 
ing  a  drop  in  the  pressure  of  the  air,  vhereby  a  portion  of  the  air 
will  be  directed  through  the  heater". 

Claims  29,  30,  31,  32  are  functional  in  the  words  "a  shaft  driven 
therefrom",  "a  compressor  driven  from  said  shaft";  the  connections  for 
driving  rhe  shaft  and  compressor  should  be  directly  inrtluded  in  the 
claims . 


Claims  34,  36  are  indistinct  in  the  aords  "air  packed  piston". 
Claim  36  is  further  indistinct  in  the  words  "air  packed  controlling 
,  valve". 

Claims  1,  4,  and  29  are  rejected  on:  - 
16,081,  Oct.  4,  1853,  Woodbury  et.al.; 

*#  33,799,  Wov.  26,  1861,  Shaw;  • 
lX#12  0,525,  pet.  24,  1871,  Eider ; 
lX#224, 772,  gfthfcJMi-iafiO.  Pell; 

\Z #248,688,  Oct.  25,  1881,  Anderson; 

(Air  and  (jas  Engine^  caloric). 


Case  No."^ . Paper 


T- 


724,246. 


Claims  2,  6,  7,  8,  3o  and  32  are  rejected  on  Woodbury,  Shaw,  and  Pell, 
cited. 

Claims  3,  5,  25,.  26.  and  27  are  rejected  on  Shaw,  Pell,  Rider,  and 
Anderson,  cited. 

Claim  9  is  rejected  on  the  references  cited  against  claim  1,  taken 
with:  - 

1  #324,060* ' Aug .  11,1885,  Woodbury  et.al,;  ’  $ 

-j^L  #538,068,  April  2^  1395,  penney; 

(Air  and  gas  Rngines,  caloric). 

There  would  be  no  invention  in  providing  the  compressors,  of  the 
first  group  of  references  with  cooling  means;  such  an  arrangement  being 
common,  as  shown,  by  Woodbury  (324,o60>  and  Denney,  cited. 

Claim  9  is  further  rejected  on:  - 
^  #569,672,  Oct.  20,  1896,  Von  Querfurth; 

(Air  and  Gas  Rngines,  Caloric). 

dims  10,  13,  19,  20,  and21  are  rejected  on  Von  Querfurth,  cited, 


and  on:  - 

#575,820,  Nov.  29,  1887,  Eckerson;  '  ’  '  0 

(Air  and  Gas  Engines,  Caloric). 

Claims  11  aa  d  14  are  rejected  on  the  references  cited  against  claim 
10,  taken  with  Woodbury  (10, 081 )}  Shaw;  and  pell,  cited. 

Claims  12,  15,  22,  23  and  24  are  rejected  on  Von  Querfurth,  cited. 
Claims  16  andl7  are  rejected  on  Anderson,  Rider,  Shaw,  and  Pell, 
cited.  There  would  be  no  invention  in  providing  the  cylinders  of  the 
references  with  he  ating  jackets;  such  a  construction  being  common,  as 
shown,  for  example,,  by  Eckerson. and  Von  Querfurth,  of  record. 


Case  No.\Z....Prne:-  No . /..... 


Claim  18  is  rejectedon  Shaw,  Fell,  and  Von  Querfhrth,  cited.' 
dim  28  is  rejected  on  ^ckerson,  and  Von  Querfurth,  cited,  and  c 
39,282,  June  3,  1890,  McTighe 


(Air  and-oas  Engines, caloric) . 

Claim  31  is  rejected  on  Woodbury  (10,081)  Von  Querfurth,  Eckerson, 
Fell,  andShaw,  cited. 

■  Claims  33,  36^  37,  38,  ,39,  aqd  4$)  are  rejected,,  oi^  th^.ref^rgj^s 
cited.  It  does  not  constitute  invention  to  provide  the  moving  parts 
of  any  apparatus  with  roller  bearings  fro  the  purpose  of  reducing 
friction. 

Claims  34  and  36  are  rejected  on  :  - 
#232,158,  Sept.  14,  1880,  Waterhouse  et.al., 

(Air  and  ^as  Engines,  Caloric). 

As  to  claim  36,  there  would  be  no  invention  in  substituting  the 
common  form  of  packing  grooves  for  the  valve-stem  packing  in  Waterhouse 
engine. 


Case  No."^h?.,..:Peperl!b, . 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 


COMBUSTION  ENGINES 
PILED  JULY  18,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  734,846 


i  ROOM  NO.  36. 


HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 
s  I  R  ' 

!  Please  amend  as  follows: 

Page  4,  line  26,  after  "16“  insert  - —  The  pivot 

of  the  lever  41  is  carried  by  a  suitable  supporting  bracket 
41* - 

The  Official  draftsman  will  please  mark  the  bracket 
which  supports  the  pivot  of  the  lever  41  with  the  reference 
numeral  41',  and  charge  the  same  to  our  account. 

I  Page  5,  line  8,  after  "43"  insert  — -  The  pivot 

of  the  lever  43  Is  carried  by  the  support  41*  - - 

We  note  that  the  Examiner  obj  ects  to  the  words  "case 
No.  1010"  on  page  1  of  the  specification.  We  call  his  at¬ 
tention  to  the  fact  that  all  of  applicant’s  applications  are 
identified  by  applicant’s  own  case  number,  and  that  no  ob¬ 
jection  whatever  to  this  practice  has  been  raised; 

By  the  matter  on  pages  1  and  2  which  the  Examiner 
does  not  understand,  we  mean  that  the  imparting  of  heat  to 
the  compressed  air  permits  the  latter  to  operate  an  engine, 
which  in  turn  operates  the  compressor  with  surplus  energy 
for  accomplishing  work. 

Page  4,  line  11,  erase  the  word  "concentric"; 

The  matter  on  page  4  which  the  Examiner  does  not  un¬ 
derstand,  means  that  since  the  engine  and  compressor  are 
both  single-acting,  the  cranks  should  be  so  disposed  that 
the  compressor  piston  will  move  on  its  compression  stroke 
Mt  the  engine  piston  moves  on  its  down  or  expansion  stroke; 

Page  6,  lino  26,  erase  "deposit"  and  substitute  — - 
i  Case  No, Paper  No 


volatile  hydrocarbons  - 

Wo  do  not  see  why  the  Examiner  objects  to  the  state¬ 
ments  In  the  description  that  the  valve  71  is  employed  for 
the  purpose  of  causing  a  drop  in  the  pressure  between  the 
-  pipe  67  and  the  outlet  pipe  68.  This  is  the  true  function 
of  the  valve  in  question.  If  the  valve  were  not  used* 
hardly  any  air  would  be  deflected  through  the  heater,  since 
the  passage  around  the  Jacket  would  be  of  very  much  less  re¬ 
sistance.  By  employing  the  valve  71,  a  choking  effect  Is 
aeoured,  whereby  there  will  be  a  drop  in  the  pressure  beyond 
the  valve  in  Just  the  same  way  as  when  a  pressure-reducing 
valve  is  employed. 

If  the  matter  on  page  8  to  which  the  Examiner  ob¬ 
jects  is  incorrect,  we  will  erase  it}  if  it  is  correct,  we 
see  no  objection  to  it.  So  far  as  applicant  knows,  he  is 
the  first  person  to  employ  wheel  or  roller  bearings  in  en¬ 
gines  of  this  type}  so  that  we  think  there  is  ample  basis 
for  the  statement  In  question. 

Aa  we  understand  it,  the  statement  of  the  Examiner 
criticising  the  matter  on  page  10,  conveys  exactly  the  mean¬ 
ing  which  we  wish  to  convey  by  the  matter  in  question.  The 
walls  of  the  cylinder  are  heated  by  the  heated  air  surround¬ 
ing  them,  and  excluding  losses  by  radiation  etc.,  the  tem¬ 
perature  of  the  cylinder  walls  would  normally  equal  the  tem¬ 
pera  turo  of  the  surrounding  heated  air.  As  the  air  in  the 
cylinder  expands  and  its  temperature  is  ^educed,  it  absorbs 
heat  from  the  cylinder  walls,  and  hence  performs  an  addsd 
increment  of  work. 

We  note  that  the  Examiner  objects  to  the  words  "said 
heater  being  supplied  with  a  solid  oombus tibia”,  occurring 
in  the  claims.  In  applicant's  former  application  Serial 
Ho.  70fi,t>76  referred  to  in  the  introductory  portion  of  the 
specification,  the  claims  were  appealed  to  the  Examiners  in 
8  CaseNk.^ . Paper  No.  •€.  ,r 


Chief  and  were  expressly  limited  to  the  solid  combustible 
material.  After  the  appeal  in  the  application  in  question 
was  decided,  a  divisional  application  was  filed  on  the  ap¬ 
paratus,  and  the  present  Examiner  requested  us  to  furnish 
jan  additional  view  actually  showing  the  solid  combustible. 

We  believe  therefore  that  this  obj  action  should  be  withdrawn. 

Erase  claims  1  to  18  inclusive,  29  to  33  inclusive, 
.35,  and  37  to  40  inclusive,  and  change  the  numerals  of  the 
remaining  claims  to  1  to  12  inclusive. 

We  note  that  the  Examiner  rejects  present  claims  1 
to  6  inclusive  (former  19  to  24)  on  the  patent  to  Von  Quer- 
furth  and  the  patent  to  Eckerson.  AL1  of  these  claims  are 
limited  to  the  operation  of  the  admission  valve  in  Buoh  a 
way  as  to  produce  an  expansion  effect.  We  do  not  find  any 
similar  description  in  either  of  the  references.  Further¬ 
more,  present  claims  3  and  6  are  specifically  limited  in  the 
combination  to  a  receiver  between  the  compressor  and  engine 
cylinder.  Neither  of  the  references  show  this  feature  of 
the  combination.  Furthermore,  the  fourth,  fifth  and  sixth 
claims  are  limited  to  the  employment  of  a  heater  of  the  type 
burning  a  solid  combustible,  into  direct  contact  with  which 
the  air  is  admitted.  Neither  of  the  references  is  of  this 
character. 

The  7th,  8th  and  9th  claims  are  all  limited  specifi¬ 
cally  to  the  employment  of  the  valve  in  the  conduit  leading 
into  the  jacket  of  the  heater,  by  which  a  drop  in  pressure 
will  be  secured  beyond  the  jacket  to  effect  a  revoluble  flow 
of  air  through  the  solid  combustible  irrespective  of  the  re¬ 
sistance  thereto.  This  seems  to  be  an  entirely  new  feature 
in  the  combination.  .  In  the  Anderson  patent,  air  is  admit¬ 
ted  to  a  jacket  around  the  heater,  and  from  the  jacket  ft 
divides,  part  going  beneath  the  grate  and  part  above  the 
grate.  The  opening  above  the  grate  is  never  closed,  while 
®  Case  No,  . Paper  . 


the  opening  below  the  grate  ean  be  regulated.  The  Examiner 
will  therefore  see  that  If  for  any  reaeon  the  grate  became 
obstructed,  all  the  air  would  tend  to  flow  above  It.  With 
applicant's  suggestion,  by  interposing  a  valve  in  the  pipe 
leadlne  to  the  jacket,  the  jacket  can  be  almost  entirely  Out 
off,  so  ns  to  cause  the  entire  pressure  to  pass  through  the 
.grate.  In  the  Rider  patent,  all  the  air  from  the  compres¬ 
sor  passes  through  the  grate,  and  the  only  valve  which  is 
used  merely  regulates  the  single  stream  of  air.  In  the 
Pell  patent  all  of  the  air  passes  into  the  heating  chamber, 
and  a  single  valve  is  employed  for  regulating  the  flow  into 
the  same.  In  the  Shaw  patent  a  shunt  is  provided  around 
the  grate  through  which  air  can  be  deflected,  a  demper  being 
employed  in  the  heating  chamber  to  cut  off  the  products  of 
combuetion  therefrom.  Although  this  damper  does  to  a  cer¬ 
tain  extent  regulate  the  flow  of  air  through  the  grate,  it 
is  not  looated  as  claimed,  and  does  not  provide  for  a  drop 
In  pressure  as  explained.  By  employing  a  regulating  valve 
in  the  conduit  leading  to  the  heater,  as  covered  In  the 
claims,  a  perfect  regulation  is  secured,  while  the  valve  Is 
not  subjected  to  the  intense  heat  of  the  heating  chamber,  a# 
is  the  Case  with  the  damper  of  the  Shaw  patent. 

We  note  that  the  Examiner  rejects  the  10th  claim 
(former  aeth)  upon  the  patents  to  Eekerson  and  Von  Querfurth 
In  connection  with  the  patent  to  McTlghe.  The  latter  refer¬ 
ence,  we  submit,  does  not  show  the  special  construction  of 
admission  valve  which  is  made  the  subject  of  the  claim..  The 
claim  in  question  calls  for  a  valve  chest  having  two  entrance 
ports  and  an  outlet  leading  into  the  cylinder,  with  a  valve 
nomally  dosing  the  outlet  and  located  between  the  two  en¬ 
trance  ports  eo  as  to  be  maintained  in  a  balanced  condition. 
We  do  not  find  the  equivalent  of  this  construction  in  the 
KcTighe  patent,  and  if  the  Examiner  insists  upon  this  refer- 
4  CaseNo..\£ . PapT  No.,  sC.;; 


I? 

anofl,  we  request  that  ita  pertinence  be  indicated  under  the 
rules • 

Regarding  claims  11  and  12  (former  34  and  36) , 
against  which  the  patent  to  Waterhouse  at  al  has  been  cited, 
we  respectfully  request  reconsideration  thereof.  So  far  as 
applicant  knows,  he  is  the  first  to  onploy  antifriction 
bearings  in  a  combustion  engine.  We  submit  that  when  in 
addition  to  this  suggestion  the  further  suggestion  of  em¬ 
ploying  airtight  pistons  and  valves  is  made  to  produce  a 
device  wherein  friction  is  reduced  to  a  minimum,  a  sufficient 
basis  for  an  allowable  claim  is  laid. 

Very  respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISOH,  .  . 

By  •  ■ _ ■  ■  '' 

His  Attorneys. 

Hew  York,  August  2,  1900. 


®  Case  No,..ii!....;Ps;:"r  Ho,.. 


2 — Sd(i. 


United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  D*  C«,  Aug.  g0>  1900> 

Thos.  A.  Edison, 
c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

|  #31  Nassau  st., 

1  H.  Y.  City. 

i 

■°  Please  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER 


£  § 

S  j  Combust  ion  Engines,  filed  July  is 


1899,  SerieL  #724,246. 

CZ . 

0j>  Patents. 


1 

Sg 

5J 

||  The  criticism  urged  against  the  description  on  page  10  in  the 

.gSlast  Office  letter  is  still  adhered  to.  It  would  seem  that  the  air 
|  f contains  so  much  heat  which  nuy  be  imparted  to  the  engine  either  in 
|  Cheating  the  walls  of  the  cylinder  or  in  d>  ing  work  directly  in  the 
^cylinder  and  it  is  immaterial  whether  or  not  the  heat  is  first  given 
j|out  to  the  cylinder  walls  and  the  remaining  heat  utilized  in  doing 
jjwdrk,  or  whether  all  the  heat  is  utilized  in  doing  work. 
g-S  Claims  1,  2  and  3  are  rejected  upon  the  references  of  record. 

|  The  valve  set  forth  in  these  claims  for  cutting  off  the  supply  of  air 
|  before  the  end  of  the  stroke  is  common  in  all  steam  engines. 

Claims  4,  5  and  6  are  rejected  being  aggreget  ions  since  it  is 


thought  that  the  peculiar  kind  of  heater  bears  no  relation  to  the 
n  \  Paper  Nqv,. 


engine  system. 


— CaseJ'lo^ 


*  ''4  v 

#724,246.  r  M. 

Claims  7,  8  anA9  are  rejected  upon  the  references  of  record. 
Claim  10  is  for  a  valve  gear  construction  while  the  remaining 
claims  are  for  a  caloric  engine.  These  are  separate  and  distinct 
invei  tions  and  should  be  the  subject  matter  of  separate  applications. 
For  this  reason^  no  further  action  will  be  taken  until  claim  10  is 
divided  out  of  this  case. 

ClaL  ms  11  and  12  are  rejected  being  an  aggregation  between  the 
peculiar  kind  of  piston  and  a  peculiar  kind  of  bearing  and  further 
the  same  does  not  .amount  to  invention  in  view  of  roller  bearings 
used  in  analogous  connections  in:  - 
Diamond, #473,829,  April  6,  1892;  S 
(Bicycles,  Forks,  Spring). 

V/.A.H  . 


Case  No, Paper  No,\£... 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 


COMBUSTION  ENGINE  : 

:  ROOM  NO.  35. 

RILED  JULY  IS,  1899  ; 

SERIAL  NO.  724,346  : 

HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OE  PATENTS, 
s\  R  : - 

We  note  that  the  Examiner  still  oriti- 
oisea  the  description  on  page  10,  hut  as  we  understand  his 
criticism  It  only  questions  the  expediency  of  applicant's 
construction  and  not  its  operativeness.  Since  the  air  in 
the  jacket  24  is  of  the  maximum  temperature,  and  slnoe  the 
air  expanded  in  the  oylinder  is  of  reduced  temperature,  it 
seems  inevitable  that  there  will  be  a  conduction  of  heat 
through  the  oylinder  walls,  producing  an  increased  expansive 
effect  in  the  expanding  air.  Suoh  an  operation  we  believe' 
would  take  place,  but  as  to  Its  relative  efficiency,  no 
opinion  is  expressed. 

We  note  that  the  Examiner  still  rejeots  olaims  1  to 
9  inolUBive  on  the  references  of  record.  We  have  examined 
the  references  and  have  compared  them  carefully  with  the  re¬ 
jected  claims.  After  making  suoh  comparison  we  are  still 
of  the  opinion  that  the  olaims  should  be  allowed,  and  there¬ 
fore  ask  that  they  may  be  reconsidered. 

So  far  as  claim  10  is  conoemed,  we  take  issue  with 
the  Examiner  in  his  ruling  that  the  claim  covers  only  "a 
valve  gear  construction".  In  drawing  the  claim  we  took 
pains  to  include  in  the  combination  the  necessary  operative 
parts  with  whioh  the  valve  cooperates  for  the  production  of 
a  oompleto  oombustlon  engine.  Reconsideration  of  the  Exami¬ 
ner’s  ruling  on  this  olaim  is  therefore  requested. 

Case  No,^.f.....Pa;,er 


We  note  that  the  Examiner  now  rejeots  the  11th  and 
12th  claims  on  the  ground  of  aggregation.  We  call  hie  at¬ 
tention,  however,  to  the  faot  that  by  the  adoption  of  the 
double  expedient  of  air  packing  the  piston  and  valves  and 
using  roller  bearings  on  the  moving  parts,  the  element  of 
friotion  is  very  greatly  reduced  and  an  engine  obtained  of 
materially  increased  effioionoy.  The  citation  by  the  Exami¬ 
ner  of  the  patent  to  Diamond  does  not  strike  us  as  being 
pertinent,  sinoe  the  referenoe  is  entirely  outside  of  the 
art  with  which  applicant  is  dealing. 

Should  the  Examiner  adhere  to  his  rejeotion  of  the 
10th  olaim,  it  is  asked  that  such  action  thereon  be  taken 
as  will  permit  the  question  of  division  to  be  brought  to 
the  attention  of  the  Commissioner  on  petition.  Should  he 
still  rejeot  the  remaining  claims,  it  is  asked  that  such 
aotion  be  taken  as  will  permit  an  appeal. 

Very  respeotfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 

By  _ 

His  Attorneys. 

New  York,  August  6,  1901. 


Case  . Paper 


Room  No. — 8.9.*. 


comm  *  ''cations  renpoctliij;  tills 
tlou  hU«7m|<I  cl vo  tlio  sorful  number, 


DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR, 

United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d.  c.,  September  16,  1901. 

T.  A.  Edison, 

c/ o  Dyer,  Edmonds  A  Dyer, 

Edison  Laboratory, 

Orange,  IT.  J. 


Piease  find  below  a  communication,  from  the  EXAMINER  in  char)<,  of  yaun,anpli^iZoj£0)\ 
Serial  Ho.  724,246;  filed  July  18,  1899;  "Combustion  Engine" 


_ _ _  Cummissimicr  of  PatcnU. 

This  case,  as  amended  August  9th,  has  been  considered. 

It  is  still  thought  that  claim  10  covers  subject-matter  inde¬ 
pendent  of  that  covered  by  the  other  claims.  The  previous  office 
action  as  to  division  is  therefore  repeated.  It  is  noted,  how¬ 
ever,  that  the  said^claim  is  apparently  anticipated  by  the  patent 
v 

to  Millholland,  92,630,  July  13,  1869,  (Steam  Valves,  Piston 
valves) . 

Applicant's  post  office  address  should  be  stated  in  the 
petition. 

In  lino  15,  page  3,  "with"  should  read  _to. 

The  reference  numeral  41'  should  be  placed  upon  fig.  5. 

The  laudatory  passage  contained  in  lines  16  to  28,  page  8, 
is  unnecessary  to  a  full  presentation  of  the  alleged  invention, 

Case  No,...s£....Paper  No.,^.7.....  . 


arid  should  therefore  be  erased. 

The^state  of  the  art  is  farther  shown  by  the  patent  to 
Gale,  17,355,  July  2,  1857,  (Steam  Engines,  Pistons). 


Case  No, Paper  No,..s£„.t 


/?»«//« 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON  / 
SUBJECT-MATTER:  A; 
PILED  y 

SERIAL  NO.  ^ 

EXAMINER'S  ROOM  NO. 


i  ■*-?-  ;  r 

($r./n/.0r/.dsJ 

<&*,£&.  %*«,.  7^1 

^  -2^«S 


HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 

SIR  : _ 

In  the  above  entitled  application,  please  ad¬ 
dress  further  communications  to  us  at  our  office,  No.  31  Nassau 
Street,  New  York'  City. 

Very  respectfully.  * 


Attorneys  of  Record. 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
COMBUSTION  ENGINES 
PILED  JULY  18,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  724, 246 
ROOM  NO.  89 

HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 

SIR  : - 

The  Off  ioial  draftsman  will  please  ap¬ 
ply  the  referenoe  numeral  41'  at  the  bottom  of  figure  5  to 
the  braoket  on  whioh  the  lever  41  is  pivoted,  charging  the 
cost  of  the  same  to  our  aooount. 

Very  respectfully, 


New  York,  August  15,  1902. 


Attorneys  for  EdiBon. 


Case  No.-^f. . Paper  No . 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
COMBUSTION  ENGINES 
FIXED  JULY  18,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  724,246 
ROOM  NO.  89 

HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OF  PATENTS , 

SIR  : - 

In  a  separate  communication  sent  here¬ 
with,  we  have  revested  the  Official  draftsman  to  apply  the 
reference  numeral  41'  at  the  bottom  of  figure  5  to  the 
hraoket  on  which  the  lever  41  is  pivoted. 

Page  3  line  15  erase  "with"  and  substitute - to— 

Cancel  olaim  10. 

'ffa  are  not  able  to  looate  the  "laudatory  passage" 
to  which  the  Examiner  refers,  as  the  matter  contained  be¬ 
tween  lines  16  and  28  on  page  8  seems  to  be  quite  unobjec¬ 
tionable.  If  the  Examiner  will  identify  the  matter  In 
point,  we  will  be  glad  to  erase  it  if,  as  he  says,  it  is 
unnecessary  to  a  full  presentation  of  the  alleged  invention. 
Very  respeotfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 

By  . _ _ 

Attorneys. 

New  York,  August  15,  1902. 


Case  No^/.....Papei’  No.. 


2—200. 


department  of  the  interior. 
United  States  Patent  Office, 


Thoa.  A.  Edison,  Washington,  d.  c„  Oct .  15,  1908. 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

Nassau,  et  r‘  oCTlSlMS  1 

N,  Y;  City,-,. . , : n  .. 

• «  Please  find  haloid  a*  corrimwnibatton  fro'm  the  EXAUUftER  Oil  charge  jo/  youi^  ap-plivatvonf/X 

Conbustion  Engine#  filod'  july'lf)^  1899^  Serial >724, 24(8.' 

\j^V  tA  (2£$L^.  , 


'J»V.  •  •  ••  '  ’•  _  Commissioner  of  Patents. 

Ehis  case,  as  amended  Aug.  16,  1902,  ha# .been  considered,  v.. 
Beginning  liqe  19,  page. 1,  o»d  ending  line  IB,  page  2,  o  an  cel  all 
matter,  as  being  inconsi  stent,  with -the  state,  of  the  art  as  a  stat  eraent 
of  invention. 


!fhe.;porrections  .of  the  formal  errors  noted -.in  the  prior  .Jotters.. ' 
with  •.dutch  ce»>pliajipec  ha#  not  been  made,,  must,  bo/  .anade  '.before  the 
ease,  issues. 

Claims  1,  8,.-.<*},d  3  are  rej.ectjed  on  Von  Querfurth,  of  record,  in 
view  of  the  common.  use  of  cut  off  slide  valves,  .,r,,  .  ... 

Claims  4,  5,  and  6  iro  rejected  as  aggregations  for  the  reasons 
before  stated  and  on  Shaw,  of  record. 

Olaims  7,  8,  and  9  are  rejeoted  on  the  re fore  nee#  of  record, 
particularly  Shaw. 

Claims  10  and  11  are  still  held  to  tie  improper  combing  lone  for 
the  reasons  previously  given  and  are  rejected  on  the  references  of 
reoord,  partioularly  waterhouse  et.ai.,  in  view  of  Eisenhuth. 

M.K.C  : 


Case  No, Paper  NoL^?.. 


TOUTED  STATES  PATENT  OFFICE, 


Thomas  A.  Edison, 
Combustion  Engines, 
Filed  July  18,  1899, 
Serial  No.  724,246.  . 


Roam  No.  218. 


Hon.  COMMISSIONER  OF  PATENTS , 


Sir:- 

I  amend  the  above  entit¬ 
led  application  as  follows: 

Page  1,  line  10,  beginning  with  "In"  erase  through 
the  word  "work",  line  13,  page  2.  Claims  1,  2  and  3  (ori¬ 
ginally  19,  20  and  21),  line  3  of  each,  after  the  word  "air" 
insert  "independent,  and  outside,  of  said  heating  chamber". 
Erase  claims  10  and  11.  Reconsideration  of  the  claims  as 
now  presented  is  respectfully  requested. 

The  patent  to  VanQuerfurth  relates  to  an  engine 
of  a  totally  different  type  from  that  invented  by  applicant 
in  as  muoh  as  the  air  is  heated  by  the  combustion  of  oil, 
and  the  heated  air  is  then  intermixed  with  steam  before  en¬ 
tering  the  working  cylinder.  With  this  reference  the  heater 
comprises  practically  an  oil  burner,  and  this  heater  is  lo¬ 
cated  in  a  jacket  or  casing  surrounding  the  cylinder.  With 
applicant's  invention  the  heater  is  an  independent  element, 
quite  outside  of  the  engine  jacket,  and  communicates  with 
the  latter  by  a  separate  conduit  which  is  made  a  positive 
element  in  the  first  three  claims.  • 

So  far  as  claims  4  to  9  are  concerned,  it  is  re¬ 
spectfully  submitted  that  they  are  not  adequately  met  by 
the  patent  to  Shaw,  on  which  they  are  principally  rejected. 
Shaw  does  not  eihplby  the  jacket  surrounding  the  working 
cylinder,  he  does  not  secure  an  expansive  effect,  and  his 
Case  No . .^...tiaper  No. . T... 


ill 


heater  differs  in  details  from  that  covered  by  'the  claims" 
in  question.  These  claims  relate  to  applicant's  specific 
apparatus*  'and  cover  no  m^re  than  the  special  advance  in 
the  art  which  applicant  has  made.  If  the  ^plibant  is  dis¬ 
posed  to  adhere  to  his  former  actions,  it  is  hoped  that  the 
number  of  references  cited  may  be  curtailed  as  much  as  pos¬ 
sible  in  order  to  facilitate  the  presentation  of  the  oase 
before  the  Examiner's  in  Chief.  So  little  time  is  allowed 
at  the  arguments  before  that  tribunal  that  it  is  a  hardship 
•to  have  to  review  a, large  number  of  references,  some  of  whic 
may  be  more  pertinent  than  others.  Of  the  references  oited 
it  i3  thought  that  the  examiner  can  very  properly  limit 
<  them  -to  two  or. -three,  without  recoding  in  any  way  from  his 
I  position.  s  - 

'  ■  .•  Very  respectfully, 

■  .  Thomas  A.  Edison, 


I  Orange,  E.  J., 

August  25,  1903. 


Case  No. 


J . faiscr  No. 


X- 


(2) 


department  of  the  interior. 


United  States  Patent  Office, 

T.  A.  Edison* 

Care 

Please  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application, 

Combustion  Engines-}  Filed  July  1%  1899J  So.  724,246. 

R  J,  O&L  , 

•  '  ■ _ _  Commissioner,  of  Patents. 

This  case ‘as’ amended  Aug.  27,  1903,  has  been  considered. 

Attention  is ‘called  to  thV  formal' erros,  noted  in  the  prior  official 

letter's.  ■  ' 


The  amendment  of  olaims  If-Sj  and  3  1s  not  material  and  said  claims 
there  ’  , 

are  rejected  on  the  references  of  record  cited^against  . 

Claims.  4,  8  and  6  aSce  rejected  on  the  references  of  record.  e 
Claims  7,  8  and  9  are  rejeoted  on  Shaw. 

Applicant  may -consider  this :'a  Wndi  rejection  if  he’ So  >hdose^: 

The  principal  references  are  Shaw,  Von^erfurth,  and  Fall, 


Case 


/A. 


Filed . /£££: 


Examiner’s  Room  No.  / 


Assignee . . . . . . . . 

Ass’g’t  Exec - - - Recorded _ _ Eiber . ..Page. 


t 


ts  nn&  patent  anuses, 


petition. 


Go  tbe  (Commissioner  of  {patents : 

YOUR  petitioner,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of  the  Unitea 
StateB,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and 
8tate  of  New  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPROVEMENT  IN 
THE  ART  OP  BRICKING  PULVERIZED  MATERIALS 


SPECIFICATION. 

TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

Be  it  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A,  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
new  and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  Ill  THE  ART  OP  BRICKINO  PULVERIZED 
MATERIALS  (Case  1012),  of  which  the  following  is  a  full, 

I  clear  and  exact  description: 

/  My  invention  relates  to  the  art  of  bricking  pul¬ 

verized  material,  and  particularly  to  the  bricking  of  pul¬ 
verized  ore  and  coal,  but  the  improvement  may  be  carried  out 
with  any  other  finely  divided  substance  which  it  is  desired 
to  form  into  compact,  solid  bricks  or  briquettes. 

*  In  my  patent  No.  465*251,  dated  December  15,  1891, 

I  described  a  soluble  rosin  soap,  such  as  reBinate  of  soda, 
as  a  binding  material  for  finely  pulverized  ore,  aid  such  a 
binder,  owing  to  its  high  cohesiveness,  is  especially  appli¬ 
cable  for  the  purpose.  The  objection  to  the  use  of  a  rosin 
soap  such  as  resinate  of  soda  in  this  art,  is  its  solubility 
and  it  therefore  was  necessary,  when  such  a, binder  alone  was 
used,  to  observe  special  care,  in  the  storage  and  transporta¬ 
tion  of  the  bricked  material,  in  excluding  water  therefrom. 

My  present  improvement  is  designed  to  overcome  this 
objection,  and  by  its  means  I  am  enabled  to  use  a  soluble 

I  rosin  soap  as  a  binder  in  the  bricking  of  the  finely  pul¬ 
verized  material,  and  to  obtain  resulting  bricks,  briquette^ 
lumps  or  other  aggregates  which  shall  be  entirely  waterproof 

Jc 

and  therefore  stable  in  the  presence  of  moisture.  My  in¬ 
vention  resides  in  the  discovery  that  when  a  heavy  hydro¬ 
carbon  or  other  non-water  soluble  and  non-abid  material  of 
high  boiling  point  is  added  to  a  very  viscid  solution  of  a 


I  rosin  soap  such  as  resinate  of  soda,  an  emulsion  is  formed, 
which  may  be  added  to  the  pulverized  material,  and  that  when 
the  mixture  in  the  form  of  bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or 
other  aggregates  is  baked  to  drive  off  the  water,  the  solu¬ 
ble  rosin  soap  in  hardening  will  bind  all  the  particles 
firmly  together,  while  the  non-water  soluble  and  non-acid 
material  in  the  binder  will  simultaneously  form  a  thin  film 
over  practically  all  the  particles  of  material  so  as  to  make 
the  resulting  product  entirely  waterproof.  By  thus  employ¬ 
ing  a  soluble  rosin  soap  as  a  binder  for  pulverized  materia^ 
wherein  the  mixture  is  purely  mechanical  and  without  any 
chemical  action  taking  place  between  the  binder  and  the  ma¬ 
terial,  I  am  enabled  to  carry  on  my  present  improvement  in 
connection  with  any  material  in  pulverized  form,  to  use  a 
relatively  small  proportion  of  binding  substance,  and  to  ef¬ 
fect  the  baking  at  relatively  low  temperatures,  v/horeby  the 
danger  of  overheating  in  the  cars  or  place  of  Btorage  is 
overcome,  while  by  making  use  of  a  heavy  hydrocarbon  Or 
other  non-water  soluble  and  non-aoid  material  of  high  boil¬ 
ing  point  in  the  binder,  I  secure  a  product  which  will  be 
entirely  unaffected  by  water,  and  which  can  therefore  be 
transported  in  open  oars  or  stored  in  exposed  piles. 

In  carrying  out  my  present  improvement  for  the 
brioking  of  iron  ore,  for  example,  I  prefer  to  proceed  sub¬ 
stantially  as  follows:  A  rosin  soap,  preferably  resinate 
of  30da,  is  first  secured,  which  may  be  of  the  proportions 
described  in  my  said  patent,  to  wit,  of  1  part  of  soda  and 
of  about  12  parts  of  common  rosin.  This  rosin  soap  is  dis¬ 
solved  in  water  in  a  sufficient  amount  to  impart  a  thick, 
molasseslike  consistency.  To  the  solution  so  obtained  is 
added  preferably  a  thick  hydrocarbon,  such  as  the  residuum 
obtained  from  the  distillation  and’ manipulation  of  crude 
petroleum,  and  having  a  very  high  boiling  point  so  as  hot  to 


I  be  volatilized  during  the  process  of  baking.  The  propor¬ 
tion  of  the  residuum  so  added  depends  largely  upon  the 
oharacter  of  the  binder  desired  and  upon  its  own  charac¬ 
teristics,  but  ordinarily  good  results  will  be  secured  by 
the  addition  of  about  20^  by  weight  of  the  rosin  soap  em¬ 
ployed.  The  residuum  is  thoroughly  mixed  with  the  rosin 
soap  solution  to  form  an  emulsion,  which,  owing  to  the 
heavy  consistency  of  the  hydrocarbon  residuum,  will  be  suf¬ 
ficiently  permanent  for  the  subsequent  operations.  A  suf¬ 
ficient  quantity  of  the  emulsified  binding  substance  so  se¬ 
cured  is  intimately  mixed  with  the  ore  in  a  suitable  mixing 
machine,  with  or  without  the  presence  of  slight  heat,  and 
the  mixture  is  then  formed  under  great  pressure  into  bricks 
or  briquettes  in  a  suitable  bricking  apparatus.  The  bricks 
or  briquettes  so  produced  are  then  baked  in  an  oven  at  a 
temperature  of  preferably  between  400  and  600  degrees  Fah¬ 
renheit  until  the  proper  result  is  secured.  The  first  ac¬ 
tion  of  the  heat  in  the  baking  oven  is  to  drive  off  the  free 
water,  during  which  operation  the  resinate  of  soda  or  other 
rosin  soap  will  become  very  hard  and  will  bind  the  particles 
of  the  ore  together.  After  the  water  has  been  driven  off 
and  the  rosin  soap  solidified,  the  residuum  or  other  hydro¬ 
carbon  employed  will,  under  the  presence  of  the  heat,  spread 
over  each  particle  to  form  a  waterproofing  film  thereon,  and 
in  this  way  the  resulting  product  will  be  entirely  unaffect¬ 
ed  by  the  presence  of  moisture.  It  is  therefore  necessary 
that  the  baking  of  the  bricks  or  briquettes  should  proceed 
to  the  point  where  the  free  water  will  be  entirely  expelled, 
and  where  the  hydrocarbon  or  other  non-water  soluble  mate¬ 
rial  employed  has  had  an  opportunity  to  flow  over  the  parti¬ 
cles  as  explained.  If  the  baking  is  discontinued  before 
the  water  is  driven  off,  the  hydrocarbon  or  other  non-water 
soluble  material  will  not  flow  over  the  particles,  and  the 


I  resulting  waterproofing  thereof  will  not  be  secured;  while 
if  such  material  were  not  used,  the  resulting  product  would 
be  entirely  unstable  in  the  presence  of  considerable  mois¬ 
ture.  When  lighter  pulverized  materials  than  iron  ore  are 
to  be  bricked,  the  quantity  of  the  resinate  or  other  rosin 
soap  requires  to  be  augmented,  owing  to  the  increase  in  the 
bulk  of  the  material. 

Instead  of  making  an  emulsion,  as  explained,  by  add¬ 
ing  the  non-water  soluble  material  to  the  viscid  solution 
of  rosin  soap,  it  will  be  understood  that  the  rosin  soap 
solution  may  be  first  mixed  with  the  pulverized  material, 
and  that  the  proper  proportion  of  such  material  may  be  afte» 
wards  added  to  the  mixture  so  secured  and  intimately  asso¬ 
ciated  therewith,  after  which  the  composition  will  be  formed 
into  bricks  or  briquettes  and  then  baked;  but  I  find  that 
the  results  which  are  secured  when  this  procedure  is  fol¬ 
lowed,  are  not  a3  satisfactory  as  when  an  emulsion  is  first 
formed,  and  I  prefer  to  carry  out  the  invention  in  the  man¬ 
ner  which  I  have  described  in  detail.  Non-water  soluble 
residuums  not  of  an  acid  nature  and  therefore  not  combining 
with  bases,  like  soda,  and  which  are  suitable  for  this  pro¬ 
cess,  are  produced  from  the  distillation  of  fatty  acids  and 
other  industrial  operations,  but  petroleum  residuum  is 
preferable  on  account  of  cheapness  and  its  neutral  charaoter 
in  relation  to  alkalies. 

While  it  is  also  preferable  that  the  composition  of 
the  pulverized  material  and  the  improved  binder  should  be 
first  forned  into  bricks  and  then  baked,  it  will  be  under¬ 
stood  that  the  composition  can  be  baked  in  mass,:  as  I  have 
described  in  my  said  patent,  and  afterwards  broken  up  into 
lumps  or  aggregates  in  any  suitable  way. 


Having  now  described  my  invention*  what  I  claim  e 
new  therein  and  desire  to  secure  by  letters  Patent  is  as 


I4irlsl^,^Fi<}uetjtwH7-ittmip3-or-other-a'ggr6g'a'tes ,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  adding  to  -the  pulverized  material  a 

a*jk  <uyuuu>ri*si  QifitUi**  '■#- 

binding  substance  composed  of^a  soluble  rosin  soap  and  a 
non-water  soluble  non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling 
point,  and  in  subjecting  the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

2.  In  thejir^^ef  fonning-pul.veriaed^matorial--lnto^ 


brj^ks-y-bri^uottfts  -lumps-  ■  o r-crtTOyaggregatod ,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  adding  to  4ho- pulverized  material  a 
.  .  ..  4*u**&«r*~  *-£ 

binding  substance  composed  of  resinate  of  soda  and  a  non¬ 
water  soluble  non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point, 
and  in  subjecting  the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat,  substan¬ 
tially  as  set  forth. 

3*  In  t’he^^t^e^-egtvai.ng  purvey tfled-matBi  ial  -into 


Iment  which  consists  in  adding  to  ihe  pulverized  material  a 

<*♦<-  <*4ue*rx  I*  *£- 

binding  substance  composed  of  a;  soluble  rosin  soap  and  the 
residuum  obtained  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  and 
in  subjecting  the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat,  substantially 
as  set  forth.  , 

4.  In  the  art  of  forming  gulvoi4w»d  mute rial-data 


ment  which  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material  a 
....  :i! 
binding  substance  composed  of^resinate  of  soda  and  the  re¬ 
siduum  obtained  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  and  in 
subjecting  the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

6.  In  the  art  trf  forming  r"lt’T"',,Hird- rmtrrtrWi  into 


I,  the  improve- 


ment  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  to  a 
viaoid^solution  of  a  rosin  soap  a  non-water  soluble  non- 
acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point  ,  in  adding  such 
emulsion  to pulverized  material,  and  in  subjecting  the 
composition  so  obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

6.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes!  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists! in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  to  a 
viscid  solution  of  rfesinate  of  3oda  a  non-wa{kr  soluble  npn- 
acid  material  having |a  high  boiling  point ,f^in  adding  such 
emulsion  to  the  pulve|ized  material,  and  in  subjecting  the 


composition  so  obtaindc 
7 »  In  the  ar^l 

bricks,  briquettes, 
ment  which  consists  in 


to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth, 
of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
is  or  other  aggregates,  the  improvo- 
irming  an  emulsion  by  adding  to  a 
viscid  solution  of  a  rosin  soap  the  residuum /Obtained-  from 
the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in  adding  such  emulsion  to 
the  pulverized  material,  Und  in  subjecting  the  composition 
so  obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

8.  In  the  art  ofVforming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  ol\  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  whioh  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  b^adding  to  a 
viscid  solution  of  resinate  of  soda  the  r^iduum  obtained  by 
the  distillation  of  petroleum,\\in  adding  such  emulsion  to 
the  pulverized  material,  and  iii  subjecting  the  composition 
obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

9*  In  the  art  of  fomkhg  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the,  improve- 
Jment  which  consists  in  adding  to\flhe  pulverized  material  a  > 
binder  composed  of  a  soluble  rosimsoap  and  a  non-water  £  ' 
soluble  non-acid  material  having  alhigh  boiling  point', ^ln 
forming  the  composition,  into  bricks\br  briquettes,  and  in 
baking  said  bricks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forttr 


10.  In  th&\art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lulp>8  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve- 

Ling  to  the  pulverized  material  a 
joinder  composed  of  resin^fce  of  soda  end  a  non-water  soluble 
non-aoid  material  having  anhigh  boiling  point,  in  forming 
the  composition  into  brickflV>r  briquettes,  and  in  baking 
said  brioks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

11.  In  the  art  of  riming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  ocher  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  oonsists  in  adding  4o  the  pulverized  material  a 
binder  composed  of  a  soluble  ro|in  soap  and  the  residuum  ob¬ 
tained  frcm  the  distillation  of  Petroleum,  in  forming  the 
composition  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking  said 
brioks  or  briquettes,  substantial!^  as  set  forth. 

12.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  oonsists  in  adding  to  th4  pulverized  material  a 
binder  composed  of  resinate  of  soda  and  the  residuum  obtain¬ 
ed  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum!  in  forming  the  com¬ 
position  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  ana  in  baking  Said 
brioks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  uset  forth. 

13.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  oonsists  in  first  making  an!|  emulsion  by  adding  to 
a  viscid  solution  of  a  soluble  rosin  spap  a  non-water  solu¬ 
ble  non-aoid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point,  in  adding 
said  smulslon  to  the  pulverized  material,  in  forming  the 

j pulverized  material  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking 
said  bricks  or  briquettes,  substantial!^  as  set  forth. 

14.  In  the  art  of  forming  lulverized  material  into 
*  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  agferegates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  a  vis- 

\\ 


cid  solution  of  reklnate  of  soda  and  a  non-water  soluble 
non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  points  in  adding 
said  emulsion  to  the  Vtlverized  material,  in  forming  the 
pulverized  material  inoo  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  bak¬ 
ing  said  bricks  or  briqU^teB,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

15.  In  the  art  'ot  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  oA  other  aggregates,  the  improve- 

j.me»t^  which  consists  in  formirar;  an  emulsion  by  adding  a  vis- 
j"cid  solution  of  a  soluble  roam  soap  to  the  residuum  ob- 
I  tained  from  the  distillation  on  petroleum,  in  adding  such 
Ij  emulsion  to  the  pulverized  material,  in  forming  the  pul¬ 
verized  material  into  bricks  or  Briquettes,  and  in  baking 
said  bricks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

16.  In  the  art  of  formiiw  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other \kggregatea,  the  improve¬ 
ment,  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  to  a 
viscid  solution  of  resinate  of  sodayfche  residuum  obtained 
from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in  adding  Buoh  emulsion 
to  the  pulverized  material,  in  formirik  the  pulverized  mate¬ 
rial  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  i^  baking  said  bricks 
or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  fi 


# 


l! 


State  of 
(Count?  of 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  the  above-named 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  Citizen 

OF  THE  United  States,  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey; 

THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  BE  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 

of  the  IMPROVEMENT  IN  THE  ART  0?  BRICKING  PULVERIZED  MATERIALS 


required  by  Rule  47,  which  rends  as  follows: 

cato  of  the  ollicial  diameter  of  the  person  administering  tho  oatli,  Btatiug  the  date  of  appointment  and 
term  of  ollicc,  is  filed.  To  obviato  the  necessity  of  a  separate  certificate  in  cadi  application,  a  certificate 
may  bo  furnished  with  tho  request  that  it  bo  filed  in  the  Patent  Office  for  general  reference.” 

Eaoii  certificate  must  have  a  ten-oent  revenue  stami*  affixed  thereto  and  oanceueu  uy 


In  order  not  to  delay  tho  examination  of  this  application,  tho  same  has  been  forwarded  to  the 

rule  have  been  observed. 

By  direction  of  the  Commissioner : 

Very  respectfully, 

Chief  Clerk 


1-^ 


/Q  f'y^' 


(  Series  of  1880 


Department  of  the  Interior, 


Washington,  D.  C., _ vff/,  f 

(f  V^jpHAP.r  rv| 


1  J  ftaue  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  the  petition,  specification,  oath,  and  § 
!  drawing  of  y oar  alleged  Improvement  in  _ 

9)UfZ^Ll 


|  with  Fifteen  Dollars  as  the  first  fee  payable  thereon.  “ 

|  The  papers  are  duly  filed,  and  your  application  for  a  patent  will  be  taken  up  I 
•g  for  examination  in  its  order _  ^ 


a  You  will  be  duly  advised  of  the  examination. 
"  Very  respectfully, 


1 

\ji 

c 

r ' 

i — 

■f . - 

Case  will  be  taken  up  for  ^ 

examination  in  about  one  monlh,  | 


Commissioner  of  Patents. 


furnished  in  duo  form  by  th 


Room  No.J.49-v\ 


United  States  Patent  Office, 


A.M.h/.'P''-"' 

\<t-  of 

V- 

inoton.d.c.,  Sept.  30,  1^99., 


Thomas  A.  Edison, 

Care  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  St., 

Hew  York,  N.  Y. 


Please  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  its  charge  of  your  application. 


Commissioner  of  Patents . 


In  claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8  the  forming  of  the  mass 
inafi  bricks,  briquettes,  lumps,  or  other  aggregates  should 
be^expressed  step;  in  the  process  or  the  introductory  clause 
thereof  amended  to  correspond. 

In  claims  9,  10,  11,  12,  13,  14,  15,  16,  the  introductory 
clause  which  includes  lumps  or  aggre^agtes  is  inconsistent  with 
the  recital  of  the  step  of.  forming  the  material  into  bricks, 
or  briquettes. 

In  claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10,  11,  12,  13,  14, 

15,  16  the  resinate  of  soda  or  soluble  soap  should  be  speci¬ 
fied  as  being  in  a  state  of  aqueous  solution. 

Claims  1,  2,  5,  6,  9,  10,  13  and  14  are  the  same  in  sub¬ 
stance,  and  claims  3,  4,  7,  8,  11,  12,  15,  and  16  are  also  the 
same  in  substance,  there  being  substantially  but  two  claims 
which  could  be  properly  prosecuted. 

The  claims  are  each  rejected  on:- 
LS3e^6fl-iEL^"igg’  Brefnig,  (Artificial  Fuel,  Comp.); 
U.  S.  594,739,  ITov.  30,  1897,  HansOnv(Artificial  Fuel,  Comp.). 


Ex'r  Div. 


3. 


•  words  to  be  slric 


1 


'll  [OKAS  A.  EDI ROE,  ) 

ART  OF  BRIOK1KG  PULVERISED  "AT33RIAJ-,  ) 

:  Room  Ko.  149. 

PILED,  AUGUST  31,  1699,  ) 

SERIAL  EO.  739,121,  j 

HOE.  OOmsSIOEER  OF  PATENTS, 

Sir: 

In  view  of  the  Examiner'  3  criticism  as  to  tho 
number  of  the  claims,  anti  with  the  idea  in  view  of  pro- 
sf.nt.inij  the  invention  in  as  clear-cut  a  form  as  possible, 
we  amend  by  erasing  claims  6  to  16  inclusive,  said  claims 
bo inn  specific  to  the  five  claims  which  now  remain  in 
the  case.  Present  claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  and  S,  line  1  of 
each,  before  "art"  insert  —described—. 

In  each  of  said  claims,  lines  1  and  2,  erase 
the  words  "of  forming  pulverised  material  into  bricks, 
briquettes,  lumps,  or  other  aggregates”. 

Claims  1  and  3,  line  4  of  each,  aft.or  "of", 
and  claims  2  and  4,  line  4  of  each,  before  "rosinate" 
insert  —on  aqueous  solution  of—. 

Claim  5,  lino  4,  before  "solution" insert  — aquo- 

ovs — . 

Reconsideration  of  the  claims  as  now  presented 
is  respectfully  requested. 

As  applicant  points  out  in  the  specification 
with  the  processes  described  in  his  patent  Fo.  466,231, 
objection  was  encountered  in  practice  owing  to  the  non¬ 
stable  character  of  the  aggre.jates  in  the  presence  of 
considerable  moisture.  In  said  patent  applicant  was 
granted  claims  broadly  to  the  method  of  mixing  ores  with 
any  resinate,  such,  for  instance,  as  rosinate  of  soda,  so 
that  the  claims  of  the  present  case  are  dominated  by  said 


I 


patent,  and  the  present  application,  if  issued,  would  not 
broaden  applicant's  monopoly  already  secured.  In  order 
to  remedy  the  defect,  in  the  patented  process,  applicant, 
describes  an  addition  thereto  consisting,  in  adding  a 
relatively  small  proportion  of  a  non-water- soluble  resid¬ 
uum  having  a  high  boiling  point.  The  presence  of  thj.3 
added  ingredient  does  not  affect  the  highly  tenacious 
character  of  the  resinate,  while  it  enables  a  minutely 
thin  water-proof  film  to  cover  the  particles  of  the  ma¬ 
terial.  Obviously,  the  non-water- soluble  residuum  must 
have  a  high  boiling  point,  since  it  is  required  to  with¬ 
stand  the  relatively  high  temperature  of  the  baking  with¬ 
out  volatilisation.  Wo  do  not  percei ve  the  pertinence 
of  either  of  the  references  cited,  particularly  when  the 
present  application  is  viewed  in  the  light  of  an  improve¬ 
ment  on  a  process  already  broadly  patented  to  applicant.. 
Hanson* s  patont  describes  the  making  of  fuel  blocks  of 
highly  combustible  hydrocarbons,  principally  refined  pe¬ 
troleum  (from  75  to  fit  percent),  thick  turpentine  (13  to 
0  percent),  and  pine  resin  (5  to  2  percent),  such  hydro¬ 
carbons  being  mixed  with  a  soap  formed  by  saponifying 
margarin  and  cocoanut  oil  with  caustic  soda.  We  do  not 
see  how  this  can  be  said  to  relate  to  applicant's  art,  but 
if  it.  were  admitted  that  the  particular  fuel  block  com¬ 
position  of  Hanson  were  used  as  a  binder  for  pu.lvorized 
material,  it  will  be  seen  that  applicant's  result  would 
not  be  secured,  3ince  the  potroleira  forming  the  larger 
bulk  of  the  binder  is  highly  volatile.  In  the  Broinig 
patent,  the  inventor  Books  to  make  a  combustible  binder 
for  the  manufacture  of  fuel  bricks,  by  saponifying  resin 
and  asphaltum  with  a  suitable  caustic  alkali.  The  invent¬ 
or  states;  "By  preference  I  may  use  the  resin  or  asphalt- 
_ -3- 


I 


urn  either  the  one  or  the  other  ..lone,  hut  stating  that 
to  effect  the  saponification  of  the  asphaltun  alone  a 
large  proportion  of  alkali  is  required."  We  think  there 
con  ho  no  doubt  but  that  it  was  Broinig* s  idea  to  use 
only  a  resin  soap  as  a  bindor,  and  not  to  use  a  non- 
water- soluble,  high  boiling  point  ingredient  for  forming 
a  water-proof  coating  to  the  particles,  as  with  appli¬ 
cant's  invention. 

Reconsideration  of  the  claims  is,  therefore, 
respectfully  requested. 

7ory  respectfully, 

VnO'tAS  A.  RBI 55077,  ■ 


J'ew  York, 


^1  iBissnu  ft . , 
August  97 . 


1900. 


Kis  Attorneys. 


States  Patent  Office, 


JTo.  729,121,  filed  Aug.  31,  1899, -"Art  of  Bricking  Pulverized 
Mat  erials" . 


Commissioner  of  Patents. 


Amendment  and  argument  filed  Aug.  28,  1900,  have  been  en¬ 
tered  and  considered. 

Soluble  rosin  soap  is  always  a  resinate  of  sodium  or  potas¬ 
sium,  hence  the  difference  in  the  .'ter  ins  in  claims  1,  2  and  5 
and  claims  3  and  4  is  immaterial.  Also,  to  entitle  the  resinate 
as  "viscid"  in  claim  5  is  immaterial. 

The  claims  are  again  rejected  on  the  patent  to  Brdinig,  of- 


-d.  The  composition  constituting  the  binder  does  not  con- 
complete 

sufficient  caustic  alkali  to  effect  the^saponif ication  of 
. .  .  . 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON  : 

ART  OP  HR  TORINO  PUEW3tT2EHD  MATJ5RTALS  : 

:  ROOM  NO.  149. 

PIT, HD  AUGUST  51 1  1899  : 

SERIAL  NO.  7?, 9, 121  : 

HCW.-’OOMKJSSIOK®  OP  PATENTS, 

SIR: 

In  the  above-entitled  application  we 
hereby  appeal  to  the  Examiners- in-Chief  from  the  decision 
of  the  Primary  Examiner,  who  on  September  18,  1900,  reject¬ 
ed  for  the  second  time  and  finally  all  the  claims  in  the 
case,  and  we  assign  the  follovfing  reasons  of  appeal: 

1.  The  Examiner  errod  in  deciding  that  the  pro¬ 
cesses  defined  in  said  claims  are  not  patentable  inventions 
in  view  of  the  state  of  the  art; 

g.  The  Examiner  erred  in  rejecting  said  claims 
on  tho  reference  of  record;  and 

3.  The  Examiner  erred  in  not  allowing  said 

claims. 

An  oral  hearing  is  requested- 
The  appeal  fee  of  ?10.  is  forwarded  herewith. 

Very  respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 

By _ '  ,  ■  ■  _ 

His  Attorneys. 


New  York,  November  28,  1900. 


I  with.  ./.#..*... 


\  the  fee  payable  thereon. 

j 

’  Of  the  result  due  advice  will  be  given. 


5  CZ . 

g  Coiiuiiismnir  of  Mails. 

I  _ — - 


rattan  states  papees?  ofpxgs. 


Isi  re  Applicat  Soil  of  Thoms  A.  Edison 
Wlcd  Alii,  .'ft,  le^a,  fler,  Eo,  729,131, 
"Art  of  Bricking  P\ ilYeriaetl  Materials*, 


Examiner  *  s  owent , 


?  Before  the 
i  3&*amAners-in-<?hief» 
i  On  Appeal. 

7.  i@po. 


The  claim  finally  rejected  wu j  s 

...  B1*  <',he  described  art  the  ifctyrovHMnt  which  consist 8  in 

addins  to  the  pnlverijwd  material  tv  binding  substance  composed  of 
«n  *<n»eoits  solution  of  a  soluble  rosin  soup  and  a  non-water  sol- 
uble  non-acid  material  having  a  hi(;h  boiling  point,  and  in  mib- 
forth^  Mixture  so  produced  to  heat,  substantially  an  pet 

.  ,,"2.  J”  the  described  art,  the  improvement  which  consists  in 
addins  to  the  pulverise'!  materiel  a  binding  substance  composed  of 
an  aqueous  solution  of  resinate  of  soda  and  a  non-water  soluble 
+u^?5+\,™+’2r^~  5avi5,J*,‘  \^ai}  boilintf  »olnt,  and  in  subjecting 
the  Mixture  to  produced  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth, 

J”  the  described  art ,  the  taprovemnt  which  consists  in 
widins  to  tne  pulverised  Material  a  binding  substance  eo mposerf  of 
m  aeuejms  solut,  ion  of  a  soluble  rosin  soap  and  the  reeidmb  ob¬ 
tained  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  and  in  subjecting  the 
mixture  so  produced  t,o  heat,  au.bntanticJ.ly  as  net,  forth. 

...  "4;  Jr  «»  *•«»*»»««  nrt,  the  improvement,  which  consists  in 
adding  to  the  pulverised  Material  a  binding  substance  composed  of 

Sill4??  of  ,TO<lu  mt1  Vm  obtained 

i>om  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  and  in  subjecting  the  mixture 
so  produced  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth, 

thff  **©rovemnt  which  consists  in 

iM  bjr,ffiUMe  t0  &  viscid  aqueous  solution  of  ft  r ob- 

non-water  soluble  non-acid  Material  having  n  high  bell  ins 
»«oh  juwlsion  to  the  pulverised  Material,  and  in  ° 
subjecting  the  composition  so  obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as 
Sfrv  Fo^th*** 

Tho  rdfnrftmo  ndtntl  i»: 

y,  B.  125,505,  Apr,  15,  1S?3,  Breinig,  (Art  it,  if  led  Euel  Compos At ions )r 
The  claim  in  this  case  relate  to  a  process  of  sudsing  ore 
brich,  but,  the  claim  are  not  limited  to  the  use  of  pulverulent 
ore,  and  covs£proce«s  of  forming  bodies  consisting  in  mixing  pul¬ 
verulent  material  of  any  hind  with  rosin  soap  in  solution  ms  a 
binder  and  an  additional  binder  which  is  water-proof. anti. non-acid  s„ch 


% 


If 

as.  a  distillate, and  particularly  petroleum  residuum.  The  reference 
relates  to  the  manufacture  of  fuel  bricks  in  which  the  pulveru¬ 
lent  material  is  botmd  together  by  •  roain  soap  and  a  water-proof 
material,  such  as  asphnltum  or  petroleum  residuum,  etc.  In  the 
detail  description,  see  lines  13-37,  second  column,  p<ig«  1  of  the 
printed  specification,  the  proportions  In  which  the  ingredients 
are  used  are  three  pounds  of  rosin,  one  and  one-half  pounds  of 
water-proof  material  and  one-half  pound  of  caustic  alkali,  The 
applicant,  has  urged  against  this  reference  that  the  water-proof 
material  was  saponified  t\n  well  as  the  rosin,  but  the  applicant 
was  infomed  the  quantity  of  alkali  specified  in  the  patent,  is 
incapable  of  so  acting.  It  is  at  least  doubtful  if  petroleum 
residuum  is  capable  of  saponification;  see: 

Druggist  Circular,  1085,  p,  73,  subject  "Coal  Oil  in  Soap", 

But  if  it  were,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  saponifio  value  of 
rosin  is  found  to  be  174.7  to  194.3;  see 

Chemical  .Analysis,  Oils,  Pats  and  "Taxes,  Benedikt,  Lewkowifcsch, 
itcT'illan  ft  Co.,  Bondon  and  'Tew  York,  1896,  p.  187,  the  one- half 
pound  of  caustic  alkali  is  not  quite  sufficient  to  saponify  all 
of  the  three  pounds  of  rosin. 

It  is  submitted  that  the  processes  as  set  forth  in  the  claims 
are  fully  anticipated  in  the  patent  cited,  and  that  the  claims 
were  properly  rejected. 

The  claims  have  been  objected  to  by  the  Examiner  on  account 
of  their  needless  number,  but  the  Examiner  has  not  refused  to  En¬ 
tertain  the  appeal  because  of  the  formal  objections,  since  if 
anything  should  be  found  to  be  patentable  in  the  case,  the  claim 
■which  most  clearly  expresses  it  my  be  selected  and  allowed. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

Bx‘r  Biv.  3. 


(3) 


Department  of  tee  Interior, 


The  appeal  from,  the  decision  of  the  Examiner  in  the  ease  of. _ 

- for  a  patent  for  an  improvement  in 

A)  %uszbortil« . 

fiIed...(Li£.J/_. . ,  Serial  Jfo.f.Lfi.JA.L.,  will  he  heard  by  the 

Examinetfs-in-Chief, (kfc  r$,3~(fcllL.  !H/L>  ^tcl/AJA^/t  .*  <>3c(!/.  Jtf 


If  appellant,  or  his  attorney,  shall  not  appear  at  that  time  the  hearing  will 
he  regarded  as  waived,  and  the  case  will  he  decided  upon  the  record. 

Very  respectfully. 


The  appeal  from  the  decision  of  the  Examiner 

A  Jri .  Ob.  AeLc^HAj 


for  a  patent  for  an  improvement  in 


Qjdtfi'  Tjj  X£l PUjUbiAujxJbo 

filed — y.sjfflj,  Serial  No.fe2$,..lSkl..-.,  will  be  heard  by  the 
Examiners-in-Chief,  /. 


If  appellant,  or  his  attorney,  shall  not  appear  at  that  time  the  hearing  will 
be  regarded  as  waived,  and  the  case  will  be  decided  upon  the  record. 

Very  respectfully, 


Commissioner  of  Patents. 


THOM AS  A.  EDISON 

ART  OP  BRICKING  PULVERIZED  MATERIAL 
PILED  AUGUST  31,  1899 
SERIAL  NO,  739,131 

BRIBE . 

The  present  application  relates  to  improvements 
in  the  bricking  of  finely  pulvorizod  materials,  such  as 
iron  ore. 

Mr.  Edison,  early  in  his  work  in  this  field,  dis¬ 
covered  that  certain  resin  soaps  possessed  great  adhesive¬ 
ness  and  binding  qualities,  and  he  therefore  obtained  a 
patent.  No.  465,351  dated  December  15th  1891,  oovering 
broadly  a  resinate  and  specifically  resinate  of  soda  as  a 
binder  for  pulverized  ores .  A  soap  made'  by  saponifying  a 
resin  such  as  rosin  is  obviously  water  soluble,  and  great 
difficulty  was  experienced  for  this  reason  in  protecting 
the  original  briquettes  from  dampness.  They  required  to 
be  always  protected  from  the  Weather,  to  be  transported  in 
closed  oars,  and  in  every  way  to  be  carefully  handled. 

The  objections  indicated  were  of  such  a  serious 
nature  that  Mr.  Edison  applied  himself  to  the  production 
of  other  binders  whioh  would  not  be  soluble.  He  found 
that  by  dissolving  rosin  in  petroleum,  by  adding  the  solu¬ 
tion  to  the  pulverized  ore,  and  by  heating  the  same  to 
relatively  high  temperatures  to  drive  off  the  petroleum, 
resinate  of  iron  was  formed,  whioh  bound  the  particles  in¬ 
timately  together  and  whioh  was  non-water-soluble.  The 
briquettes  thus  formed  were  entirely  waterproof.  In  order, 
however,  to  volatilize  the  petroleum  and  to  fom  the  iron 
resinate,  the  baking  temperatures  were  necessarily  high,  | 


BEFORE  THE 
EXAMINERS  IN  CHIEF 
ON  APPEAL. 


Involving  increased  cost  of  production.  Furthermore,  it 
was  found  that  the  briquettes  could  not  be  immediately 
loaded  upon  the  oars  without  danger  of  fire,  s6  that  special 
appliances  wero  neoessary  for  cooling  them  before  loading. 
The  iron  resinate  binder  is  covered  in  Edison  patent  number 
609,438  dated  November  28th  1893. 

Mr.  Edison  then  applied  himself  to  the  discovery 
of  a  binder  which  would  possess  the  waterproof  qualities 
of  iron  resinate  and  would  necessitate  only  the  use  of  the 
relatively  low  baking  temperatures  of  the  alkaline  resinate 
of  his  first  patent.  What  he  does  at  the  present  time, 
and  what  is  made  the  subject  of  the  present  application, 
is  first  the  formation  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  a  suitable 
resin  soap  such  as  reBinato  of  soda,  and  the  addition  thero- 
to  of  a  thick,  waterproof,  non-acid  material  having  a  high 
boiling  point,  such  as  petroleum  residuum,  the  latter  form- 
ing  an  emulsion  with  the  solution.  This  emulsion  is  then 
addfld  to  the  pulverised  material,  and  the  latter  .formed 
Jnto  bricks  or  briquettes  of  the  proper  shape,  which  are 
then  subjected  to  a  temperature  sufficient  to  drive  off  the 
water  but  not  to  volatilise  the  hydrocarbon.  It  has  been 
found  that  as  soon  as  all  jthe  water  in  the  binder  is  driven 
off,  the  alkaline  resinate  acts  to  Intimately  bind  all  the 
particles  of  the  material  together,  while  the  heat  causes 
the  hydrocarbon  to  spread  evenly  throughout  the  mass  ,'  eoat- 
ing  each  particle  with  a  waterproofing  film.  Thus  the 
briquettes  are  impervious  to  water,  while  the  high  tempera¬ 
tures  necessary  with  the  iron  resinate  process  are  entirely 
avoided.  ■  ■ 

The  claims  which  are  appealed  cover,  both  generi- 
Cally  and  specifically,  the  improvement  in  the  art  coioslst- 

ing  in  the  addition  to  the  material  of  a  binder  comprising 

' 


an  aqueous  solution  of  a  rosin  soap  such  as  rssinate  of 
soda  and  a  non-water-aoluble  non-acid  material  having  a 
high  boiling  point,  such  as  the  residuum  obtained  from  the 
distillation  of  petroleum,  and  in  finally  subjecting  the 
mixture  to  heat. 

All  of  the  claims,  are  rejected  by  the  Examiner  on 
U.S.  patent  to  Breinig  No.  186,656.  We  submit  that  the 
Examiner's  explanation  of  the  reference  is  not  only  incor¬ 
rect,  but  in  our  opinion  unfair.  In  the  first  place,  the 
Examiner  improperly  quotes  the  reference  in  order  to  sup¬ 
port  his  argument;  in  the  next  place,  the  Examiner  refers 
to  the  reference  a3  disclosing  a  feature  which  1b  not  re¬ 
ferred  to  therein;  and  finally,  the.  Examiner,  admitting 
that  the  reference  on  its  faoe  is  not  pertinent,  disregards 
its  plain  language,  denies  its  statements,  and  refers  in 
support  of  his  own  position  to  two  references  which  are  not 
of  record  and  which  have  never  before  been  cited. 

In  considering  .the  reference,  the  Examiner  states 
that  it - 


"relates  to  the  manufacture  of  fuel  bricks  in  which  the 
pulverulent  material  IS  bound  together  by  rOsln  soap 
and  a  waterproof  material  such  as  .asphaltum"  o'r'  potro- 
leum  residuum  etc." 

An  examination  of  tho  Breinig  patent  fails  to  disclose  any¬ 
where  a  reference  to  rosin  as  the  material  from  whioh  the 
soap  is  to  be  made.  Breinig  refers  generally  to  the  manu¬ 
facture  of  a  soap  by  tho  use  of  any  - 

"alkali  with  a  caustic  base  of  such  nature  that  it  will 
oii^or^risins",05”  COltI  contQCt  or  bolling  with  fats,1 

and  throughout  the  description  no  particular  resin  is  re¬ 
ferred  to.  if  the  Examiner  in  his  statement  means  that 
Breinig  refers  to  rosin  or  colophony  (the  particular  resin 
referred  to  by  Mr.  Edison),  then  the  statement  is  without 
foundation.  So  also  is ;  thj#; ‘Examiner* a  statement  that  , 


Breinlg  refers  to  "a  waterproof  material".  Such  ia  not 
the  fact.  It  is  true  that  Brelaig  refers  to  the  use  of 
"asphaltum",  either  natural  or  artificial,  but  it  will  be 
seen  that  it  was  Brelnig's  idea  to  saponify  the  asphaltum 
ao  as  to  form  a  soluble  soap.  Thus  he  sayB,  at  the  top 
Of  the  seopnd  oolumn  page  1,  that  his  process  "consists  in 
saponifying  the  resin  or  sBphaltum  or  both",  and  in  de¬ 
scribing  the  process,  in  the  same  column,  he  states: 

"I  slowly  add  the  resin  and  asphaltum,  having  pre¬ 
viously  powdered  the  same  or  not  as  I  may  deem  beat,  . 
and  continue  the  heat  upon  the  solution  until  the  said 
resin  and  asphaltum  shall  be  resolved  and  saponifica¬ 
tion  effected." 

Thus  it  would  be  as  correct  for  one  to  state  that  ordinary 
toilet  soap  is  waterproof  because  one  of  its  original  in¬ 
gredients  considered  alone  is  of  a  water-repellent  charac¬ 
ter,  as  it  is  for  the  Examiner  to  state  that  with,  the.; 
Breinlg  reference  a  waterproof  material  is  utilised  in 
connection  with  the  binder.  When  the  Breinig  reference 
was  cited,  we  Called  attention  to  the  fact  that  It  appeared 
entirely  blear  from  the  description  that  either  a  resin  or 
asphaltum  or  both  oould  bo  used,  but  that  in  every  ins tanoe 
the  material  was  saponified .  In  his  answer  the  Examiner 

doubts  "if  petroleum  residuum  is  capable  of  aaponifioation", 
but  he  argues  that  even  if  this  were  so,  "the  one-half 
poxmd  of  caustic  aUtald"  referred  to  in  the  speolfloatlon 
"do  not  quite  sufficient  to  saponify  all  of  the  three 
pounds  of  rosin".  It  seems  to  us  that  this  language  of 
the  Examiner  is  again  more  in  the  nature  of  the  argument 
of  an  advocate,  than  that  of  a  statement  calculated  for  the 
instruction  and  guidance  of  the  Examiners  in  Chief •  If 
it  be  a  fact  that  petroleum  residuum  is  incapable;  of  aaponl- 
fibation,  it  does  not  follow  therefrom  that  artificial  br 
natural  asphaltum  is  incapable  of  saponifioation.  .  if',-;  how- 

.  -:V 


ever,  Breinig  was  in  error  in  referring,  as  saponifiable 
materials,  to  resins  and  to  oaphaltum  either  alone  or  to¬ 
gether  as  examples  of  such  materials,  when  as  a  matter  of 
fact  the  resin  alone  1b  eapabie  of  being  saponified,  then 
a  person  carrying  out  his  suggestion  would  of  course  uti¬ 
lise  the  saponifiable  material  and  not  the  other.  In  other 
words,  if  a  patent,  in  addition  to  describing  an  operative 
structure,  refers  also  to  an  inoperative  structure,  then 
in  the  consideration  of  the  patent  and  in  the  interpreta¬ 
tion  of  its  oiaims,  its  readers  apply  themselves  only  to 
its  operative  parts.  What  the  Examiner  does  in  the  pres¬ 
ent  case,  however,  ie  to  deny  the  statements  made  by  the 
patentee*  While  at  the  same  time  he  adheres  to  the  entire 
specification  and  holds  that  the  asphaltum  is  not  saponi¬ 
fied,  hut  that  it  remains  unaffected  and  forma  a  water¬ 
proofing  ingredient .  What  he  should  have  done,  if  he  con¬ 
sidered  asphaltum  to  be  incapable  of  saponification,  would 
have  been  to  disregard  the  suggestion  of  Breinig  for  the 
use  of  asphaltum  and  to  regard  the  patent  only  as  covering 
the  use  of  a  resin.  Having  thus  refused  to  accept  the 
patentee's  statements  as  oorrect,  and  having  construed  the 
Breinig  patent  as  covering  an  entirely  different  invention 
from  what  he  describes,  the  Examiner  continues,  that  even 
if  it  be  conceded  that  petroleum  residuum  is  capable  of 
saponification,  "the  one-half  pound  of  oaustic  alkali  is 
'not  quite  sufficient  to  saponify  all  of  the  three  pounds 
Of  rosin",  and  the  inferenoe  is  to  be  drawn  that  the  as- 
phaltun  used  is  entirely  unsaponif led.  In  the  first  placet 
we  ball  attention  again  to  the  fact  that  the  Examiner  rais- 
*i«otes  the  reference  when  he  states  that  resin  is  Used* 

The  patent  in  giving  a  specific  ins  tanoe  of  desirable'  pro¬ 
portions  states  that  three  pounds  of  "resin",  wad  not:  -rosin. 


4 


is  employed.  It  may  bo  true  that  one-half  pound  of  caus¬ 
tic  alkali  is  not  sufficient  to  saponify  throe  pounds  of 
rosin,  but  there  may  be  many  forms  of  resins  which  could 
be  fully  saponified  by  a  much  smaller  quantity  of  alkali. 
The  Examiner  also  failed  to  note  the  statement  in  the  pat¬ 
ent  "that  to  effect  the  saponification  of  the  asphaltum 
alone,  a  large  proportion  of  alkali  is  required",  from 
which  it  must  appear  that  the  alkali  is  always  used  in 
sufficient  proportions  to  completely  saponify  not  only  all 
of  the  resin,  but  all  of  the  asphaltum.  This  is  further 
emphasized  by  the  subsequent  references  in  the  patent  to 
the  fact  that  the  binder  used  is  in  the'  form  of  a  "liquid 
soap",  which  is  mixed  with  the  material.  It  seems  to  us, 
therefore,  entirely  clear  that  with  the  Breinig  patent  the 
patentee's  idea  was  to  use  either  a  resin  or  asphaltum 
alone  or  combined,  and  to  completely  saponify  the  same  to 
fora  a  liquid  soap  as  a  binder,  and  that  in  no  instance  did 
Breinig  suggest  the  incomplete  saponification  of  the  as¬ 
phaltum  so  as  to  leave  the  same  as  an  unoombined  water¬ 
proofing  ingredient,  as  suggested  by  applicant. 

We  believe  therefore  that  for  these  reasons  the 
present  invention  stands  on  a  foundation  of  entire  novelty, 
that  in  fact  the  Breinig  patent  is  not  so  olosely  allied  to 
that  invention  as  applicants  prior  patent,1  which  it  is  the 
object  of  the  present  invention  to  directly  improve,  and 
that  therefore  all  of  the  claims  should  be  allowed.  K 
Respectfully  submitted. 

Attorneys  for  Edison. 

Hew  York,  January  7,  1901, 


[V 


IT.  A.  mis  OH 

ART  OP  BRICKING  PULVERIZED  MATERIAL 
PHOT)  AUGUST  31,  1699 
SERIAL  HO.  739,131 

ADD  IT  I  ORAL  BRIBP. 

;  3ince  tha  argument  of  the  appeal,  wo  have  again  sub¬ 

mitted  the  Breinle  referenoo  to  our  client,  who  calls  our 
attention  to  a  point  which  we  omitted  to  make  on  the  argu¬ 
ment.  With  the  Pd is on  invention  it  is  nooossary  that  tha 
heat  should  not  only  drive  off  the  water  of  the  solution, 
but  also  that  it  should  melt  the  hydrocarbon  and  cause  the 
latter  to  flow  so  as  to  spread  oyer  all  the  ore  particlos 
to  coat  each  with  a  waterproofing  film. 

Thus  the  specification  states  that  the  heat  to  which 
the  briquettes  are  subjected  may  be  so  high  as  600°  P.  On 
the  other  hand,  with  the  Breinlg  invention,  the  mass  whether 
molded  or  not  is  simply  dried  "by  artificial  or  natural 
heat".  Assuming,  therefore,  that  in  the  Breinlg  composi¬ 
tion  the  asphaltuto  or  other  heavy  residuum  is  not  saponi¬ 
fied,  it  would  not  be  affeoted  in  the  slightest  degree  by  a 
mere  drying  heat,  and  would  be  as  ilneirt  and  —  bo  far  as 
its  waterproofing  qualities  are  concerned  —  as  valueless 
as  the  "pulverized  quartz  or  fine  sand"  which  also  are  used 
by  Breinlg.  What  is  necessary  is  that  the  composition 
should  be  subjected  to  a  baking  heat  in  an  ovon  whereby  tha 
desired  operations  will  take  place,  the  water. being  first 
evaporated,  and  the  residuum  then  meltihg. and  running 
throughout  the  -mass  to  coat,  the  individual  particles . 

Wo  suggest,  therefore,  that  each  claim  be  amended 
by  inserting  after  "heat"  the  following  - sufficiently 


•  1 


n 


high  to  evaporate  tha  water  and  to  melt  the  non-water-solu¬ 
ble  material  to  permit  the  flowing  of  the  latter  throughout 
the  mas  a - . 

Ne  hope  the  Examinere-in-Chiaf  may  recommend  thiB 
amendment  if  in  their  opinion  the  case  presents  invention. 

It  a earns  to  us  that  the  rntent  ought  to  be  grantod 
for  the  reason  tliat  if  the  Dreinig  patent  is  to  operate  as 
a  bar  It  must  be  found  (1)  that  rosin  is  the  particular  ros¬ 
in  to  vdiioh  Breinig  refers,  (2)  that  a  liquid  and  hence 
soluble  soap  is  not  formed  as  Dreinig  describes,  and  (3)  that 
the  hoat  used  by  him  is  very  much  greater  than  that  neces¬ 
sary  to  perform  a  drying  operation.  We  do  not  believe  that 
the  reference  can  be  so  construed. 

Very  respectfully, 


Attorneys  for  Edison. 


New  York,  January  11,  1901. 


Application  of  Thomas  A.  Edison  for  a  pat.ont  for*  /in  i im¬ 
provement  in  the  Art  of  pricking  Pulverized  Materials,  filed 
A«r»»t  31,  1899.  Serial  Mo. 729,121. 


Tiyor,  Edmonds  &  J>yor  for  appellant. 


The  claims  appealed  are:  )^J 

"1*  Ir>  the  described  art  the  improvement  which  e^M®§^n 
add i ng  to  tl-  o  pulverized  mat  erial  a  binding  substance  composed  of  ‘ 
an  aqueous  solution  of  a  soluble  rosih  soap  and  a  non-vruter  soluble 
non-acid  material  having  a  high  bollix  point,  and  in  subjecting 
tiie  mixture  so  pro  due  ad  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth.  "  " 

.  ...  ®n  th0  described  art,  t.hc  improvement  which  consists 

in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material  a  binding  substance  composed 

of  an  aqueous  solution  of  resinato  of  soda  and  a  non-water  soluble 
non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point,  and  in  subjecting 
the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat.,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

,  j  , j  f*  *r‘  U1  f*usc  ribed  art,  the  improvement  wh i oh  consists 

ip  adding  uo  the  pulverized  material  a  binding  substance  composed 

0pai?  a<5l,ooua  8° lu ti o n  of  a  soluble  rosin  soap  and  the  residuum 
obtained  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  and  in  subjecting  the 
...  - -reduced  to  heat,  substantially  as  sot  fort?:. 


mixture  i 


In 


in 


the  described  art,  the  improvement  which  consis 
adding  to  the  pulverized  material  a  binding  substance  composed  of 
an  aqueous  solution  of  rosiuato  of  soda  and  the  residuum. obtained 
from  l.i o  distillation  of  petroleum,  and  in  subjecting  t  o  mixture 
so  produced  to  heat,  substantially  as  sot  forth. 

"b.  In  the  described  art,  the  improvement  which  consists 
in  forming  an  omulsion  by  adding  to  a  viscid  aquoous  solution  of  a 
iQfain  soap  a  non-water  soluble  non-acid  matorial  having  a  high  boil 
ing  point, in  adding  such  omulsion  to  the  pulverized  material,  and 
set  “forth ^  cowpositlon  80  “Stained  to  heat, substantially  as 


The  reference  is  patent  to 
Broinig,  April  16,  1872,  Wo. 125, 656. 


Ihe  specification  of  this  application  generally  states 
tho  nature  of  its  invention  as  follows: 


"My  invention  relates  to  the  art  of  bricking  pulverized' 
material,  and  particularly  to  the  bricking  of  pulvorlzed  ore  and 
‘T?,’  °ut  *;ha  improvement  may  be  carried  out  with  any  other  finely 
divided  substance  which  it  is  desired  to  fom  into  compact,  solid 
bricks  or  briquettes." 


V, 


i 

And  i  t  al  so  st  at  ss : 

"When  lighter  pulverized  materials  than  iron  ore  are  to  be 
bricked,  the  quantity  of  the  resinate  or  other  rosin  soap  requires 
to  bo  augmented,  owing  to  tho  increase  in  the  bulk  of  the  mate  rial" 

So  the  invention  applies  to  pulverized  materials  general¬ 
ly,  and  especially  to  coal  and  ore, 

Breinig's  patent  discloses  an  invention  for  bricking  coal 
Tho  invention  is  a  heating  material.  The  ingredients  are 
as  follows: 

Breinig.  Edison, 


Soda, 

1, 

10/ 

1 . -6,4/ 

Rosin, 

6, 

60/ 

12 - -7-6'.  9  / 

Residuum  of  Petro¬ 
leum 

3, 

30% 

H.  2.6 - >16,,6  / 

Breinig's  printed  specification  has  "rosin"  as  its  resi¬ 
nous  ingredient.  In  such  a  course  mixture  wo  should  interpret '"this 
'to  b>  the  cheap  and  common  resin  known  as  rosin.  But  we  are  not 
compelled  to  so  interpret  it,  as  tho  original  specification  in  the" 
file  of  tho  application  for  his  patent,  which  wont  to  patent  with¬ 
out  any  amendment,  used  tho  word  rosin  in  the  formula  and  In  every 
place  in  the  specification  excepting  once,  being  on  the  17th  lino 
from  the  bottom  of  column  2  of  page  1  of  tthe  printed’  specification. 

So  the  ingredients  of  tho  two  compositions  are  tho  sumo 
and  the  proportions  substantially  .the  same,  and  neither  the  paten¬ 
tee  nor  the  applicant  limi-ts  their  invention  to  any  particular  pro¬ 
portion,  nor  does  the  applicant  intimate  that  there  is  any  especial 
utility  in  any  particular  proportion. 

The  contention  on  behalf  of  the  applicant  is  that  the 
patentee's  invention  is  a  compo8itiorf|;ij$i  which  the  asphalttai  is 
saponified,  that  anyone  attempting  to  practice  that  invention  would 
'necessarily  make  a  composition  in  which  the  asphaltum  is  saponf-  ' 
fied;  that  in  his  composition  the  asphaltum  is  not  saponified  and' 


\ 


".;f\  3 

that  no  one  could  pot  from  tho  opacification  of  the  patent,  any  idea 
of  a  hinder  in  which  the  asphaltum  is  not  Baponified;  and  that  for 
t)ia«e  reasons  tlio  patent  doos  not  disclose  his  binding  material. 

V/a  cannot  concur  in  such  an  interpretation  of  tho  inven¬ 
tion  of  the  patent. 

The  specification  of  the  patent  discloses  a  specific  com¬ 
position  made  of  specific  ingredients  in  a  specifiod  manner.  A 
formula  directs  the  public  as  to  the  ingredients  and  proportions  to 
be  used  and  the  specification  states  the  wannor  of  compounding  tlitin 
and  submitting  than  to  molding  and  to  a  drying,  in  natural  or  arti¬ 
ficial  heat. 

That  composition  so  made  and  used  as  a  binder  for  coal- 
brick,  is  the  invention  of  the  patent.  That  composition  is  what 
the  public  now  have  a  right  to  uso,  the  patent  huviig  expired.  It 
Is  hot.  the  theory  of  action  which  controls  in  the  interpretation  of 
a  patent.  The  theory  of  a  patontoo  may  bo  entirely  erroneous  arid 
yet  the  thing  viiich  ho  invented  may  be  protected  by  his  patent. 

The  applicant  may  have  been  of  opinion  that  the  asphaltum 
was  saponified  in  the  particular  composition  which  he  specifies  as 
exhibiting  his  invention,  and  he  may  have  been  mistaken  as  to  that. 
But.  whether  ha  was  or  not  is  of  no  consequence.  Ho  made  known  to 
the  public  a  specific  composition  for  bricking  coal.  That  is  his 
invention.  It  now  belongs  to  the  public  who  have  nothing  to  do  but 
to  mako  the  composition  and  to  uso  it  for  its  useful  purposes,  re¬ 
gardless  of  whether  or  not  tho  asphaltum  in  it  is  saponified.  . 

Also  this  patentee  hal  a  monopoly  of  his  new  brickie  ma¬ 
terial  although  he  may  not  have  appreciated  all  of  its  qualities. 

Yet  it  doos  not  follow  that  he  did  not  appreciate  them  because  ho’ 
did  not  mention  them.  It  is  to  be  presumed*  that  he  intended  his 
brick-fuel  to  bp  weather-proof  by  putting  in  tho  asphaltum,  and  it 


in  not  to  bo  proa um od  that  ho  would  so  rial: a  it  as  to  nullify  tho 
usefulness  of  tho  asphaltum. 

As  this  applicant  has  and  clains  no  wore  than  the  brieJe- 
infi  Material  of  tho  put  ant  in  ingredients,  proportions  and  wanner 
of  waking  and  using,  ho  eots  only  tho  utilities  of  that  -material. 

The  decision  of  the  Examiner  is  affirmed. 


r  Exam in ers- in-Ohi ef . 


Abandoned., 


Case  No.  1012, 

Piled  Aug.  31,  1899. 

Improvements  in  the  Art  of  Bricking  Pulverized 
Material. 

Claims. 

1.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  im¬ 
provement  which  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  ma¬ 
terial  a  binding  substance  composed  of  a  soluble  rosin 
soap  and  a  non-water  soluble  non-acid  material  having  a 
high  boiling  point,  and  in  subjecting  the  mixture  so 
produced  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

2.  In  the  art  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material 

a  binding  substance  composed  of  resinate  of  soda,  and  a 
non-water  soluble  non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling 
point,  and  in  subjecting  the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

3.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve- 
ment  v/hich  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material 

a  binding  substance  composed  of  a  soluble  rosin  soap  and 
the  residuum  obtained  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum, 
and  in  subjecting  the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  In  the  art  of  fonning  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  im¬ 
provement  v/hich  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverised  ma¬ 
terial  a  binding  substance  composed  of  resinate  of  soda 
and  the  residuum  obtained  from  the  distillation  of  petro¬ 
leum,  and  in  subjecting  the  mixture  so  produced  to  heat, 


1- 


substantially  as  set  forth. 

5.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other,  aggregates ,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  to  a 
viscid  solution  of  a  rosin  soap  a  non-water  soltible  non¬ 
acid  material  having  a  hi#i  boiling  point,  in  adding  such 
emulsion  to  the  pulverized  material,  and  in  subjecting  the 
composition  so  obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  f  ortl . 

6.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  to  a 
viscid  solution  of  resinate  of  soda  a  non-water  soluble 
non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point,  in  adding 
such  emulsion  to  the  pulverised  material,  and  in  subjecting 
the  composition  so  obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

7.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  and  other  aggregates,  the  im¬ 
provement  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding 
to  a  viscid  solution  of  a  rosin  soap  the  residuum  obtained 
from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in  adding  such  emul¬ 
sion  to  the  pulverized  material,  and  in  subjecting  the 
composition  so  obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

8.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  fonning  an  emulsion  by  adding  to 

a  viscid  solution  of  resinate  of  soda  the  residuum  obtaine  L 
by  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in  adding  such  emulsion  io 
the  pulverized  material,  and  in  subjecting  the  composition 
so  obtained  to  heat,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

9.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve- 


ment3  which  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material 
a  binder  composed  of  a  soluble  rosin  soap  and  a  non-v;atet 
soluble  non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point,  in 
forming  the  composition  into  bricks,  or  briquettes,  and  in 
baking  said  bricks  or  briquettes ,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

10.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  v/hich  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material  a 
binder  composed  of  resinate  of  soda  and  a  non-water  soluble 
non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point,  in  forming 
the  composition  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking 
said  bricks  or  briquettes  substantially  as  set  forth. 

11.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material  a 
binder  composed  of  a  soluble  rosin  soap  and  the  residuum 
obtained  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in  forming  the 
composition  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking  said 
bricks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

12.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  adding  to  the  pulverized  material  a. 
binder  composed  of  resinate  of  soda  and  the  residuum  obtain¬ 
ed  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in  forming  the  com¬ 
position  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking  said 
bricks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

13.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  first  making  an  emulsion  by  adding 
to  a  viscid  solution  of  a  soluble  rosin  soap  a  non-water 
soluble  non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point,  in 
adding  said  emulsion  to  the  pulverized  material,  in  forming 
the  pulverized  material  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in 


baking  said  bricks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  fort: 

14.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  a  vis¬ 
cid  solution  of  resinate  of  soda  and  a  non-water  soluble 
non-acid  material  having  a  high  boiling  point,  in. adding 
said  emulsion  to  the  pulverized  material,  in  forming  the 
pulverized  material  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking 
said  bricks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

15.  In  the  art  of  &  rming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregate's,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  a  vis¬ 
cid  solution  of  a  soluble  rosin  soap  to  the  residuum  ob¬ 
tained  from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in  adding  such 
emulsion  to  the  pulverized  material,  in  forming  the  pulveriz¬ 
ed  material  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking  said 
bricks  or  briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

16.  In  the  art  of  forming  pulverized  material  into 
bricks,  briquettes,  lumps  or  other  aggregates,  the  improve¬ 
ment  which  consists  in  forming  an  emulsion  by  adding  to  a 
viscid  solution  of  resinate  of  soda  the  residuum  obtained 
from  the  distillation  of  petroleum,  in-  adding  such  emulsion 
to  the  pulverized  material,  in  forming  the  pulverized  materi- 
xl  into  bricks  or  briquettes,  and  in  baking  said  bricks  or 
briquettes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


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petition* 


to  the  (Eommieatoncr  of  patents: 

YOUR  petitioner  IHOHAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of  the  United 
-Stated,  residing  and  having  his  post  office  address  at  Llewellyn 
Park  In  the  county  of  Essex  and  state  of  Nov?  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPROVEMENT  IN 
PHONOGRAPHS 


SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION  I  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT.  AND  TO 
BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 


TRANSACT  ALL 


SPECIFICATION. 


I  TO  ALL  V/IIOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

Be  it  known  that  I,  TIIOUAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  states,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain  new 
and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  IN  PHONOO^pfll,  ”of  wSJcIi  the  following 
iB  a  speoification:- 

My  invention  relates  to  various  now  and' use'fiil.i im¬ 
provements  In  phonographs,  and  the  object  of  the  invention 
is  to  provide  a  phonograph  wherein  the  reproduction  secured 
may  be  improved  both  in  loudness  and  in  quality.  The  stand¬ 
ard  phonographs  and  allied  talking  machines  are  provided  with 
cylindrical  phonograms,  in  which  a  spiral  record  groove  will 
be  formed,  having  a  pitch  of  one’  hundred  threads  per  linear 
inch.  Experience  has  demonstrated  the  superiority  of  the 
type  of  recording  device  described  in  my^patent  No.  430,278, 
by  which  will  be  obtained  a  record  composed  of  a  series  of 
more  or  less  connected  gouges,  waves  or  depressions,  all  of 
greater  width  than  depth,  and  presenting  in  oro3s-sectiou  at 
any  point  an  arc  of  a  circle,  due  to  the  curved  cutting  edge 
of  the  recorder.  Since  the  width  of  the  space  in  which  the 
record  is  formed  is  limited  to  .01  of  an  inch,  a  restriction 
is  imposed  upon  the  depth  to  which  it  may  be  permissible  to 
form  the  record  in  the  blank. 

In  order  that  the  recording  device  may  not  exceed 
the  proper  limits,  relatively  insensible  diaphragms  are  em¬ 
ployed,  but  even  when  diaphragms  of  this  character  are  used 
some  of  the  depressions  or  waves  are  cut  to  so  great  a  depth 
that  they  lap  over  upon  the  adjacent  record  already  formed 


and  upon  the  apace  to  be  occupied  by  the  record  to  be  out  up¬ 
on  the  next  rotation  of  the  blank.  This  overlappirg  of  the 
record  results  in  the  production  of  echoes,  or,  in  other 
words,  in  the  accompaniment  with  the  sounds  reproduced  by 
the  engagement  of  the  reproducer  with  the  record  groove,  of  a 
faint  reproduction  of  the  sounds  produced  by  the  engagement 
of  the  reproducer  with  the  overlapping  or  extended  portions 
of  the  adjacent  record.  The  formation  of  these  echoes  in 
the  reproduction  is  objectionable. 

At  the  present  time, in  the: talking  machine  art,  the 
circular  recording  devices  have  been  made  with  a  diameter 
varying  from  .035  to  .040  of  an  in'oh.  Although  with  a  re-  ■ 
cording  device  of  less  diameter  the  depth. of  the  waves  or  in¬ 
dentations  of  the  record  oould  be  increased  v/ithout  overlap¬ 
ping,  this  oould  only  be  done  at  a  sacrifice  of  the  quality 
of  the  record,  since  with  recording  devices  having  a  diame¬ 
ter  considerably  less  than  .030  of  an  inch,  the  composition 
of  the  blank  will  not  be  cut  smoothly  at  the  bottom  of  the 
record. 

What  I  propose  by  my  present  invention  is  the  pro¬ 
duction  of  a  phonograph  wherein  a  recording  device  may  be  em¬ 
ployed  having  a  curved  cutting  edge,  said  recording  device 
being  sufficiently  large  to  secure  the  best  commercial  re-  . 
suits,  say  from  .025  to  .030  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  and  to 
employ  therewith  a  very  sensitive  diaphragm,  or,  if  the  pres¬ 
ent  diaphragms  are  used,  to  make  possible  the  recording  of 
sounds  of  increased  volume  without  overlapping  of  the  record. 

In  carrying  out  my  invention,  I  preferably  employ  as 
sensitive  a  diaphragm  as  possible  for  actuating  the  recording 
device  and  proportion  the  number  of  threads  per  inoh  of  the 
record  with  respect  to  the  sensitiveness  of  such  diaphragm, 


so  that  the  diaphragm  will  bo  free  to  respond  to  original 
sounds  to  actuate  the  recording  device  in  the  formation  of  a 
record  groove  which  shall  be  free  from  overlapping,  of  rela¬ 
tively  great  amplitude  and  free  from  objectionable  roughness. 

In  order  that  the  invention  may  bo  better  understood, 
ittention. is  directed  to  the  accompanying  drawing,  forming  a 
?art  of  this  specification,  and  in  which 

Figure  1  is  a  diagrammatic'  view,  showing  a  circular 
recording  device  in  cross-section  and  illustrating  the  re- 
sording  device  cutting  a  record  in  a  phonograph  blank  having 
i  pitch  of  one  hundred  threads  to  the  inch,  the  record  being 
sut  to  the  maximum  depth  which  can  be  secured  without  over¬ 
lapping; 

Figure  2,  a  corresponding  view  of  my  present  im¬ 
provements; 

Figure  5,  a  corresponding  view,  showing  the  extent 

[f  overlapping  which  would  take  place  if  my  improvements  wore 
mployed  in  connection  with  a  phonograph  blank  having  a  pitch 
)f  one  hundred  threads  per  inch;  and 

Figure  4,  a  cross-section,  through  a  portion  of  the 
)lank,  of  the  recorder  and  diaphragm  of  the  general  type 
shown  in  my  said  patent . 

In  all  of  the  above  views  corresponding  parts  are 
’epresented  by  th.e  same  numerals  of  reference. 

1  represents  a  phonograph  blank  which  is  made  of  the 
isual  soaplike  composition;  2,  the  recording  devioe,  having 
i  curved  cutting  edge;  3,  the  pivoted  lever  carrying  said 
•eoording  device;  and  4,  the  diaphragm  connected  to  the  lev¬ 
er  by  a  link  5,  said  diaphragm  being  preferably  of  as  great 
sensitiveness  as  possible. 

-3- 


•  In  figures  1,  2  and  3,  I  show  the  head  of  the  recordr 
ing  device  as  having  the  outting  edge  in  the  form  of  a  true 
circle,  as  is  desirable.  Heretofore  it  has  been  the  prac¬ 
tice  to  make  the  recording  devices  with  a  diameter  ranging 
from_.035  to  .040  of  an  inch,  as  indicated  in  figure  1.  The 
vertical  lines  6,  G,  6,  in  figure  1,  illustrate  the  extent 
in  width  of  the  available  surface  on  the  phonograph  blank 
caving  a  pitch,  o f,  one  hundred  threads 'per  inch.  She  record¬ 
er  2,  in'  figure  1,  it  will  be  observed,  has  entered  the  blank 

Eo  an  extent  to  occupy  the  entire’ distance  between  two  of  the 
ines  6,  6,  so  that  the  record  which  is  being  formed  ia  of  a 
aximum  width,  if  the  produotion  of  echoes  is  to  be  avoided, 
is  is  desirable.  Taking  the  depth  indicated  as  a  maximum 
jossible  at  the  present  time  to  secure  in  the  art,  it  is  the 
jractice  to  so  adjust  the  recording  device  that  it  will  nor- 
nally  engage  or  track  the  record  to  about  half  this  extent, 
so  that  in  making  a  maximum  vibration  overlapping  will  be’ 
ivoided  as  the  diaphragm  moves  towards  the  record,  and  the 
langer  of  the  re cording  device  leaving  the  surface  of  the 
jlank  will  he  overoome  upon  the  rettirn  movement.  It  is 
lifficult,  however,  to  realize  these  ideal  conditions,  and  at 
;he  present  time  almost,  all  records  are  partly  characterized 
>y  the  objectionable  overlapping  referred  to.  In  order  tjiat 
;he  extent  of  the  vibrations  possible  with  a  recording  device 
)f  the  diameter  indicated,  working  on  a  blank  having  a  pitch 
>f.  one  hundred  threads  to  the  inch,’  may  be  properly  controlled, 
t be  diaphragms  by  which  the  recorders  are  operated  are  made 
preferably  relatively  insensible  or  else  care  ia  taken  not  to 
i  npress  upon  them  sounds  of  too  much  volume. 

Referring  to  figure  2,  the  recording  devioe^g  ;i». 
represented  as  having  a  diameter  frojji'.02B  to  .030  of  an 


Inch,  and  the  record  with  which  such  a  recorder  cooperates 
is  provided  with  a  pitch  of  not  more  than  seventy-five 
threads  per  linear  inch,  as  indicated  between  the  lines  7,  7, 
7.  Obviously  the  space  allowed  for  the  formation  of  a  rec¬ 
ord  in  this  instance  is  considerably  more  than  at  the  pres¬ 
ent  time,  and  since  the  diameter  of  the  recorder  ia  slightly 
leas,  the  entire  space  to  be  occupied  by  the  record  can  be 
utilized  in  the  formation  of  indentations  of  considerably 
greater  amplitude  than  is  now  possible,  The  difference  in 
the  amplitude  of  vibrationu  which  it  i3  possible  to  secure 
with  ay  present  improvements  is  graphically  shown  by  a  com¬ 
parison  of  the  two  figures.  Since  vibrations  of  much  greater 
amplitude  can  be  secured  with  my  present  improvements,  the 
recorder  can  be,  adjusted  to  track  to  a  correspondingly  great¬ 
er  depth  tlian  is  now  feasible,  and  tlie  diaphragm  4  can  be 
made  correspondingly  more  sensitive  or  can  be  impressed  with 
sounds  of  correspondingly  greater  volume,  By  thus  observing 
the  correct  proportions  between  the  sensitiveness  of  the 
diaphragm  or  the  volume  of  the  sounds  impressed  thereon  and 
the  width  of  the  space  offered  for  the  making  of  the  record, 
it  is  possible  to  obtain  phonographic  records  which  are  of 
greater  amplitude  than  have  been  heretofore  secured,  not 
characterized  by  an  objectionable  overlapping  upon  the  adja¬ 
cent  grooves.  The  extent  of  overlapping  which  would  take 
place  if  an  attempt  were  made  to  use  a  sensitive  diaphragm 
with  a  phonograph  hlank  having  a  pitch  of  one  hundred  threads 
per  inoh, ' the  assumption  being  that  the  record  shall  be  of 
as  great  an  amplitude  as  I  have  shown  in  figure  2,  is  very 
clearly  illustrated  in  figure  3,  from  which  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  record  which  is  being  formed  has  overlapped  almost 
Halfway  upon  the  record  already  forned  at  the  right,  and  upon 
-fir 


the  left  haa  occupied  almost  half  the  3pace  which  is  to  be 
taken  up  in  the  formation  of  the  record  at  that  point  when 
the  blank  has  made  a  complete  further  turn. 

Having  now  describecLmy invent! on,  what  I  claim  as 
now  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patont  is  as  follows:- 

1.  Irl  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  dovice  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm  con¬ 
nected  to  said  recording  device  and  adapted  to  be  impressed 
by  original  sound*,  of  a  phonograph  blank  7/ith  which  the  re¬ 
corder  cooperates  \to  form  a  spiral  record  groove  having  a 
pitch  sufficiently\coar3e  to  allow  for  the  formation  without 


|  overlapping  of  the  depressions  : 


i sent ins  an  abnormal  e 


plitude,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

2.  In  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  re¬ 
cording  dovice  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm 
of  high  sensitivenesi,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the 
recorder  cooperates  $o  form  a  spiral  record,  the  pitch  of 


which  is  proportionals  to  the  sensitiveness  of  the  diaphragm, 
to  allow  for  the  formation  without  overlapping  of  waves  or 
depressions  of  ah  abnoAnal  amplitude,  substantially  as  set 


y,  />.  In  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record- f 
ing  devico  having  a  eurvfrd  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm  con- 


aid  recording  devico  t 


t  adapted  to  be  impressed 


by  original  sounds,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the 


recorder  engages  to  fora  £ 


•eoord  groove  having  a  pitch  of 


not  more  than  seventy-five  threads  per  linear  inch,  substan¬ 
tially  as  sot  forth. 

4.  In  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  devioo  having  a  cunvod  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm  of 
high. sensitiveness,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the  re- 


.  a. 


v  ^ 


ing  device  having 
not  le33  than  . 


stantially  as  set 
6.  In  a 


oorder  engages  ti  form  a  record  groove  having  a  pitch  of  not 
more  than  seventh- A’ivo  threads  per  linear  inch,  substantially) 
as  set  forth.  \ 

6.  In  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record- 
a  curved  cutting  edge  with  a  diameter  of 
i  of  an  inch,  and  a  diaphragm  connected  to 
said  recording  de  'ice  and  adapted  to  be  impressed  by  original) 
soundB,  of  a  phom  graph  blank  with  which  the  recorder  co¬ 
operates  to  form  a  spiral  record  groove  having  a  pitch  suf¬ 
ficiently  coarse  t  j  allow  for  the  formation  without  overlap¬ 
ping  of  depression  i  representing  an  abnormal  amplitude,  snb- 
orth. ■ 

ponograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  device  having  al  curved  cutting  edge  with  a  diameter  of 
not  less  than  .025  |f  an  inch,  and  a  diaphragm  of  high  sensi-| 
tivenesa,  of  a  phondgraph  blank  with  which  the  recorder  co¬ 
operates  to  form  a  spiral  record,  the  pitch  of  which  is  pro¬ 
portional  to  the  sensitiveness  of  the  diaphragm,  to  allow  for) 
the  formation  without!  overlapping  of  waves  or  depressions  of 
|an  abnormal  amplitudal  substantially  as  set  forth. 

■  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  phonogram 

having  a  record  cut  spirally  on  its  surface,  said  record  be¬ 
ing  composed  of  a  series  of  more  or  less  connected  gouges  tor 

Mjt? CtA^S, 

|waves  having  a  greater  width  than  depth  and  further  ohar&o- 
terizad  by  freedom  from  overlapping,  substantially  as  set 
|forth. 

^  /•  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  phonogram 
(having  a  record  out  spirally  thereon  with  a  pitch  of  not  leas) 
.than  seventy-five  threads  per  linear  inch,  said  record  being 
[formed  of  a  series  of  more  or  less  connected  gouges  or  de- 

I  rtCeuu,  tUa&vvL,  V 

^earing  a  deHulfro  relation~ln=dia< 


prassions  &ea*4s g-e 
substantially  as  set  forth. 


©atb* 

State  of 
(Count?  of 

THOMAS  A*  KDI80H  ,  the  above-named 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  CitiKOn 

of  the  United  states  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex  and  State  of  Hew  Jer3eyj 

THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  BE  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 

of  the  IMPROVEMENT  JH  PHONOGRAPHS 


for  Phonographs, filed  sept.  21, 1899, serial  number  731,137. 


Claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  7  and  8  are  rejected  on 

U' 

Jacques,  #415,232.,  October  22,1889,  Phonographs.  The  model  shows 

threads  of  a  pitch  less  than  75  per  inch  ,  in  fact  about  50  per 

inch,  there  are  waves  of  less  depth  than  width  and  the  threads 

are  characterized  by  freedom  from  overlapping. 

Claims  5  and  6  are  rejected  on  Jacques  as  above,  in  view  of 

Edison  #430.278.  June  17,1890,  Oraphophones ,  which  latter  shows 

cylindrical  either  the  size  of  which  relative  to  the  pitch  of  screw 
bang  a  matter  of  judgment  and  convenience  than  invention.  . 


RULE  73.  In  every  amendment  the  exact  word  or 
separate  from  the  papers  previously  died,  and  written  on 


o  be  stricken  out  or  inserted  in  the  application  must  bo  specified 
to  be  made.  All  such  amendments  must  be  oil  sheets  of  paper 


I  PILED  SEPTEMBER  .  531,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  731,137 


[I HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OF  PATENTS, 


The  Examiner’s  attention  is  directed  to 
the  fact  that  the  first  six  claims  are  all  limited  to  the 
use  in  the  combination  of  a  recording  device  having  a  curved 
cutting  edge.  The  use  of  such  a  recording  device  resulted 
in  the  objectionable  overlapping  which  applicant  refers  to 
in  his  specification,  which  overlapping  is  overcome  by  ap¬ 
plicant  by  means  of  the  invention  recited  in  the  specifica¬ 
tion.'  The  patent  to  Jacques  cited  by  the  Examiner  against 
all  the  claims,  does  not  employ  a  recorder  having  a  curved 
edge,  and  it  would  therefore  be  immaterial  to  Jacques  whether 


'  threads  of  the  record  were:  of  < 


>  pitch  or  another.  Jac¬ 


ques  refers  in  his- patent  only  to  the  employment  of  a  ’•sharp 
pointed  stylus",  which  could  not  possibly  cut  a  curved  recon 

ISo  far  as  the  seventh  and  eighth  olaims  are  concerned,,  each 
of  said  claims  is  limited  to  the  formation  of  a  record  which 


shall  be  of  greater  width  than  depth.  This  is  not  the  case 
with  Jacques,  since  the  use  of  a  sharp  pointed  stylus  would 
inevitably  result  in  the  production  of  a  record  having  a 
greater  depth  than  width.  The  remarks  of  the  Examiner  as 
to  the  fifth  and  sixth  claims  Beom  to  have  been  Incorrectly 
transcribed  by  the  typewriter; 

Very  respectfully, 

Attorneys  for  Edison, 

- 

pew  York,  December  8,  1899; 


art  anrl  the  means  by  which  he  undertakes  to  cur®  it  are  not  such 
as  amount  to  invention  over  the  patent  cited  but  amount  merely  to 
a  matter  of  calculation.  If  two  grooves  overlap,  it  would  seem 
to  be  quite  obvious  to  any  one  skilled  in  the  art  who  should 
wish  to  prevent  this  overlapping  to  make  the  grooves  of  greater 
plteh^and  it  is  also  a  matter  of  mere  mechanical  calculation  and 
not  a  matter  of  invention  to  make  the  stylus  of  less  diameter  as 
a  means  of  giving  the  groove  the  same  depth  as  before  without 
giving  it  so  great  a  breadth. 

It  is  not  known  what  is  meant  in  several  of  the  claims  by 
a  spiral  record,  the  pithh  of  which  is  proportional  to  the 
sensitiveness  of  the  diaphragm.  This  expression  is  altogether 
indefinite.  It  would  be  impossible  in  any  particular  case  to 
say  whether  or  not  the  pitch  of  the  record  was  proportional  to  the 
sensitiveness  of  the  diaphragm  which  made  it. 

Claim  7  is  rejected  on  any  well  made  phonograph  record. 

Claim  8  is  objected  to  on  the  ground  that  applicant  has  not 
set  forth  a  record  in  which  the  gouges  or  depressions  bear  a 
definite  relation  in  breadth  to  depth.  The  ratio  of  the  breadth 
of  a  groove  cut  by  a- curved  stylus  to  its  depth  depends  on  the 
depth  of  the  groove,  The  deeper  the  groove,'  the  less  would  this 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
PHONOGRAPHS 

PILED  SEPTEMBER  31,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  731,13? 


ROOM  NO.  319. 


HONORABia  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 
sir  :- 

Without  prejudice,  we  emend  as  follows: 
Cancel  claims  1  and  2,  and  substitute: 

- — - —  1,  jn  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  device  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  representing  a 
shallow  arc  of  sufficient  extent  to  be  only  partially  en¬ 
gaged  with  the  recording  material  in  recording  sounds  of 
abnormal  amplitude,  and  a  diaphragm  connected  to  said  re¬ 
cording  device  and  adapted  to  be  impressed  by  original 
sounds,  of  a  phonograph  blank:  with  which  the  recording  de¬ 
vice  cooperates  to  normally  form  a  shallow  spiral  groove 
therein,  the  relative  lateral  feed  of  the  blank  and  record¬ 
ing  device  giving  to  the  record  groove  a  sufficient  pitch 
to  prevent  the  cutting  edge  from  overlapping  in  the  record¬ 
ing  of  such  abnormal  sounds,  substantially  os  and  for  the 

purposes  set  forth.- - 

Change  the  numeral  of  claim  3  to  3,  and  in  said 
claim,  line  a,  erase  the  word  "curved",  and  after  "edge" 


in  said  line  insert  - - -  representing  a  shallow  arc  of 

sufficient  extent  to  be  only  partially  engaged  with  the  re¬ 
cording  material  in  recording  sounds  of  abnormal  amplitude  - 
Cancel  claims  4,  6  and  6,  and  ehange  the  numerals 
of  olaims  7  and  8,  to  3  and  4. 

Present  claim  3,  line  4,  after  "depth"  insert  - - 

representing  at  all  sections  relatively  shallow  ares  — — 


Present  claim  4,  line  5,  erase  "bearing  a  definite 
relation  in  breadth  to  depth",  and  substitute  - — —  and 

representing  at  all  sections  relatively  shallow  arcs  - 

The  subject-matter  of  claim  l  is  designed  to  take 
the  place  of  claims  1  and  2  which  have  been  erased,  but  to 
set  forth  more  clearly  applicant's  advance  in  the  art,  and 
at  the  same  time  to  distinguish  from  the  patent  to  Jacques 
which  the  Examiner  refers  to  and  wherein  the  record  Is  made 
with  a  pointed  recorder-  By  the  expression  "the  pitch  of 
which  is  proportional  to  the  sensitiveness  of  the  diaphragm" 
in  erased  claim  2,  and  the  expression  "a  diaphragm  of  high 
sensitiveness"  in  erased  claim  4,  applicant  meant  that  a3 
the  pitch  of  the  record  was  increased,  the  sensitiveness 
of  the  diaphragm  Could  be  also  increased.  Such  a  con¬ 
struction  being  In  fact  a  part  of  applicant's  Invention 
and  neoessarlly  following  from  the  increase  in  the  pitch 
of  the  record  groove,  a  claim  on  the  latter  feature  mani¬ 
festly  includes,  the  former. 

The  claims  as  now.  presented  are  fully  distinguished1: 
from  the  Jacques  patent,  wherein  it  is  stated  that  the 
record  is  formed  by  a  "sharp  pointed  stylus".  .If  the 
model  on  record  shows  a  record  which  "appears  to  have  been 
cut  with  a  curved  tool",  it  must  be  a  fact  that  the  model 
does  not  represent  the  Jacques  invention.  .We  assume,  how¬ 
ever,  that  by  the  expression  "sharp  pointed  stylus"  Jacques 
h&8  reference  to  a  stylus  made  as  sharp  as  practicable,  and 
that  therefore  the  extreme  cutting  edge  thereof  may  be  form¬ 
ed  on  a  curve  of  relatively  small  diameter,  or,  in  other 
words,  that  the  stylus  i*S  JtiCroscopioally  considered,  rela¬ 
tively  blunt.  A  record  formed  with  a  stylus  of  this 
character  could  not  possibly  overlap,  even  if  the  pitch  of 
the  record  groove  were  made  finer  than  the  present  standard. 

a./ 


Aijplioant’s  prior  patent  does  not  meet  the  claims 
as  they  are  now  presented*  because*  as  stated  in  the  speci¬ 
fication  of  the  present  case,  with  a  record  formed  of  the 
standard  pitch,  overlapping  is  inevitable,  and  this  is  the 
case  with  the  reference. 

Very  respectfully, 

TUlOMa  A.  EDI30H , 

By  _ _ ' 

His  Attorney?. 

Hew  York,  December  4,  1900. 


Claim  1  presented  in  the  amendment  filed  the  7th  inst., 
and  claims  2,  g  and  4  are  rejected  on  the  grounds  of  rejection  and 
the  references  cited  of  record.  The  devices  claimed  in  claims  1 
and  2  seem  to  involve  merely  the  us£  of  the  devices  shown  in  the 
patent  of  Jacques  and  applicant's  patent  cited,  in  a  way  that 
experiment,  experience  and  judgment  would  suggest.  There  appears 
to  be  no  novelty  in  the  mechanical  parts  referred  to  in  the  claims. 

Claims  1  and  2  define  combinations  of  parts  and  claims 
3  and  4  define  the  phonograph  record  as  an  article.  Since  records 


have  aoquired  a  distincr  status  in  the  art  as  a  separate 
subject  of  manufacture  and  sale,  division  must  he  required  to  the 
end  that  claims  for  the  combinations  of  parts  be  defined  in  one 
application  and  claims  for  the  record  be  prosecuted  in  another 
application,  applicant  electing  which  alleged  invention  he  will 
further  prosecute  in  this  application. 


I  THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
PHONOGRAPHS 

PIJffiD  SEPTEMBER  SI,  1899 
SERIAL  NO.  731,137 


EXAMINER'S  ROOM  NO.  219. 


I  .HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 

SIR  : - 

Wa  note  that  the  Examiner  still  re¬ 
jects  the  new  first  claim,  aa  well  aa  the  remaining  claims 
as  amended,  In  view  of  the  patents  to  Jacques  and  to  Edison 
of  record.  The  issue  between  the  Examiner  and  ourselves 
seems  to  be  only  a  question  of  opinion,  on  which  we  have  al¬ 
ready  expressed  our  views  as  fully  and  dearly  as  possible. 
In  requesting  a  reconsideration,  therefore,  for  tho  purpose 
of  appeal,  we  reiterate  the  arguments  whioh  have  already 
been  made,  and  express  the  hope  that  the  Examiner  may  favor¬ 
ably  entertain  the  claims  in  view  of  the  meritorious  oharaol 
of  applicant's  invention.  A  rejection  on  the  ground  of 


laolc  of  invention  where  the  references  admittedly  are  in¬ 
sufficient,  Bhould  not,  we  submit,  be  taken  except  in  the 
clearest  kind  of  a  case.  That,  we  believe,  is  not  the 
situation  here. 

We  note  that  in  his  last  letter  the  Examiner  for  th< 
first  time  raises  the  question  of  division,  but  we  hope  tha 
that  question  may  be  held  in  abeyanoe  until  the  appeal  is 
definitely  settled.  Should  the  appeal  be  unsuccessful,  «©■ 
plioant  would  in  this  way  be  relieved  of  the-  expense  of  fix 
ing  a  separate  divisional  application}  whereas  on  the  othe 
hand,  if  the  ease  were  divided,  a  favorable  decision  as  to 
one  set  of  claims  might  not  necessarily  carry  the  other 
claims  in  its  terms. .  It  is  therefore  only  as  a  matter  of 


expedience  and  economy  that  we  make  the  request  at  this 
time. 

Very  respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  HDXSOH, 

By _ _ 

His  Attorneys. I 


Hew  York,  November  8,  1901. 


United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d,  c., 


November  20:0l90i'i 


Thomas  A.  Edison, 

Oare  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 
#31  Nassau  Street, 
New  York,M.Y. 


W3A5LED. 

NOV  f  0  1901 

U.  S.  Patent  Office 


Please  find,  below  a  communication  fr-om  the  EXAMINER  in  oharge  of  your  application. 

for  Phonographs, filed  Sept.  21,1899, serial  number  731,137. 


_  Commissioner  of  Patents. 


t  S 

ll 


Tills  action  is  made  responsive  to  the  letter  from  appli¬ 
cant  dated  the  8th  and  filed  the  9th  instant. 

The  office  can  add  no  other  grounds  of  rejection  of 
the  claims  to  those  of  record.  Applicant  seems  simply  to  have 
proportioned  existing  parts  in  such  a  way  that  the  sound  grooves 
may  not  overlap  without  making  any  substantial  structural  change. 
Applicant's  attention  is  invited  to  the  following 

decisions  that  views  unfavorably  statements  of  r e suit !jeuncT±on  in 

7  A 

claims..  ,  ■  ;  See  ex  parte  Schweitzer  97  O.G.,1371,in 

view  of  which  claims  1  and  2  are  objected  to.  The  claims  are  all 
again  rejected  in  view  of  former  grounds  of  rejection.  Referring 

to  the  matter  of  division, final  action  in  this  matter  will  be 
deferred  in  view  of  the  conditions  referred  to  in  applicant's,: 
letter  above  referred  to. 


'/(/,/ito  I.  y/ys, : 


. '  '  - 

-  C/y/v: 

ty/rWtrS/y':  rl5,.  .  '■'//, /r, ,  /  . 


Tnomas  a.  Edison,  icsq.  >ry*  .— _ 

°range’N.  J.  itn  — 

Dear  Slr,- 


v'-^Wpovember  10,  1902. 
utufcjf'rt*' 
applies- 

z_> 


21st  189J  we  filed  for  you  an  applied-^. 


On  September  21st 

tion  (E.  1013)  covering  an  improvement  in  phonographs  con¬ 
sisting  in  making  the  threads  75  to  the  inch  instead  of  100 
to  the  inch,  and  preferably  reducing  the  diameter  of  the  re¬ 
cording  device  to  from  ,025  to  .03  of  an  inch  instead  of  from 
.036  to  .04  of  an  inch,  as  at  present  used.  The. general 

idea  was  to  secure  very  deep  records  without  overlapping. 

The  Examiner  rejects  the  oase,  and  if  anything  further  is 
to  be  done  it  must  be  by  way  of  appeal,  which  requires  to  be 
taken  before  the  20th  of  this  month.  We  wish  therefore  that 
you  would  give  the  matter  your  early  attention,  in  order  that 
we  may  take  the  appeal,  if  necessary,  in  time.  The  position 
of  the  Examiner,  broadly  speaking,  is  that  no  invention  would 
be  required  to  overcome  overlapping  merely  by  increasing  the 
pitch  of  the  feed,  or  by  reducing  the  diameter  of  the  record¬ 
er,  or  by  both  of  these  expedients.  Ho  reference  has  been 
oited  showing  the  invention  specifically.  We  believe  that 
the  Examiners  in  Chief  would  be  disposed  to  sustain  the  Ex¬ 
aminer  in  his  rejection,  and  therefore  doubt  if  the  appeal 
would  be  successful.  Our  view  of  the  oase  therefore  is. that 


the  application  should  be  dropped,  unless  of  course  you  oan 
suggest  some  argument  which  would  support  the  patentability 
■  of ,  the  invention. 

Yours  truly,  # 

..  <rf  t-  •>  ,  t  _ ^ 


pld/ax 


OUR  NO.  2302 . 
EDISON'S  NO.  1013. 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 
JMPROV33KNNTS  IN  PHONOGRAPHS 
PILED  SEPTEMBER  2}, 1899 
SERIAL  NO.  731,137" 


CLAIMS. 


II.  In  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  device  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm  con¬ 
nected  to  said  recording  device  and  adapted  to  be  impressed 
by  original  sounds,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the  re¬ 
corder  cooperates  to  form  a  spiral  record  groove  having  a 
pitch  sufficiently  coarse  to  allow  for  the  formation  without 
overlapping  of  the  depressions  representing  an  abnormal  am¬ 
plitude,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

2.  In  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  re¬ 
cording  device  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm 
of  high  sensitiveness,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the 
recorder  cooperates  to  form  a  spiral  record,  the  pitch  of 
vhich  is  proportional  to  the  sensitiveness  of  the  diaphragm, 
to  allow  for  the  formation  without  overlapping  of  waves  or 
depressions  of  an  abnormal  amplitude,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 


3.  In  a- phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  device  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm  con- 
lected  to  said  recording  device  and  adapted  to  be  impressed 
ay  <r  iginal  sounds,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the 
•ecorder  engages  to  form  a  record  groove  having  a  pitch  of 
lot  more  than  seventy-five  threads  per  linear  inch,  substan- 
;ially  as  set  forth. 


Ill  4.  In  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 

ing  device  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  and  a  diaphragm  of 
high  sensitiveness,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the  re¬ 
corder  engages  to  form  a  record  groove  having  a  pitch  of  not 
more  than  seventy-five  threads  per  linear  inch,  substantially 
[as  set  forth. 

5.  In  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  device  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  with  a  diameter  of 
not  less  than  .025  of  an  inch,  and  a  diaphragm  connected  to 
said  recording  device  and  adapted  to  be  impressed  by  original 
sounds,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the  recorder  co¬ 
operates  to  form  a  spiral  record  groove  having  a  pitch  suf¬ 
ficiently  coarse  to  allow  for  the  formation  without  overlap¬ 
ping  of  depressions  representing  an  abnormal  amplitude,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  set  forth. 


6.  Jn  a  phonograph,  the  combination  with  a  record¬ 
ing  device  having  a  curved  cutting  edge  with  a  diameter  of 
not  less  than  .025  of  an  inch,  and  a  diaphragm  of  high  sensi¬ 
tiveness,  of  a  phonograph  blank  with  which  the  recorder  co¬ 
tes  to  form 'a  spiral  record,  the  pitch  of  which  is  pro- 

portional  to  the  sensitiveness  of  the  diaphragm,  to  allow  for| 
the  formation  without  overlapping  of  waves  or-  depressions  of 
an  abnormal  amplitude,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

7.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  phonogram 
having  a  record  cut  spirally  on  its  surface,  said  record  be¬ 
ing  composed  of  a  series  of  more  or  less  connected  gouges  or 
waves  having  a  greater  width  than  depth  and  further  charac¬ 
terized  by  freedom  from  overlapping,  substantially  as  set 
((forth. 

8.  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  phonogram 
llhaving  a  record  cut  spirally  thereon  with  a  pitch  of  not  less 


I  than  seventy-five  threads  per  linear  inch,  said  record  being 
formed  of  a  series  of  more  or  less  connected  gouges  or  de¬ 
pressions  bearing  a  definite  relation  in  breadth  to  depth, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 


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(OUL-^—  °-“ 


Patents  anti  patent  Causes, 


Ifretitioru 


TLo  tbe  Commissioner  of  patents : 

your  petitioner  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of  the 
United  States,  residing  and  having  his  post  office  address 
at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of  Eason  and  state  of  New 
Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPROVEMENT 

JN  CONVEYING  BELTS 


SPEOJEIOATTON. 


TO  AIL  WHOM  IT  KAY  CONOERN: 

Bo  it  known  that  I,  T3IOKAJ3  A,  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  Stute  of  Now  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
new  and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  IN  CONVEYING  BELTS  (Case  No. 

1015),  of  whi oh  the  following  is  a  description: 

My  invention  relates  to  various  now  and  useful  im¬ 
provements  in  conveying  belts  adapted  for  transporting  mater¬ 
ial  in  bulk,  such  as  iron  ore,  coal,  grain,  etc. 

With  the  conveying  bolts  a3  now  made  it  is  the  pracr 
tice  to  run'  the  belts  on  supporting  pulleys,  and  to  concave 
the  upper  or  carrying  surface  by  the  employment  of  angle- 
pulleys  placed  at  suitable  distances  apart.  The  inclina¬ 
tion  of  the  angle-pulleys  makes  it  very  difficult  to  satis¬ 
factorily  lubricate  them  and  to  insulate  them  from  the 
dust,  while  the  general  arrangement  is  objectionable  since 
practically  the  central  portion  only  of  the  belt  is  subject¬ 
ed  to  wear, and  in  consequence  the  conveying  belts  heretofore 
used  generally  become  entirely  worn  at  their  central  por¬ 
tions  while  showing  hardly  any  appreciable  wear  at  their 
edges. 

The  object  of  my  invention  is  to  provide  an  improved 
conveying  bolt  and  supporting  pulleys  for  the  same,  by  which 
angle-pulleys  are  dispensed  with,  while  in  use  the  material 
will  be  distributed  over  substantially  the  entire  surface  of 
the  belt  so  as  to  reduce  the  wear. 

In  order  that  the  invention  may  be  better  under¬ 
stood,  attention  is  directed  to  the  accompanying  drawings 
forming  part  of  this  specification,  and  in  which  figure  1  Is 


a  perspective  view  showing  the  preferred  construction  of 
belt  and  the  manner  of  mounting  the  3ame;  figure  2  a  verti¬ 
cal  section  through  figure  1;  ^gnd-flgurea-3-,-4'  and" 5  do-=~ 

I  In  all  of  the  above  views,  corresponding  parts  are 

represented  by  the  same  numerals  of  reference. 

The  belt  1  is  made  of'the  usual  or  ordinary  material, 
preferably  cotton  or  rubber,  and  is  passed  over  the  end 
pulleys  2,  2,  which  may  be  any  desired  distance  apart.  The 
bolt  1  is  provided,  at  or  near  each  edge,  with  a  confining 
rim  or  portion,  by  which  the  material  in  process  of  convey¬ 
ance  will  be  prevented  from  escaping.  Preferably  for  this 
ptirpose  I  employ  at  each  edge  of  the  belt  a  rope  3  having  a 
diameter  of  from  one  and  one-quartor  to  one  and  one-half 
inohes,  and  which  is  secured  in  place  to  the  belt  by  means 
of  a  lacing  4  passed  through  perforations  in  the  belt  and 
forming  loops  over  each  rope,  which  loops  are  preferably 
about  one-half  inch  apart.  In  this  way  the  ropes  3  will 
materially  strengthen  the  belt,  while  by  securing  them  in 
place  by  means  of  lacings  as  explained,  the  ropes  will  be 


firmly  and  rigidly  held  in  position  and  will  practically 
constitute  a  part  of  the  bolt.  TOien  the  supporting  pulleys 
2,  2  are  a  considerable  distance  apart,  intermediate  pulleys 
6  are  used  to  support  the  upper  or  carrying  surface  of  the 
belt,  said  pulleys  being  mounted  on  horizontal  axes  and  ex¬ 
tending  the  entire  width  of  the  bolt.  The  return  portion 
of  the  belt  is  supported  by  pulleys  6,  also  mounted  on  hor¬ 
izontal  axes  but  of  less  width  than  the  bolt, in  order  that 


the  ropes  3,  3,  or  analogous  portions,  may  clear  the  pul¬ 
leys  6.  ^ Instead  of  securing  the  ropes  3,  3  to  the  belt 
near  the  3ides\hereof  as  explained,  each  edge  of  the  belt 
may  be  turned  ovek  upon  a  corresponding  rope  3,  as  shown  In 
figure  3,  and  secure^Lin  place  by  means  of  stitching,  or 


shown 


instead  theiteof  the  edges  of  the  belt  may  be  split,  as 
in  figure  5, vind  the  rope  3  inserted  in  place  between  the 
plies,  which  ate  then  sewed  together,  as  shown  in  figure  6. 
While  I  prefer  \o  use  a  rope,  as  explained,  at  each  side  of 
the  belt,  it  wilm  be  understood  that  any  other  suitable  ma¬ 
terial  may  be  usedfefor  this  purpose,  and  in  figure  4  I  show 
as  an  example  of  a  Vurther  modification  the  employment  of 
two  strips  7,  7  of  leather  or  any  other  suitable  material 
secured  one  on  top  ofvthe  other  and  riveted  or  otherwise 
secured  to  the  belt  atleach  side  thereof. 

Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  T  alaim  as 
new  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is  as  follows: 


\l.  As  a  now  article  of  manufacture,  a  convoying 
|belt  having  rim  portions  at  each  side  thereof,  substantially 
|as  set  forth. 

2.  In  a\conveying  apparatus,  the  combination  with 
the  supporting  pulleys  mounted  on  horizontal  axos,  of  a  con¬ 
veying  belt  carried! by  said  supporting  pulleys,  and  rim  por¬ 
tions  for  said  belt  «t  each  side  thereof,  substantially  as 
set  forth.  ' 


j  In  a  conveying  apparatus,  the  combination  with 
the  supporting  pulleys  mounted  on  horizontal  axes,  of  a  con¬ 
veying  belt  carried  by  said  supporting  pulleys,  rim  portions 
for  said  belt  at  each  side  thereof,  intermediate  supporting 
julleys  for  the  convoying  portion  of  the  belt  of  a  width 
squal  to  that  of  the  belt,  and  supporting  pulleys  for  the 
'eturn  portion  of  the  belt  of  a  width  less  than  the  distance 
setween  the  rim  portions  thereof,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  conveying 
selt  having  a  rope  secured  to  it3  outer  face  near  eaoh  side 
jhereof,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


3  &  As  a  new  article  of  manufacture,  a  conveying 
belt  having  a  rope  secured  to  its  outer  face  near  each  side 
thereof  by  means  of  lacings,  substantially  as  sot  forth. 


-4- 


THIS  SPECIFICATION  SIGNED  AND  WITNESSED  TWXSxC/S  “^DAY 


THE  ABOVE-NAMED 

citizen 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS 

of  the  United  states  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex  and  State  of  Hew  Jersey; 

that  he  verily  believes  himself  to  be  the  original,  first  and  sole  invents 

of  the  improvement  in  oonveyiho  belts 


DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE.  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 
HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF;  OR  PATENTED  OR  DESCRIBED  IN  ANY 
PRINTED  PUBLICATION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  OR  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY 
BEFORE  HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF,  OR  MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR 
TO  THIS  APPLICATION;  OR  IN  PUBLIC  USE  OR  ON  SALE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  FOR 
MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR  TO  THIS  APPLICATION,  AND  THAT  NO  APPLICATION 
FOR  FOREIGN  PATENT  HAS  BEEN  FILED  BY  HIM  OR  HIS  LEGAL  REPRESENTATIVES  OR 


15-020. 

Ml  communication,  ,hou U  lo  oMrtual  to  - ' -  (  Sci'tCH  Of'  J880. 

n  \  xJJlhfr 

Department  of  the  Interior ,  /  / 

|  0,  | 

I  I 

|  Washington,  D.  C.,  (QcTC . Z.uJZ.......  189.j  g 

I  Sir:  7  | 

I  I 

|  J  have  to  achnowledge  the  receipt  of  the  petition,  specification,  oath,  and  1 
&  drawing  of  your  alleged  Improvement  in  . . 5 

| . .  i 

i . .  f 

|  with  Fifteen  Dollars  as  the  first  fee  payable  thereon. 

|  The  papers  are  duly  filed,  and  your  application  for  a  patent  willfi 
•|  for  examination  in  its  order  ... .  /  *  On*.  v  p  / 

? . — . -=-====5*1 

a  You  ivill  be  duly  advised  of  the  examination.  ° 

§  g 

•  |  Very  respectfully,  .  (>.  r  v/:’!  be- token  up  for  £ 

J  examin£.tion  in  about  one  month.  >, 

|  7  n  a  .  '£■'  ! 

I  a.  ft- . | 

1  1 


United 


U  NC 


States-P/ 


'atent  Office, 


Washington,  d.  c„  ,tOV, 


T.A.  Edison, 

lare  Dyer,  Edmonds  ft  Dyer, 

31  Hassau  St.,. 

,Tew  York,  "it-y,  TT.Y. 


r 


J’faasc  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 
for  Toms  eying  Eelt,  filed  Oot.  25,  1399,  #734,095. 


CZ. 

_ _ _  Commissioner  of  Patents. 

This  application  has  been  examined. 

The  claims  are  all  rejected  on  Hardy,  315,141,  April  7'" 
1385,  (Driers,  Endless  Carriers; )  Holland,  410,704,  Dec.  5.  1S39. 
(Ore  ft  foal  Washers;  )  Rowers, 575, 142,  Jan.  12,  1897,  (same  class;) 
Dodge,  37,015,  I'eb.  10,  1363,  (Conveyers,  Endless,  Belt;)  Brennan, 
396,136,  Jan.  15,  1339.,  (same  class);  Ridgway,  632,750,  Sept.  12, 
1899,  (same  class,)  or  Eraitlimaite,  435,339,  Sept.  1390,  (Lawn 
Howers,)  Grass  Catchers.) 

Tiie  state  of  the  art  as  above  disclosed  would  seem  to 
■Ipreclude  the  allowance  of  any  claim  on  the  subject-matter  presented 


Ip 


I  THOMAS  A.  EDISON  : 

CONVEYING  BELT  : 

!  S  ROOK  NO.  255. 

PILE!)  OCTOBER  25,  1899  : 

SERIAL  NO.  734,095  S 

HON.  OOBJISSIONNR  ON  PATENTS , 

SIR: 

we  amend  the  above-entitled  application  aa 

follows s- 

Oanoel  figures  3,  4  and  5  of  the  drawing. 

Page  2,  lines  3  and  4,  erase  "and  figures  3,  4  and  8 
details  of  modifications". 

3 one  page,  beginning  with  "Instead",  fourth  lino  with 
bottom,  erase  through  "thereof",  line  10,  page  3. 

Oanoel  claims  1  and  2,  and  renumber  the  remaining 

claims . 

The  first  claim  covers  applicant's  suggestion  of  sup¬ 
porting  a  rimmed  belt  upon  driving  rollers  which  extend  tho 
width  of  the  belt  and  upon  intermediate  rollers  which  are 
arranged  between  the  rim  portions •  The  second  and  third 
claims  cover  applicant's  improved  conveying  belt  provided 
with  a  rope  to  form  rim  portions  secured  on  the  outer  face 
near  each  side.  We  submit  that  these  claims  are  allowa¬ 
ble. 

In  the  patent  to  Hardy,  the  belt  is  provided  at  each 
edga  with  a  rope  solely  for  strengthening  purposes,  as  is 
common  in  many  arts,  for  instance  in  the  manufacture  of 
clothing.  This  patent  does  not  show  the  shortened  intermedi 
ate -rollers.  , 

The  patent  to  Braitheaite  shows  a  belt  with  a  rope 
on  the  under  side,  which  cannot,  of  oourse,\  form  a  rim,  and;; 
this  patent  also  fails  to  disolose  the  arrangement  of  supjj'-' 


porting  and  intermediate  rollers  claimed. 

The  patent  to  Ridgvray  shows  a  rubber  belt  lapped  over 
upon  a  rope  at  either  side,  and  not  a  belt  provided  with  a 
rope  on  its  outer  face.  This  patent  also  fails  to  disclose 
the  olaimod  arrangement  of  supporting  and  intermediate  ropes. 

The  patent  to  Brennan,  Jr.,  shows  a  conveyor  formod 
of  ropes  with  separate  links  strung  upon  them,and  not  a  bolt 
having  a  rope  at  each  side  on  its  outer  face.  The  driving 
rollers  of  this  patent  extend  the  full  width  of  the  belt, 
and  there  are  no  intermediate  rollers,  as  claimed. 

The  patent  to  Bodge  fails  to  disclose  the  intermedi¬ 
ate  rollers  and  shows  a  belt  liaving  elastic  rims,  and  not  on» 
with  a  rope  on  its  outer  face  at  each  aide. 

The  patent  to  Bowers  shows  no  supporting  or  inter¬ 
mediate  rollers,  but  discloses  simply  a  rimmed  belt,  the  edg.fc 
of.  the  rims  being  strengthened  with  ropes. 

The  patent  to  Holland  shows  a  conveyor  made  of  slats 
carried  on  top  of  supporting  ropes,  which  is  entirely  differ., 
tot  from  the  construction  claimed. 

It  is  hoped  the  case  as  now  presented  may,  therefore 
be  allowed.  ' 

Respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 

By _ ; _ 

His  Attorneys 


New  York,  November  5,  1900. 


department  of  t 


United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d.  C.,  Nov.  03,  1900, 


Care  Djrer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  St. 

New  Yorg^city. 

Pleaso  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 


'■  . i\X;  In 


for  Conveying-Belt  ,  filed  Oot,  05,  1S99  ,  Ser.  No.  734,695. 


c~ 


||  Claim  1  is  rejected  Qn^Hack  ,  303  ,303 ,  July  08,  1885  .(Conveyers  , 

“5  Belt  ,)Pig.  4,  or  St.  Clair,  443,488,  Dec.  23,  1890  , (Conveyers  ,  End- 

g|  - —  1  — — . . . . 

o  a  less. ) 

!| 

Jg  Claims  2  and  3  are  rejected  on  Hardy,  of  record.  Nothing  is  said 

n|  ln  these  tw>  claims  as  to  the  purpose  of  the  rope.  However,  in  view 

«8| 

||  of  the  other,  references  of  record,  the  use  of  a  rope  as  a  substitute  of 

|  g 

■gl  any  other  kind  of  a  flange  would  not  be  patentable  over  the  references. 
|  The  claims  are  all  rejected. 


Conveying  Balts. 

s. 


As  a  new  article  ol’  Manufacture  ,  a  conveying 
3  rim  portions  at  each  side  thereof,  substantially 
th. 

In  a  conveying  apparatus,  the  combination  with 
king  pulleys  mounted  on  horizontal  axes,  of  a  con- 
k  carried  by  said  supporting  pulleys,  and  rim  por- 
said  halt  at  each  side  thereof,  substantially  as 


In  a  conveying  apparatus,  the  combination  with 
king  pulleys  ipounted  on  horizontal  axes,  of  a  con-| 
k  carried  by  said  supporting  pulleys,  rim  portions| 
el t  at  each  side  thereof,  intermediate  supporting 
r  the  conveying  portion  of  the  belt  of  a  width 
iat  of  the  belt,  and  supporting  pulleys  for  the 
kion  of  the  belt  of  a  width  less  than  the  distance| 
e  rim  portions  thereof,  substantially  as  set  forth| 
As  a  new  article  of  manuf ac ture ,  a  conveying 
5  a  rope  secured  to  its  outer  face  near  each  side 
fh st initially  as  set  forth. 


No. 


Ser-il  No. 


^  .,^  Applicant. 


Ti  tl  m'  ii  fi'U-^t^y  <$*£s  *&£s/ Afs&t ^ 

/tys&U.  lc/'  su 

Sj-  oC&/ 

Filed. . Examiner’s  Room  No.  ~  ^3- . . 


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* 


petition. 


Go  the  Commissioner  of  [patents : 

YOUR  petitioner  SHQHA8  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of  the 
United  states,  residing;  and  having  his  post  office  address 
at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and  state  of  Now 
Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  PROCESS 

Am-APPAIUTOS-  FOR  DRYING  AND  SOROTJINC  ORES  AND  01'] MR  MATER¬ 
IAL  IN  BULK 


SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION  ;  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD.  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT.  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 


BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 


SPECIFICATION. 


1 


TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

Be  it  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
new  and  useful  PR0CES3  AND-APPARA5UB- FOR  DRYING  AND  SCREEN¬ 
ING  ORES  AND  OTHER  MATERIAL  IN  BULK  (Case  No.  1017),  of 
which  the  following  is  a  specification:  - 

My  Invention  relates  to  an  Improved  process  by  whloh 
wet  or  damp  ore  and  other  material  in  bulk  may  be  effective¬ 
ly  and  economically  dried  and  screened, (and  to  an  improved 
apparatus  for  carrying  the  process  into  effect.^  My  pro¬ 
cess  makes  it  possible  for  me  to  employ  a  relatively  small 
dryer  and  to  utilize  comparatively  low  temperatures  for  ef¬ 
fecting  the  drying. 

I  My  process  consists  in  crushing  the  wet  or  damp  ore 

or  other  bulk  material,  in  passing  the  crushed  material 
through  a  dryer  by  which  it  is  dried,  in  then  subjecting 
the  dried,  crushed  material  to  a  screening  operation  by 
whioh  particles  of  sufficient  fineness  will  be  separated 
from  the  material  and  conducted  to  the  point,  of  use,  in  re- 
crushing  the  tailings  of  the  screen  or  screens,  which  tail¬ 
ings  are  known  in  the  art  as  "returns",  in  mining  the  re- 
crushed,  dry,  hot  returns  with  freshly  crushed,  wet  material, 
and  in  passing  the  mixture  again  through  the  dryer,  and  so 
on.  By  adding  the  recrushed,  dried,  hot  returns  to  the 
freshly  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material,  a  part  of  the  moisture 
will.be  driven  out  of  the  latter,  and  the  proportion  of 
moisture  in  the  material  passing  through  the  dryer  will  be 
reduoedt  so  that  a  relatively  small  dryer  may  be  employed, 


-1- 


utilizing  comparatively  low  temperatures  for  effecting  the 
drying. 


(  My  improved  apparatus  comprises  two  sets  of  crush¬ 
ing  rolls,  one  set  for  crushing  the  wet  or  damp  material  in 

bulk  and  the  other  se}/for  recrushing  the  dry,  hot  returns; 

/ 

a  dryer  to  which,  after  the  apparatus  is  in  operation,  the 
jmixture  of  returns  and  freshly  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material 
is  passed;  a 'screening  device  for  screening  the  material 
after  it ^has  passed  through  the  dryer;  and  proper  convey¬ 
ors  and/elevators  for  automatically  directing  the  streams  of 
material  through  the  several  devices  constituting  the  ap¬ 
paratus.^ 


I  In  order  that  ray  invention  may  be  better  under¬ 

stood,  attention  is  directed  to  the  accompanying  drawing, 
showing  •frhe-J.mprev-ed  apparatus  in  diaBramT^"'7  ***'/*+***■* 


1  represents  a  pair  of  crushing  rolls  or  other  crush¬ 
ing  apparatus,  provided  with  a  hopper  2,  into  which  the  wet 
or  damp  ore  or  other  material  in  bulk  is  delivered.  This 
crushing  apparatus  is  of  any  suitable  type.  3  is  a  convey¬ 
or  belt,  located  beneath  the  crushing  apparatus  1  and  re¬ 
ceiving  the  crushed  material  therefrom.  4  is  an  elevator, 
into  the  boot  of  whioh  the  crushed  material  from  the  convey¬ 
or  3  is  deposited.  This  elevator  carries  the  orushed  ma¬ 
terial  upwards  and  deposits  it  in  the  hopper  5  of  a  dryer  6, 
of  any  suitable  type.  Preferably  the  dryer  6  is  supplied 
with  hot  air  from  a  furnace  7  and  1b  provided  on  its  inter¬ 
ior  with  the  inclined  baffle-plates  8,  by  whioh  the  material 
will  be  caused  to  pass  through  the  dryer  in  the  shape  of  a 
plurality  of  flat,  zig-zag  streams.  The  crushed,  dried 
material  from  the  dryer  6  is  deposited  in  the  boot  9  of  an 

I  elevator  10,  and  is  conveyed  by  said  elevator  to  a  screening 
apparatus  11  of  any  suitable  type.  Preferably  this  soreen- 
-2- 


ing  apparatus  comprises  a  plurality  of  aoreen  aeotlons 
12,  12,  and  a  series  of  oheoking  surfaces  13,  by  means  of 
which  the  material  after  it  has  passed  over  one  soreen  seo- 
tion  will  be  brought  to  rest  before  passing  over  the  screen 
section  next  below.  By  thus  passing  the  material  more 
slowly  over  the  soreen  sections,  the  screening  operation  is 
facilitated. 

The  fine  material  from  the  screens  falls  upon  an 
incline  14  and  is  deposited  on  a  conveyor  15,  by  whioh  it  is 
carried  to  the  point  of  use.  The  tailings  of  the  screens, 
which  are  in  the  form  of  dry,  hot  returns,  are  passed  through 
a  reorushing  apparatus  16  of  any  suitable  type  and  by  whioh 
such  tailings  will  be  recrushed..  The  reorushed  material 
from  the  reorushing  apparatus  16  is  deposited  on  the  convey¬ 
or  3,  so  as  to  be  intimately  associated  with  the  wet  or  samp 
material  from  the  crushing  apparatus  1. 

The  operation  will  be  as  follows:-  The  wet  or  d«™p 
ore  or  other  material  in  bulk  is  supplied  to  the  hopper  2 
in  the  desired  quantity  and  is  crushed  between  the  crushing 
rolls  1  or  other  crushing  apparatus.  The  wet  or  damp, 
crushed  material  being  deposited  on  the  oanveyor  3  will  be 
elevated  by  the  elevator  4  and  pass  through  the  dryer  6, 
by  whioh  it  will  be  dried.  From  the  dryer  6,  the  crushed, 
dry  material  will  be  elevated  by  the  elevator  10  and  pass 
through  the  screening  apparatus  11.  Sufficiently  fine  ma¬ 
terial  will  be  carried  off  by  the  conveyor  15,  but  the  coarse 
tailings  or  returns  will  be  passed  through  the  reorushing 
apparatus  16  and  again  deposited  upon  the  conveyor  3.  By 
thus  adding  the  reorushed,  dry,  hot  returns  to  the  wet  or 
damp  material  on  the  conveyor  3,  a  part  of  the  moisture 
carried  by  the  wet  or  damp  material  will  be  driven  out  and 
the  proportion  of  moisture  contained  in  the  mixture  passing 
-3- 


through  the  dryer  6  will  be  considerably  reduced,  so  that  a 
relatively  small  dryer  may  be  used,  utilizing  comparatively 
low  temperatures. 


Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  I  claim  as 
new  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is  as  followa:- 

1.  The  process  of  drying  and  'screening  wet  or  dam; 
material  in  bulk,  which  consists  in  crushing  the  wet  or  dam] 
material,  in  passing  the  crushed  material  through  a  dryer, 
in  screening  the  dried,  orushod  material,  in  reorushing  the 

j|dry,  hot  tailings  or  returns  from  the  screening  apparatus, 
and  in  mixing  the  racrushed,dry,hot  returns  with  the  crushed, 
or  damp  material,  substantially  $s  set  forth. 

2.  The  process  of  drying  and  screening  wet  or 
damp  material  in  bulk,  which-  consists  in  crushing  the  wet 
or  damp  material,  in  passing  the  orushed  material  through  a 
dryer,  in  screening  the  dried,  crushed  material,  in  re¬ 
orushing  the  dry,  hot  tailings  or  returns  from  the  screening 
apparatus,  in  mixing  the  recrushed,  dry,  hot  returns  with 
the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material,  and  in  passing  the  mix¬ 
ture  again  through  the  drying  apparatus,  substantially  as 
set  forth. 

X 

3.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or 
damp 'mat e r ial  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
apparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  mater¬ 
ial  is  dire'qted,  a  screening  apparatus  for  screening  the 
dried,  crushedNiaterial  from  the  dryer,  and  meanB  for  re¬ 
orushing  the  tailings  of  said  screening  apparatus  and  for 
mixing  the  re orushed  tailings  with  the  orushed,  wot  or  damp 
material,  substantially  aa'xset  forth. 

4.  An  apparatus  for  sqreening  and  drying  wet  or 
damp  material  in  bulk,  comprising  incombination  a  crushing 
apparatus,  a  dryer  to  whloh  the  orushed><wet  or  damp  mate?- 


is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the  dried, 
crushed  material  from  the  dryer  is  direoted,  a  reorushing 
apparatus  for  recru3hing  the  tailings  of  the  screening  ap¬ 
paratus,  and  means  for  mixing  the  re crushed,  dry  tailings 
with  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material,  substantially  as 
set  forth.  \ 

5.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or 
damp  material  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
|apparatus,  a  dryer  tci  which  tho  crushed,  we t  dr  damp  mater¬ 
ial  is  direoted,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the  dried, 
crushed  material  from  t\e  dryer  is  directed,  a  recrushing 
apparatus  for  r ocrushing  Vbe  tailings  of  the  screening  ap¬ 
paratus,  and  a  conveyor  located  beneath  the  crushing  and 
recrushing  apparatus  and  onto  which  the  crushed  and  re¬ 
crushed  material  is  deposited ^substantially  as  set  forth. 


®atb. 


State  of 
Count?  of 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON  ,  the  above-named 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  CitiaOB 

of  the  United  States  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex  and  State  of  Now  Jersey} 

THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  BE  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 

of  the  PROCESS  AND  APPARATUS  FOR  DRYING  AND  SCREENING  ORES 
AND  OTHER  MATERIAL  IN  BULK 

DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 


l 

J 


* 


I  have  to  acknoivledge  the  receipt  of  the  petition,  specification,  oath,  and  1 


|  with  Fifteen  Dollars  as  the  first  fee  payable  thereon. 

|  The  papers  are  duly  filed,  and  your  application  for  a  patent  will  be  taken  up  » 
for  examination  in  its  order . . .  f 


You  ivill  be  duly  advised  of  the  examination. 


Very  respectfully, 


Case  will  be  taken  up  for 
examination  in  about  six  weeks. 


SLyL. . 

7a . JL U 

JIl. . 


C.  ! 


4 


‘  ■  Tiedsc. find  below  n  com 

'•#736,350,  mod 'Boy. 
Drying  and  Screening; 


vmunioation  from  Vie  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 

16f>9,  for.T’roooBB  tins  Aoparatus  for 
Oreo,  &o.,  in  hulk. 


';j:  <22. 

■  Commissioner*  qf  .Patents. 

This  case,  havinc  been  taken  up  for  exwataaUon,  is  .found 
to  Mihrftce  two  separate  and  independent  inventions  -  one.  rY 
process,  ' covered  in  cltdsm  1  and  2,  and  the  other,  an  apparathis^’ 
covered  in  claims  5,  4  and  P.  Tn  accordance  with  Rule  41,  divij^len 

i s  required.  • 


THOMAS  A,  EDISON 

PROCESS  AND  APPARATUS  3?OR  DRYING 
AND  SOREJOTNff  ORES  ft 0, 

IN  BULK 

BURIAL  NO.  736,360 
PILED  NOVEMBER  0,  1899 


( 


ROOM  HO.  243. 


llOH,  COMMISSI ONER  OP  PATENTS , 

SIR  : 

Please  amend  as  follows  s- 

Hruse.  the  words  "AND  APPARATUS"  in  the 
;itlo  of  the  invention. 

Pace  1,  line  6,  erase  tho  words  "AND  APPARATUS". 

>aiae  page,  lines  10  and  11,  erase  the  words  ",  and  to  an 
.unproved  apparatus  for  carrying  the  process  into  effect". 

Pago  2,  beginning  with  "My",  line  3,  erase  through 
apparatus",  lines  11  and  12.  Sane  page,  line  16,  erase 

the  improved",  and  substitute - an — — .  game  line 

after  "diagram"  insert  - for  carrying  the  process  into 

c  ffect - . 

Insert  at  tJio  end  of  the  specification:  — 
j  cl0  not  olaiM  herein  the  improved  drying  apparatus 
ior  carrying  the  process  into  effect,  since  such  apparatus, 
is  made  the  subject  of  a  separate  application  for  patent—- 
Cancel  claims  3,  4  and  5. 

Action  on  the  merits  is  now  respectfully  requested. 
Respectfully, 


Attorneys  for  Edison. 


ew  York,  December  30,1899. 


DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR, 

United  States  Patent  Office,  . 

Washington,  d.  c„  Jan.  29,  1900. 

Thomas  A.  Edison, 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  St. , 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

Please  find  below  a  communication  from,  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 

Ser  NO  736,350,  Piled  Nov.  9,  1899,  for  "Process  of  Drying  and 
Screening. " 


and  tbc  precise  point  indicated  where  the  erasure  or  inBe 
separate  from  the  papers  previously  filed,  and  written  on 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON  ! 

! 

PROCESS  OF  DRYING-  AND  SCREENING  : 

:  ROOM  NO.  S61. 

PILED  NOVEMBER  0,  1899  i 

SERIAL  NO.  736,560  \ 

HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OF  PATENTS, 

SIR!- 

Reconsideration  of  the  claims  is  re¬ 
spectfully  requested. 

With  applicant's  invention  the  material  is  first 
crushed,  then  passed  through  a  dryer,  and  finally  screened, 
the  screenings  passing  off  to  the  point  of  use  and  the  tail¬ 
ings  being  recrushed  and  mixed  with  fresh  quantities  of 
crushed  wet  or  damp  material.  Both  of  the  patents,  to -Gumma' 
of  record  relate  particularly  to  apparatus  and  methods  con¬ 
nected  with  the  handling  of  garbage,  and  that  apparatus  is 
of  such  a  character  as  to  be  practically  limited  only  to  the 
handling  of  comparatively  soft  and  garbagelike  material. 

With  the  Cummer  patents  the  garbage  is  taken  in  its  original 
form,  passed  through  a  dryer  and  screened,  the  screenings 
passing  off  for  use,  the  tailings  being  disintegrated,  and 
being  finally  again  introduced  into  the  dryer  with  fresh 
quantities  of  undried  garbage. 

The  differences  between  the  Cummer  patents  and  ap¬ 
plicant's  Invention  may  be  thus  stated! 

First:  In  applicant's  invention  the  material  is 
first  crushed,  and  the  tailings  from  the  screen  are  recrush- 
?d  and  mixed  with  the  crushed  wet  or  moist  material.  In  the 
Cummer  patents  there  is  no  equivalent  of  applicant's  first 
step  of  crushing,  sinoe  the  garbage  is  introduced  into  the 
dryer  in  its  original  state, 

Seopnds  With  applicant's  process  the  recrushed  dry 
hot  returns  from  the  SCreen  are  mixed  with  the  crushed  wet 


1 


or  damp  material  before  being  repassed  through  the  drying 
apparatus.  In  the  Cummer  patents  the  disintegrating  screen-’ 
ings  are  only  added  to  the  fresh  material  at  the  dryer,  and 
there  will  in  consequence  be  a  very  imperfect  mixture  of 
the  two . 

Very  respectfully, 


Attorneys  for  Edison. 


[ How  York,  February  21,  1900. 


Room  No ')4 


All  .-u,p»«l„K  thl, 

PpUcndon  sIioiImI  fc-iso  Mio  r.orlul  nuroW, 
(Into  of  Ming,  uml  r.{t!«  »>f  invpntirtja^— — „ 


DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR, 

United  States  Patent  Office,  j'pl  /q^ 

Washington,  D.  c„  March  6,  1900. 

T.  A.  Edison, 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  street, 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

Pul  below  a.  eam.memieM.on.  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  year  application. 

Se  No  736,350,  Piled  Nov.  9,  1899,  for  "Process  of  Drying  Ores 


£Z  . 

_ _  Commissioner  of  Patents. 

This  application  has  been  again  examined,  and  as  no  reason  is 
seen  for  modifying  the  previous  action,  the  claims  are  finally  re¬ 
jected  upon  the  references  of  record.  The  apparatus  shown  in  the 
references  is  described  as  intended  for  use  in  disintegrating  and 
drying  lignite  and  gypsum  as  well  as  garbage. 


4J& 


i  he  Edison  Portland  Cement  Co. 


GENERAL,  OFFICE t 


ORANCJE  TELEPHONE,  “3n  ORANGE.”  | 

Edison  Laboratory,  Orange,  N.  JM 

April  16th, 1900 


Messrs.  Dyer, Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  Street, 

New  York  City. 


Gentlemen 

Replying  again  to  yours  of  February  21st ,  in  reference 
to  application  Edison  #1017,  and  Edison  #1024,  beg  to  state  that 
we  have  further  investigated  the  matter  and  find  that  Mr.  Edison 
gave  the  Hew  Jersey  Zinc  Co.  instructions  to  arrange  their  plant 
so  a  portion  of  the  dry  material  should  be  returned  and  mixed  with 
the  wet  material ,  and  go  through  the  Dryer  with  it ,  but  his  in¬ 
structions  were  not  carried  out,  and  the  material  only  Jfeirfc  through 
the  Dryer  once. 


Yours  very  truly, 


Case  No.  E-1017, 

Filed  Hov.  9,  1899.  Dropped, 

Process  for  Drying  and  Screening  Ores  and  other  Material 
in  Bulk. 

Claims. 

1.  The  process  of  drying  and  screening  we t  or  damp 
material  in  hulk,  which  consists  in  crushing  the  wet  or 
damp  material,  in  passing  the  crushed  material  through  a 
dryer,  in  screening  the  dried,  crushed  material,  in  re- 
crushing  the  dry  hot  tailings  or  returns  from  the  screen¬ 
ing  apparatus,  and  in  mixing  the  recrushed,  dry,  hot  return 
with  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material,  substantially  as 
set  forth. 

2.  The  process  of  drying  and  screening  wet  or  damp 
material  in  hulk,  which  consists  in  crushing  the  wet  or 
damp  material,  in  passing  the  crushed  nu  te rial  through  a 
dryer  ,  in  screening  the  dried,  crushed  material,  in  re¬ 
crushing  the  dry,  hot  tailings  or  returns  from  the  screen¬ 
ing  apparatus,  in  mixing  the  recrushed,  dry,  hot  returns 
with  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  mterial,  and  in  passing  the 
mixture  again  through  the  drying  apparatus,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

3.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or  damp 
material  in  hulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
apparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  mater¬ 
ial  is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  for  screening  the 
dried,  crushed  material  from  the  dryer,  and  means  for  re¬ 
crushing  the  tailings  of  said  screening  apparatus  and  for 
mixing  the  recrushed  tailings  with  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp 
material,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


-2- 


14.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  we t  or  damp 
material  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
apparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  mater¬ 
ial  is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the  dried, 
crushed  material  from  the  dryer  is  directed,  a  recrushing 
apparatus  for  recrushing  the  tailings  of  the  screening  ap¬ 
paratus,  and  means  for  mixing  the  recrushed,  dry  tailings 
with  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material,  substantially  as 
set  forth. 

5.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or  damp 
material  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
apparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wet  or  daitp 
material  is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the 
I  dried,  crushed  material  from  the  dryer  is  directed,  a  re- 
crushing  apparatus  for  recrushing  the  tailings  of  the  screen¬ 
ing  apparatus,  and  a  conveyor  located  beneath  the  crushing 
and  recrushing  apparatus  and  onto  which  the  crushed  and 
rscrushed  Material  is  deposited,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


Wiihesi 


Inventor 


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Att’ys. 


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Patents  nnt>  patent  anuses, 


petition* 


tTo  the  Commissioner  of  patents : 

YOUR  petitioner,  TIIOKAS  A.  RDI30N,  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States,  residing  and  having  hia  post  office  address  at  Llewellyn 
Park,  in  the  County  of  Ttesex  and  State  of  Hew  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPEOVHCRNT  HI 

PROCESS  OP  MAGNETIC  SEPARATION 


SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION  ;  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT,  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 
BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 


THOMAS...A, . SDISOfL 


SPECIFICATION, 

TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

Be  it  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 

I  of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
new  and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  IN  PROCESS  OF  MAGNETIC  SEPARATION 
(case  Ho.  1022) ,  of  which  the  following  is  a  description: 

In  an  application  filed  on  even  date  herewith  I  de¬ 
scribe  certain  improvements  in  magnetic  separators  compris¬ 
ing  a  rotating  magnet,  the  poles  of  which  are  arranged  ad¬ 
jacent  to  each  other  to  form  a  relatively  narrow  gap  between 
them,  the  whole  constituting  a  pulley  around  which  is  passed 
an  endless  belt,  and  to  the  said  belt  is  fed  the  mixed  mag¬ 
netic  and  non-magnetic  partioles.  In  my  said  application 
I  describe  specifically  how  the  apparatus  is  intended  to' 
work  in  connection  with  materials  which  are  extremely  weak 
magnetically,  such  as  garnets  and  specular  iron  ore,  the 
magnetic  and  non-magnetic  particles  being  fed  to  the  belt 
Substantially  in  line  with  the  gap  between  the  polar  faces, 
whereby  the  magnetic  particles  will  be  tenaciously  attracted 
to  the  belt  and  will  be  carried  down  around  the  magnet  and 
thence  away  from  the  vertical  diameter,  where  they  drop  off, 
while  the  non-magnetic  partioles  immediately  drop  off  of  the 
belt  as  it  approaches  and  recedes  from  a  vertical  direction. 

My  present  invention  relates  to  an  Improved  process 
toy  which  a  magnetic  separator  of  the  general  type  described 
in  my  said  application  can  be  very  effectively  utilized  for 
the  separation  and  Concentration  of  particles  which,  com¬ 
pared  to  garnets  and  specular  iron  ore,  are  relatively  mag¬ 
netic,  such  as  magnetite,  and  I  have  modified  said  apparatus 

I  in  specific  respects  to  fit  it  more  perfectly  to  the  carry- 
1 


-a 


ing  on  of  the  improved  process. 

One  of  the  difficulties  in  magnetic  separation  is 
that  non-magnetic  particles  become  entangled  with  the  mag¬ 
netic  particles  and  are  carried  through  the  apparatus)  and 
a  common  expedient  at  the  present  time  in  use  in  the  art  is 
to  subject  the  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  particles  to  more 
or  loss  agitation  during  the  separate  operations  so  as  to 
prevent  the  entrainment  or  entanglement  of  the  non-magnetic 
particles  with  the  magnetic  particles.  I  find  that  with  an 
apparatus  of  the  general  type  referred  to,  when  operated  at 
a  sufficiently  high  speed  as  to  result  in  the  generation  of 
considerable  centrifugal  force,  the  non-magnetic  particles 
will  not  only  be  thrown  off  of  the  belt  as  it  passes  around 
the  magnet,  but  such  particles  will  be  actually  disentangled 
from  the  magnetic  particles,  due  to  the  effect  of  the  magi'^'- 
netlc  foroe,  and  thrown  off  so  as  to  be  effectively  sepa¬ 
rated.  When  an  apparatus  of  this  general  type  is  used  with 
materials  which  are  extremely  weak  magnetically,  it  is.  de¬ 
sirable,  as  X  describe xin  my  said  application,  that  the  ma¬ 
terials  should  be  fed  to  the  belt  only  in  lines  substantial¬ 
ly  coincident  with  the  gap  between  the  polar  faces  in  order 
that  such  materials  may  be  subjected  to  lines  of  intense 
magnetio  foroe.  When,  however,  my  improved  process  is  obX- 
ried  out,  utilizing  centrifugal  force  to  facilitate  the 
separating  operation,  it  is  not  necessary  to  get  such  a 
concentrated  magnetio  field,  and  hence  it  becomes  possible 
to  modify  the  apparatus  to  the  extent  of  using  very  much 
larger  polar  faces,  which  as  a  whole  may  be  nearly?. magneti¬ 
cally?  .saturated. 

An  apparatus  intended  for  the  carrying  on  of  iny  im¬ 
proved  process  may  therefore  be  formed  of  a  core  to  which 
power  is  applied,  two  disks  Carried  by  the  ends  of  said 
core,  and  overhanging  rims  carried  by  Bald  disks  and  ehclos- 
3 


I 


ing  the  magnet izing  coil,  the  whole  magnet  being  therefore 
eaaent tally  cylindrical  in  form  and  carrying  the  feed  belt 
for  the  entire  width  of  the  polar  faces.  Since  the  ampere 
turns  of  the  coil  will  be  ao  proportioned  to  the  mass-  of  the 
metal  in  the  magnet  aa  to  result  in  the  polar  faoea  being  ne 
magnetically  aaturated,  it  becomea  poaaible,  with  an  appara¬ 
tus  utilizing  my  present  process,  to  feed  to  the  belt  mate¬ 
rial  throughout  substantially  the  entire  width  of  the  belt* 
whereby  the  rapidity  of  operation  of  the  apparatus  will  be 
very  greatly  increased  in  addition  to  the  increase  which  re- 
aults  from  the  higher  speed  at  which  the  belt  is  driven. 

In  order  that  the  invention  may  be  better  under¬ 
stood,  attention  is  directed  to  the  accompanying  drawings 
forming  a  part  of  this  specification,  and  in  which  figure  1 
represents  a  plan  of  my  improved  apparatus;  figure  3  an  en¬ 
larged  section  of  the  magnet;  and  figure  3  a  diagram  show¬ 
ing  a  series  of  the  separators  working  in  bank. 

In  all  of  the  above  views,  corresponding  parts  are 
represented  by  the  same  numerals  of  reference. 

1  represents  a  shaft,  which  is  mounted  in  bearings 
2,  2,  and  which  may  be  driven  in  any  suitable  way,  as  for 
example  from  a  pulley  3.  The  shaft  1  is  provided  with  a 
cylindrical  enlargement  at  its  oenter  constituting  the  core 
of  the  magnet .  The  poles  of  the  magnet  comprise  the  two 
disks  5,  6,  which  are  bolted  to  the  core  as  shown,  and  hav¬ 
ing  the  overhanging  rims  6,  6,  the  free  edges  of  which  are 
adjaoent  to  each  other  so  as  to  form  a  gap  between  them. 

The  coil  7  Is  wound  on  the  core  within  the  magnet,  as  shown, 
and  is  supplied  with  current  through  insulated  collecting 
rings  8,  8  and  brushes  9,  9.  Preferably  the  polar  faces 
6,  6  are  entirely  enclosed  in  a  thin  sheet  of  non-magnetic 
metal,  such  as  brass,  10,  whereby  the  magnet  will  present  a 
continuous  operating  face  to  the  feed  belt  11,  which  is  made 
3 


4-riy 


of  any  Buitable  material.  This  belt  extends  over  a  pulley 
12  carried  on  a  shaft  13.  The  ampere  turns  in  the  coil  7 
are  so  proportioned  relatively  to  the  mas3  of  the  magnetic 

poles  as  to  result  in  the  polar  extremities  6,  6  thereof  be- 

nearly 

ingAmagnetioally  saturated.  Material  is  fed  to  the  belt, 11 
in  any  suitable  way»  as  for  instance  from  a  hopper  14  having 
a  roller  feed  16.  Mounted  below  the  magnet  is  a  suitable 
deflecting  board  16,  which  may  be  actually  located  behind 
the  vertical  center  of  the  magnet.  Preferably  a  plurality 
of  the  separators  are  used,  one  above  the  other  aa  shown  in 
figure  3,  the  concentrates  from  the  first  separator  passing 
by  means  of  a-  chute  17  to  a  second  separator  18,  while  the 
concentrates  of  this  second  separator  pass  by  means  of  the 
chute  19  to  a  third  separator  20.  The  final  concentrates 
issue  from  the  apparatus  through  a  draw-off  spout  21,  while 
the  non-magnetic  particles  are  carried  out  of  the  apparatus 
through  a  spout  22. 

The  operation  will  be  as  follows!  Power  is  applied 
to  the  shaft  1  to  rotate  the  magnet  and  drive  the  belt  11  of 
eaoh  separator,  and  the  mixed  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  par¬ 
ticles  are  fed  to  the  belt  of  the  first  separator,  as  for 
instance  through  the  roller  feed  16.  The  feed  of  the  mate¬ 
rial  to  the  belt  may  occupy  substantially  the  entire  width 
of  the  belt,  since  the  entire  polar  faces  of  the  magnet  are, 
as  stated,  preferably  magnetically  saturated.  The  speed  at 
which  the  belt  is  driven  iB  very  high,  ranging  generally 
from  between  six  hundred  and  eight  hundred  feet  or  more  per 
minute,  but  this  speed  should  be  so  proportioned  to  the  mag¬ 
netic  attraction  of  the  magnet,  to  the  magnetic  affinity  of 
the  magnetic  materials,  and  to  the  diameter  of  the  magnet 
as  not  to  result  in  the  generation  of  a  greater  centrifu¬ 
gal  force  than  is  necessary  to  throw  off  the  non-magnetic 
particles  from  the  belt  as  it  passes  around  the  magnet.  By 
4 


thus  driving  the  belt  at  a  relatively  high  speed,  the  non¬ 
magnetic  particles  will  be  thrown  off  therefrom  in  front  of 
the  deflecting  board  16  by  the  centrifugal  force  which  is 

I  developed,  while  the  magnetic  particles  will  be  caused  to 
tenaciously  adhere  to  the  belt  by  the  magnetic  attraction, 
and  will  be  gradually  carried  by  the  belt  away  from  the 
lines  of  magnetic  force  as  the  particles  pa83  beyond  the 
vertical  diameter  of  the  magnet  until  they  finally  drop  off. 
By  thus  utilizing  in  a  magnetic  separator  the  effect  of  cen¬ 
trifugal  force,  and  by  so  proportioning  the  centrifugal 
force  that  it  tends  to  positively  throw  off  of  the  belt  all 
non-magnetio  particles  without,  however,  affecting  the  mag¬ 
netic  particles,  I  secure  a  very  perfect  and  rapid  separa¬ 
tion;  in  fact,  the  effect  of  the  centrifugal  action  in  the 
apparatus  is  sufficient  to  cause  non-magnetic  particles 
which  would  otherwise  be  entangled  and  entrained  with  the 
magnetic  particles  and  carried  through  the  apparatus,  to  be 
actually  disentangled  therefrom  and  to  be  thrown  out  by  the 
centrifugal  force.  I  consider  it  preferable  to  use  a  plu¬ 
rality  of  these  separators,  because  by  doing  so  the  speed 
of  separation  can  be  increased  by  feeding  to  the  first  sepa¬ 
rator  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  materials  in  large  quanti¬ 
ties,  and  in  correcting  imperfections  in  the  first  separa¬ 
tion  by  the  subsequent  separators,  it  being  obvious  that  any 
non-magnetic  particles  which  may  have  passed  through  the 
first  separator  will  have  further  opportunity  in  the  second 
and  final  separators  of  being  disentangled  and  removed  from 
the  magnetic  particles. 

Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  I  claim  as 
new  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is  as  follows: 

1 .  The  improved-  process  of  separat ing  magnetic 
from  non-magnetio  particles,  which  Consists  in  bringing  the 
6 


mixed  particles  in  u  field  of  magnetic  attraction,  in  chang¬ 
ing  the  direction  of  movement  of  such  partioles  so  as  to  re¬ 
sult  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  which  throws  out 
the  non-magnet io  particles,  and  in  withdrawing  the  magnetic 
particles  from  the  magnetic  attraction,  substantially  as  sot 
forth. 

2.  The  improved  process  of  separating  magnetic 
from  non-magnetic  particles,  which  consists  in  feeding  the 
mixed  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  particles  to  a  rotating 
field  of  magnetic  attraction,  the  speod  of  rotation  there¬ 
of  being  sufficient  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifu¬ 
gal  force  to  throw  out  the  non-magnetic  particles,  and  in 
positively  withdrawing  the  magnetic  particles  so  separated 
from  the  rotating  magnetic  field,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

3.  The  improved  procoss  of  separating  magnetic 
from  non-magnetic  materials,  which  consists  in  subjecting 
the  mixed  material  to  the  joint  action  of  magnetic  and 
lentrifugal  force,  substantially  as  sot  forth. 


SPECIFICATION  SIGNED  AND  WITNESSED  THIS  3rd 


Witnesses : 


..H, . S«....MXLDEY... 


day  of  Januaryw«-1900. 
THOMS  A.  EDISON.  _ 


■J... . P.—RAHI)  OLEH.. 


©atb. 


State  Of  Hew  Jersey 
County  Of  Essex 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON.,  the  above-named 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  Citizen 

of  the  United  Statee,  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex  and  State  of  Hew  Jersey; 

THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  BE  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 

OF  THE  mPROVEHEHT  III  PROCESS  OP  MA0105TIC  SEPARATION 

DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 
HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF;  OR  PATENTED  OR  DESCRIBED  IN  ANY 
PRINTED  PUBLICATION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  OR  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY 
BEFORE  HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF,  OR  MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR  ' 

TO  THIS  APPLICATION;  OR  IN  PUBLIC  USE  OR  ON  SALE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  FOR 
MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR  TO  THIS  APPLICATION,  AND  THAT  NO  APPLICATION 
FOR  FOREIGN  PATENT  HAS  BEEN  FILED  BY  HIM  OR  HIS  LEGAL  REPRESENTATIVES  OR 
ASSIGNS  IN  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY. 

- THOMAS. . A.  ..HDJSON . . - 

sworn  to  and  subscribed  before  me  this  3rd  day  of  January  zaacigoo. 

J»3VRAHD0TjBH - L_ 


NOTARY  PUBLlq,for 

Hew  Jersey. 


ith 


m  no.: 


[illcrillim  *llot^!w;iru  Uiu  BoplaLuiip^ 


Vyi;  DEPARTMENT  OFTHE  INTERIOR, 

y\(>j  United  States  •Patent;  Office, 

•^■V  ■-•  :  '  ;" 

/  .  WASHINGTON,  D.  C., 

Thomas  A.  Edison,  I 

Ojiire  Dyer,  Edmonds  k  D yer, 

■4':  So.  81  Nassau  Street, 

\ii  •  .  .1*ew  York  City,  Hair’ York. 


Feb.  0,  IMP.. 

FE®  8  1900  : 


'  J’ifi\mfind  bclotti  u  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 

#88?, <Tan»  9*  1900,  for  Prooess  of  Mannetie  Separation. 

v'.'.  ■  >•& 


■  drawing  has  boon  critloiaed  by  the  Chief  prafta- 

■mn.  an  follows*-  *  Informal}  par^  in  section  should  be  aeeti.Qt*.; . 
lined  Admit  for  examination  only.  "  Should  the  ease  finally  vi&j  {‘found 
otherwise  allowable,  the  drawing  must  bo  relieved  of  objection® 
bafor*.  the  case  can  pass  to  iSBiioi  Applicant  la  naqwfrW  to’ elimi¬ 
nate  -ppV 1033  *  from  the  specification  to  t  he  disclosure:  of 

whiah^t;  adds  nothing.  The  serial  number  and  date  of  the  application 
referred  to  in  the' second  paragraph,  'page  X,  are  required  to  be  i 
inserfiqdA  ,  .  ./  ^ 

’  Jach  og/the  olalae  is  Mo  oted  as  aquarely^mdlf  in  the:  f ollowind 
patengjjj;  ,348 ,771 1  Payne *  Sepi^th,  1886}  463*895,  Hoffman* . 

Nov.  17th,-  1091 1  and  540,176,  Buchanan*  Oct.  38d*  1096— Kafinetie 
Separators, 


tliu  precise  point  indicated  whcro  the  c 
irate  from- the  papew  previously  filed,  w 


rord  or  vordtf.to  he  8tH6kcn  out  or  insetted  in  the  aj 
or  insertion  is  to  ho  rootle.  ‘All  such  amendments 

•d04*r7x>i<r.  30CT. 


Case  No.  M-1022, 


Abandoned, 


Piled  January  9,1900, 

linprover®  nts  in  Process  of  Magnetic  Sepo.ration. 

Claims. 

X.  The  improved  process  of  separating  magnetic  from 
non-magnetic  particles  Which  consists  in  bringing  the 
mixed  particles  in  a  field  of  magnetic  attraction,  in 
changing  the  direction  of  movement  of  such  particles  so 
as  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  which 
throws  out  the  non-m&gnfetic  particles,  and  in  withdrawing 
tiia  magnetic  particles  from  the  magnetic  attraction,'  sub¬ 
stantially  as  'set  forth. 

2.  The  improved  process  of  separating  magnetic  from 
non-magnetic  particles,  which  consists  in  feeding  the  mixe 1 
magnetic  and  non-magnetic  particles  to  a  rotating  field 

of  magnetic  attraction,  the  speed  of  rotation  thereof  beinj 
sufficient  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal 
force  to  throw  out  the  non-magnetic  particles,  and  in 
positively  withdrawing  the  magnetic  particles  so  separated 
from  the  rotating  magnetic  field,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

3.  The  improved  process  of  separating  magnetic  from 
non-magnetic  materials,  which  consists  in  subjecting  the 
mixed  material  to  the  joint  action  of  magnetism  and  cen¬ 
trifugal  force,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


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* 


lfretttioru 


So  tbc  Commissioner  of  patents : 

your  petitioner,  THQJ.tAS  A,  RDI80B,  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States,  rent  cling  and  having  his  post  office  address  at  Llewellyn 
Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and  3tate  of  New  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPROVEMENT  IN 

MAGNETIC  SEPARATORS 


SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION  ;  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT,  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 
BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 

.  THOMAS  A.  JMflfflt _ 


3PH0IJ?!  CATION. 


TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

Bo  It  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Mas ex  and  State  of  Hew  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
new  and  useful  IMTOOVEMENT  HI  MAGNETIC  SEPARATORS  (Case 
Ho*  1023),  of  which  the  following  is  a  description: 

In  my  application  case  Ho.  1022  filed  on  even  date 
herewith,  I  have  described  an  improved  process  of  magnetic 
separation  consisting  in  bringing  the  mixed  magnetic  and 
non-magnotio  particles  into' a  field  of  magnetic  attraction, 
in  changing  the  direction  of  movement  of  such  particles  so 
as  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  which 
throws  out  the  non-magnetic  partioles,  and  in  withdrawing 
the  magnetic  particles  from  the  magnetic  attraction.  The 
obj ect  of  my  present  invention  is  to  provide  an  improved  ap¬ 
paratus  for  tho  carrying  out  of  such  a  process. 

In  order  that  the  invention  may  be  better  under¬ 
stood,  attention  is  directed  to  the  accompanying  drawings 
forming  a  part  of  this  specification,  and  in  which  figure  1 
represents  a  plan  of  my  improved  apparatus!  figure  2  an  en¬ 
larged  section  of  the  magnet}  figure  3  a  diagram  showing  a 
series  of  the  separators  working  in  bank;  figure  4  a  longi¬ 
tudinal  section  of  a  modification;  and  figure  8  a  section 
on  the  line  5—5  of  figure  4. 

In  all  of  the  above  views ,  corresponding  parts  are 
represented  by  the  same  numerals  of  reference, 

1  represents  a  shaft,  which  is  mounted  in  bearing# 

2,  2,  and  which  may  be  driven  in  any  suitable  way,  as  for 
example  from  a  pulley  3.  The  shaft  1  is  provided  with  a 
cylindrical  enlargement  at  its  center  constituting  the  core 
of  the  magnet.  The  poles  of  the  magnet  comprise  the  two 
disks  5,  5,  which  are  bolted  to  the  core  as  shown,  and  hav- 
-1- 


ine  the  overhanging  rims  6,  6,  the  free  edges  of  which  are 
adjacent  to  each  other  so  as  to  form  a  gap  between  them. 

The  coil  7  is  wound  on  the  core  within  the  magnet,  as  shown, 
and  is  supplied  with  current  through  insulated  collecting 
rings  8,  8  and  brushes  9,  9.  Preferably  the  polar  faces 
6,  6  are  entiroly  enclosed  in  a  thin  sheet  of  non-magnetic 

I  metal,  Buch  as  brass,  10,  whereby  the  magnet  will  present  a 
continuous  operating  face  to  the  feed  belt  11,  which  is  made 
of  any  suitable  material.  This  belt  extends  over  a  pulley 
12  carried  on  a  shaft  13.  The  ampere  turns  in  the  coil  7 
are  so  proportioned  relatively  to  the  mass  of  the  magnetic 
poles  as  to  result  in  the  polar  extremities  6,  6  thereof  being 
nearly  magnetic'allyssaturatdd.  Material  is  fed  to  the  belt  11 
in  any  suitable  way,  as  for  instance  from  a  hopper  14  having 
a  roller  feed  15.  Mounted  below  the  magnet  is  a  suitable 
deflecting  board  16,  which  may  be  actually  located  behind 
the  vertical  center  of  the  magnet.  Preferably  a  plurality 
of  the  separators  are  used,  one  above  the' other  as  shown  in 
figure  3,  the  concentrates  from  the  first  separator  passing 
by  means  of  a  chute  17  to  a  second  separator  18,  while  the 
concentrates  of  this  second  separator  pass  by  means  of  the 
chute  19  to  a  third  separator  20.  The  final  concentrates 
issue  from  the  apparatus  through  a  draw-off  spout  21,  while 
the  non-magnetic  particles  are  carried  out  of  the  apparatus 
through  a  spout  22. 

The  operation  will  be  as  follows:  Power  is  applied 
to  the  shaft  1  to  rotate  the  magnet  and  drive  the  belt  11  of 
each  separator,  and  the  mixed  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  par¬ 
ticles  are  fed  to  the  belt  of  the  firBt  separator,  as  for 
instance  through  the  roller  feed  15.  The  feed  of  the  mate¬ 
rial  to  the  belt  may  occupy  substantially  the  entire  wlflth 

of  the  belt,  since  the  entire  polar  faces  of  the  magnet  are, 
nearly 

as  stated,  preferably  magnetically  saturated.  The  speed  at 

!  3  I 


which  the  belt  ia  driven  is  very  high,  ranging  generally 
from  between  six  hundred  and  eight  hundred  feet  or  more  per 
minute,  but  this  speed  should  be  so  proportioned  to  the  mag¬ 
netic  attraction  of  the  magnet,  to  the  magnetic  affinity  of 
the  magnetio  materials,  and  to  the  diameter  of  the  magnet 
as  not  to  result  in  the  generation  of  a  greater  centrifugal 
force  than  is  necessary  to  throw  off  the  non-magnetio  par¬ 
ticles  from  the  belt  as  it  passes  around  the  magnet.  By 
thus  driving  the  belt  at  a  relatively  high  speed,  the  non- 
magnetio  particles  will  be  thrown  off  therefrom  in  front  of 
the  deflecting  board  16  by  the  contrifugal  force  which  is 
developed,  while  the  magnetic  particles  will  be  caused  to 
tenaciously  adhere  to  the  bolt  by  the  magnetio  attraction, 
and  will  be  gradually  carried  by  the  belt  away  from  the 
lines  of  magnetic  force  as  the  particles  pass  beyond  the 
vertical  diameter  of  the  magnet  until  they  finally  drop  off. 
By  thus  utilizing  in  a  magnetio  separator  the  effect  of  cen¬ 
trifugal  force,  and  by  so  proportioning  the  centrifugal 
force  that  it  tends  to  positively  throw  off  of  the  belt  all 
non-magnetic  particles  without,  hov/ever,  affecting  the  mag¬ 
netic  particles,  I  secure  a  very  perfect  and  rapid  separa¬ 
tion;  in  fact,  the  effect  of  the  centrifugal  action  in  the 
apparatus  is  sufficient  to  cause  non-magnetic  particles 
which  would  otherwise  be  entangled  and  entrained  with  the 
magnetio  particles  and  carried  through  the  apparatus,  to  be 
actually  disentangled  therefrom  and  to  be  thrown  out  by  the 
centrifugal  force.  I  consider  it  preferable  to  U3e  a 
plurality  of  these  separators,  because  by  doing  so  the  speed 
of  separation  Can  be  increased  by  feeding  to  the  first  sepa¬ 
rator  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  materials  in  large  quanti¬ 
ties,  and  in  correcting  imperfeot ions  in  the  first  separa¬ 
tion  by  the  subsequent  separators,  it  being  obvious  that  any 
non-magnetic  particles  which  may  have  passed  through  the 
3 


first  separator  will  have  further  opportunity  in  the  second 
and  final  separators  of  being  disentangled  and  removed  from 
the  magnetic  particles. 

While  I  prefer  to  employ  an  apparatus  using  a  ro¬ 
tating  magnet  around  the  polar  fac.es  of  which  the  feed- 
belt  passes  directly,  since  such  a  construction  is  very  sim¬ 
ple  and  effective,  yet  it  will  be  understood  that  the  appar¬ 
atus  may  be  modified  without  departing  from  the  scope  of  the 
invention.  ?or  example,  the  circular  magnet  may  be  held 
from  rotation  and  may  be  provided  with  a  rotatable  shell 
working  very  close  to  the  polar  faces,  and  with  which  shell 
the  belt  may  engage,  as  shown  in  figures  4  and  6,  With 
this  modification,  a  stationary  shaft  23  carries  a  ooil  24 
which  is  surrounded  by  tho  two  poles  25,  25,  Mounted  with 
respeot  to  the  stationary  magnet  thus  formed,  is  a  shell  26, 
which  works  very  close  to  the  polar  faces,  said  shell  being 
as  thin  as  possible.  This  shell  may  turn  upon  the  station¬ 
ery  shaft  23  and  may  be  driven  in  any  suitable  way,  as,  for 
example,  from  a  pulley  27.  In  order  that  the  magnetic  par¬ 
ticles  may  be  moved  by  the  feed-belt  11  with  respect  to 
the  stationary  magnetic  field  which  will  be  formed  in  the 
modified  construction,  said  belt  may  be  provided  with  trans¬ 
verse  cleats  28,  which  effect  a  positive  movement  of  the 
magnetic  particles  with  respeot  to  the  field.  With  this 
modification,  it  will  be  observed  that  the  centrifugal  force 
will  result  in  the  separation  of  the  non-magnetio  particles, 
while  the  magnetic  particles  will  adhere  tenaciously  to  the 
belt  in  their  movement  with  respect  to  the  field. 

Saving  now  described  my  invention,  what  T  claim  as 
new  and  desire  to  secure  by  letters  patent  is  as  follows:- 


1.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a 
food  devioe  movable  with  respect  to  a  fixed  center,  means 
for  developing  a  magnetic  field  concentric  to  said  center 
arid  adjacent  to  the  feed  devioe,  moans  for  feeding  mixed 
magnetic  and  non-mugnetic  particles  to  the  feed  devioe,  and 
means  for  moving  said  feed  devioe  at  a  sufficiently  high 
velocity  as  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  foroe 
to  throw  off  the  non-magnetio  particles  but  not  sufficient 
to  withdraw  the  magnetic  particles  from  the  effect  of  said 
field,  substantially  as  3et  forth. 

2.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a 
feed-belt  to  whioh  the  mixed  magnetic  and  non-magnetio  par¬ 
ticles  are  fed,  a  rotating  support  for  said  belt,  whereby 
the  belt  is  caused  to  move  with  respect  to  a  fixed  center, 
means  for  developing  a  magnetic  field  concentric  to  said 
center  and  within  whioh  the  belt  moves,  und  moans  for  moving 
said  belt  at  a  sufficiently  high  velocity  as  to  result  in 
the  generation  of  centrifugal  foroe  to  throw  off  the  non- 
magnetio  particles  but  not  to  withdraw  the  raagnetlo  partiolej 
from  the  effect  of  said  field,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

3.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a 
rotating  magnetic  field,  means  for  feeding  mixed  magnetic,  aric 
non-magnetio  particles  to  3aid  field,  moans  for  rotating  the 
field  at  a  sufficiently  high  velocity  as  to  result  in  tl» 
generation  of  centrifugal  force  to  throw  off  the  non¬ 
magnetic  particles,  and  means  for  positively  withdrawing 

the  magnet io  partioles  so  separated  from  the  effect  of  said 
field,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  An  Improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a  ro¬ 

tating  magnet,  a  belt  passing  around  said  magnet  and  to 
whioh  the  mixed  magnetic^ and  nort-magnetio  partioles  are  fed, 
and  means  for  moving  said  bolt  and  magnet  at  a  sufficiently 
_ _ _ _ -8-  _ _ 


high  speed  as  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal 
force  to  throw  off  the' non-raugnotic  particles, « substantially 
as  sat  forth. 

5.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  in 
combination  a  magnet  consisting  of  a  core  and  a  pulleylike 
polar  extremity  carried  by  the  core,  a  holt  ooflperating  with 
said  polar  extremity  and  to  which  the  magnetic  and  non¬ 
magnetic  particles  arc  fed,  and  means  for  moving  said  belt 
at  a  sufficiently  high  speed  as  to  result  in  the  generation 
of  centrifugal  force  to  throw  out  tho  magnetic  particles, 
substantially  as  set  forth* 

6.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a 
core,  a  disk  at  each  end  of  said  core,  an  overhanging  polar 
extremity  carried  by  each  of  said  disks,  the  whole  consti¬ 
tuting  a  pulley,  a  belt  cooperating  therewith,  means  for 
feeding  magnetic  arid  non-magnstio  material  to  said  belt,  and 
means  for  moving  the  belt  at  u  sufficiently  high  speed  as  to 
result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  to  throw  out 
the  non-raagnetic  particles,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

7.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a 
core,  a, disk -at  each  end  of  said  core,  an  overhanging  polar 
extremity  carried  by  each  of  said  disks,  the  whole  constitu¬ 
ting  a  pulley,  ft  belt  cooperating  therewith,  means  for  feed¬ 
ing  magnetic  and  nan-magnetic  material  to  said  belt,  means 
for  moving  the  belt  at  a  sufficiently  high  speed  as  to  re¬ 
sult  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  to  throw  out  tho 
non-magnotio  particles,  and  a  shield  of  non-magnetic  mater 
rial  covering  the  polar  extremities,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

8.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a 
core,  a  disk  at  each  end  of  said  core,  an  overhanging  polar 
extremity  carried  by  each  of  said  diska,  the  whole  consti¬ 
tuting  a  pulley,  a  belt  cooperating  therewith,  means  for 


-6- 


feeding  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  material  to  said  belt, 
means  for  moving  the  belt  at  a  sufficiently  high  speed  as 
to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  to  throw 
out, the' non-magnetic  particles,  and  a  magnetizing  coil  en¬ 
closed  within  the  polar  extremities  of  said  magnet  und  30 
proportioned  to  the  mss  of  the  magnpt  as  to  result  in  the 
polar  extremities  being  nearly  magnetically- saturated,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  set  forth., 

9.  An  improved  separating  apparatus  comprising  a 
plurality  of  magnetic  separators  arranged  to  successively 
act  upon  the  concentrates  from  the  previous  separator,  and 
each  separator  comprising  a  rotating  magnet  and  a  belt  to 
which  the  material  is  fed,  the  speed  of  the  belt  being  suf¬ 
ficient  to  throw  off  the  non-magnetic  particles  by  centrifu¬ 
gal  force,  substantially  ns  sot  forth. 


-7- 


THIS  SPECIFICATION  SIGNED  AND  WITNESSED  THIS  3rd  DAY  OF  JanuaryJBHX  190Q 


THOMAS  A.  33DTSON 

Witnesses : 

1  . . „W... S......1IALLQHY... _ 

2  . . RA1TO.0XEH . . . . 

©atb. 

State  of  ns\v  jersey 
County  Of  ESSEX 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  the  above-named 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  Oitlaen 

of  the  United  StateB,  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jerseys 

THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  be  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 

of  the  niPROVEUEHT  IN  MAGNETIC  SEPARATORS 

DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 
HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF;  OR  PATENTED  OR  DESCRIBED  IN  ANY 
PRINTED  PUBLICATION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  OR  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY 
BEFORE  HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF,  OR  MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR 
TO  THIS  APPLICATION;  OR  IN  PUBLIC  USE  OR  ON  SALE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  FOR 
MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR  TO  THIS  APPLICATION,  AND  THAT  NO  APPLICATION 
FOR  FOREIGN  PATENT  HAS  BEEN  FILED  BY  HIM  OR  HIS  LEGAL  REPRESENTATIVES  OR 
ASSIGNS  IN  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY. 

THOMAS. A.  KPT 5 ON 

SWORN  TO  AND  subscribed  before  me  this  3rd  day  of  January  igofl' 

- J.*.._E«__KA3ID.0IiEH _ 


notary  public,  for 

New  jersey. 


DEPARTMENT  THE  INTERIOR. 

United  State? 'Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d.  c., 

Thomas 'A*  Edison, 

Dyer,  Edmonds  *  Dyer, 

Ho.  31  Nassau  fitreet,  . 

How  York  City,  Hew  York. 


Feb.  8,  1900. 

UXPAT£MT'Om«^ 
F£fe  8  - 1900 

BAtLEH. _ ] 


nmuntcalion  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your,  application.. 


».';£4'lod  Jun.  9,  1900,  for  Kinetic  Separators. 


.Applicant* a  drawing  has  boon  criticised  by  the  Chief  draftsman 
;%s'-^lbwss  "  Informal |  parts  in« section  should  be  section  lined. 
.Admit  for  examination  ohly. "  sbaiild  this  application  be  finally 
.found  .otherwise  allowable,  the  drawing  rauBt  ba  relieved:  of  objection 

befom»the  .oaee  can  be  passed  to?  issue.  Applicant  la  required  .46 
"■‘VT-'  :  '  '  '■  -’T  '  :  i'.‘.  i:, 

eliminate.  Case  ITo.  1033  *  from,  .the  preamble  to  the  specification, 
and  B  case  Ho.  1Q82  "  from  the  first  line  following  the  preamble, 
and  to  .substitute  the  Office  serial  number  aja<r  the  date;  for  .the  .. 
latter.  ~ 

Claim  1  is  r 
1874 1 44g»7jl^Pa; 

..  1991|v,^0(l'-B«t^I7®j(..  nucnniMUi.  apuu. 

viiilaia-  a  is  rejected  in  view  of  'Smfth,  Hoffman  and  Puchanan, 
cited. above.  ,  .  .  . 

iLj&alm  3  is  rejected  in  view  of  the  references  for  claim  1. 

....  Claim  4.  is  rejected  in  . view  of  the  references  for  claim  . 2. 

■ - .v  illain  3,  ie  rejected  in  view  of  the  references  for  claim  3, 

and  Brltishbpatchft  15,883,  LanftfUth,  July  80th,  1898. 


is  rejected  in-  view  of  X*B,H*^8mith,  Har.  10th,. 
Vxvpf.  Sept,  vth^iflaat  Afiffiofi.  Hoffman,  Hot.  17th, 
BucKanah.  ’Odt./SSd,  1896.  x% 


*■  A*  jwiaon,  /  #05^'  Sheet  2-  ' . 

’Claim  6  is  rejected  In  view  at  Laneeuth,  el  ted.  Xhe  non- 
raacnetlc  partlolee  are  discharged,  In  part*  by  centrifugal  force,  in 
^nggijtth.,%  .and;it  would  not  involve  invention  to  impart  to  Dangetith's 
belt  such  a  speed  ns  to  make  siteh- force  the  main  factor  in  the  die- 
eharc«;.,in  view  of  Smith,  Hoff  man- and  Buchanan,  cited. 

^.fllalm  7.  is  rejected  in  view  of.  lanj;nuth,  oitedj  and  featuw* 

£♦  of.jgas,054,  Villiame,  Oot.  33d,  1094. 

...  Claim  0  is  rejeeted  a«  destitute  of  patentable  novelty 

In  vi£w;,o£  langfiuth,  cited.  .  j . _ ■  . 

.•.Claim  9  1b  rejected  in  view  of  Lmjgguth  and  Buchanan,  cited, 
v.fhe  references  are  in  Mills j  Ore  *  Coal,  Magnetic  Separators. 

;  V;  Examiner,  !  ”  ‘ 

:\v  ,-  v4'^  Division  XXff. 


E-1023 


Abandoned, 


Filed  January  9,1900. 


Improvements  in  Magnetic  Separat 


II.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a  feed 
device  movable  with  respect  to  a  fixed  center,  means  for  de¬ 
veloping  a  magnetic  field  concentric  to  said  center  and 
adjacent  to  the  feed  device,  means  for  feeding  mixed  mag¬ 
netic  and  non-magnetic  particles  to  the  feed  device,  and 
means  for  moving  said  feed  device  at  a  sufficiently  high 
velocity  as  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal 
xorce  to  throw  off  the  non-magnetic  particles  but  not 

I  sufficient  to  withdraw  the  magnetic  particles  from  the  ef¬ 
fect  of  said  field,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

2.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a  feed- 
oelt  to  which  the  mixed  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  particles 
are  fed,  a  rotating  support  for  said  belt,  whereby  the 
beit  caused  to  move  with  respect  to  a  fixed  center, 
means  for  developing  a  magnetic  field  concentric  to  said 
center  and  within  which  the  bolt  moves,  and  means  for  moving 
said  belt  at  a  sufficiently  high  velocity  as  to  result  in 
the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  to  throw  off  the  non¬ 
magnetic  particles  but  not  to  withdraw  the  magnetic  parti¬ 
cles  from  the  effect  of  said  field,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

t'J‘  An  1!QPr°ved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a  rotating 
aagnetic  field,  means  for  feeding  mixed  magnetic  and  non- 
nagnetic  particles  to  said  field,  means  for  rotating  the 


"  Positively  withdrawing  the  r 


atic 


particles  £3  0  separated  from  the  effect  of  said  field, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a  ro¬ 
tating  magnet ,  a  belt  passing  around  said  magnet  and  to 
which  the  mixed  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  particles  tire  fed 
and  means  for  moving  said  belt  and  magnet  at  a  sufficiently 
high  speed  as  to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal 
force  to  throw  off  the  non-magne tic  particles ,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 


5,  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  in 
combination  a  magnet  consisting  of  a  core  and  a  pulleylike 
polar  extremity  carried  by  the  core,  a  belt  coppa rating 
v/ith  said  polar  extremity  and  to  which  the  magnetic  and  on- 
magnetic  particles  are  fed,  and  means  for  moving  said  belt 
at  a  sufficiently  high  speed  as  to  result  in  the  generation) 
of  centrifugal  force  to  throw  out  the  magnetic  particles, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

6.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a  core, 
^overhanging  polar  extremity  carried  by  each  of  said  disk) 
a  disk  at  each  end  o t  said  core  ,/the  whole  consituting  f 

a  pulley,  a  belt  cooperating  therewith,  means  for  feeding 
magnetic  and  non-magne tic  material  to  said  belt,  and  means 
for  moving  the  belt  at  a  sufficiently  high  speed  as  to 
result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  to  throw  out 
the  non-magne tic  particles,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


7.  An  improved  magnetic  separator  comprising  a  core, 
a  disk  at  each  end  of  said  core,  an  overhanging  polar 
extreraity  carried  by  each  of  said  disks,  the  whole  consti¬ 
tuting  a  pulley,  a  belt  cooperating  therewith,  means  for 
feeding  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  material  to  said  belt, 
means  for  moving  the  belt  at  a  sufficiently  high  speed  as 
to  result  in  the  generation  of  centrifugal  force  to  throw 
out  the  non-magnetic  particles,  and  a  shield  of  non-magneti 
material  covering  the  polar  extremities,  substantially  as 
set  forth. 


-2- 


petition. 


Co  tbe  Commissioner  of  patents: 

your  petitioner  THOMAS  A.  MDISON,  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States,  rosidins  and  having  his  Post  Office  address  at  Lle- 
wellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of  Mssex  and  State  of  New  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  APPARATUS 

FOR  DRYIHC  A®)  30RMWIN0  0RT3S  ATO  OTHHR  JtATNRJAL  IN  BUIJC 


SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION  ;  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT,  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 
IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 


BUSINESS 


SPECIFICATION, 

ro  ALL  WHOM  IT  KAY  OONOERN: 

Be  it  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A,  EDISON,  ti  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  3tnte  of  Hew  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
lev;  and  useful  APPARATUS  POP.  DRYING  AND  SCREENING  ORBS  AND 
)T!f)3R  5JATERTAL  IN  BUIK  (Oase  No.  1024) ,  of  which  the  follow¬ 
ing  is  a  op ooifioations- 

In  my  application  Oase  No.  1017  (filed  November  9, 
L899,  Serial  No.  736,350),  I  describe  and  claim  an  improved, 
irocess  of  drying  and  screening  ores  and  other  material  in 
nilk,  consisting  in  crushing  the  wet  or  damp  ore  or  other 
>ulk  material,  in  passing  the  crushed  material  through  a 
lryer  by  which  It  is  dried,  in  then  subjecting  the  dried, 

3 rushed  material  to  a  screening  operation  by  which  parti- 
)los  of  sufficient  fineness  will  be  separated  from  the  ma¬ 
terial  and  conducted  to  the  point  of  use,  in  ro crushing  the 
tailings  of  the  screen  or  screens,  which  tailings  are  known 
In  the  art  as  "returns",  in  mixing  the  recrushed,  dry,  hot 
'e turns  with  freshly  crushed,  wot  material,  and  in  passing 
the  mixture  again  through  the  dryer,  and  so  on.  My  pres- 
»nt  invention  relates  to  an  improved  apparatus  for  carrying 
juch  a  process  into  effect. 

i  In  order  that  the  invention  may  be  better  under¬ 

stood,  attention  is  directed  to  the  accompanying  drawing, 
showing  the  improved  apparatus  in  diagram. 

1  represents  a  pair  of  crushing  rolls  or  other  crush¬ 
ing  apparatus,  provided  v;ith  a  hopper  2,  into  which  the  wet 
>r  damp  ore  or  other  material  in  bulk  is  delivered.  This 
jrushing  apparatus  is  of  any  suitable  type,  3  is  a  convey¬ 
or  belt,  located  beneath  the  crushing  apparatus  1  and  re- 
-1- 


oeiving  the  crushed  material  therefrom.  4  is  an  elevator, 
into  tho  boot  of  which  the  crushed  material  from  the  oonvoy- 
or  3  is  deposited.  This  elevator  carries  the  crushed  ma¬ 
terial  upwards  and  deposits  it  in  the  hopper  5  of  a  dryer  6 
of  any  suitable  type.  Preferably  the  dryer  6  is  supplied 
with  hot  air  from  a  furnace  7  arid  is  provided  on  its  inter¬ 
ior  with  the  inclined  baffle-plates  8,  by  which  the  material 
will  be  caused  to  pass  through  the  dryer  in  the  shape  of  a 
plurality  of  flat,  zig-zag  streams.  The  crushed,  dried 
material  from  the  dryer  6  Is  deposited  in  the  boot  9  of  an 
elevator  10,  and  is  conveyed  by  said  elevator  to  a  screening 
apparatus  11  of  my  suitable  typo.  Preferably  this  screen¬ 
ing  apparatus  comprises  a  plurality  of  screen  sections  12, 
12,  and  a  series  of  checking  surfaces  13,  by  means  of 
which  the  material  after  it  has  passed  over  one  screen  sec¬ 
tion  will  be  brought  to  rest  before  passing  over  the  screen 
section  next  below.  I3y  thus  passing  the  material  more 
slowly  over  the  screen  sections,  the  screening  operation  is 
facilitated. 

Tho  fine  material  from  the  screens  falls  upon  an 
incline  14  and  is  deposited  on  a  conveyor  IB,  by  which  it  is 
oarried  to  the  point  of  U30.  The  tailings  of  the  screons , 
which  are  in  tho  form  of  dry,  hot  returns,  are  passed  through 
a  roqrushing  apparatus  16  of  any  suitable  type  and  by  which 
such  tailings  will  be  recrushed.  The  ro crushed  material 
from  tho  re crushing  apparatus  16  is  deposited  on  the  convey¬ 
or  3,  ao  as  to  be  intimately  associated  with  the  wet  or  damp 
material  from  the  crushing  apparatus  1. 

The  operation  will  be  as  follows:-  The  wot  or  damp 
ore  or  other  material  in  bulk  i3  supplied  to  the  hopper  2 
in  the  desired  quantity  and  is  crushed  between  the  crushing 
rolls  1  or  other  crushing  apparatus.  The  wet  or  damp. 


-3- 


orushed  material  being  deposited  on  the  conveyor  3  will  be 
elevated  by  tho  elevator  4  and  pass  through  the  dryer  G, 
by  v/hioh  it  will  be  dried.  from  tho  dryer  6,  the  crushed, 
iry  material  will  be  olevated  by  the  elevator  10  and  pass 
through  the  screening  apparatus  11.  Sufficiently  fine  ma¬ 
terial  will  be  carried  off  by  the  oonveyor  15,  but  the  coarse 
bailings  or  returns  will  be  passed  through  the  reorushing 
Apparatus  Ifl  and  again  deposited  upon  tho  conveyor  3.  By 
thus  .adding  tho  reorushed,  dry,  hot  returns  to  tho  wot  or 
lamp  material  on  tho  conveyor  3,  a  part  of  the  moisture 
sarried  by  tho  wot  or  damp  material  will  be  driven  out  and 
the  proportion  of  moisture  contained  in  tho  mixture  passing 
througli  tho  dryer  6  will  bo  considerably  reduced,  so  that  a 
■elatively  small  dryer  may  be  used,  utilising  comparatively 
Low  temperatures. 

Having  now  described  my  Invention,  what  I  claim  as 
lew  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  patent  is  as  follows 

1.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or 
lamp  material  in  built,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
Apparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  mater¬ 
ial  is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  for  screening  the 
Iriod,  crushed  material  from  the  dryor,  and  means  for  re- 
srushing  the  tailings  of  said  screening  apparatus  and  for 
nixing  the  reo.rushed  tailings  v/ith  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp 
laterial,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

2.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or 
lamp  material  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
Apparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wot  or  damp  mater- 
.al  is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the  dried, 
srnshed  material  from  the  dryer  is  directed,  a  reorushing 
Apparatus  for  reorushing  the  tailings  of  the  screening  ap- 
>aratus,  and  means  for  mixing  the  recruBhed,  dry  tailing# 

-3- 


with  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material,  substantially  as 
sot  .forth, 

3.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or 
damp  material  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing 
apparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  mater¬ 
ial  is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the  dried, 
crushed  material  from  the  dryer  is  directed,  a  recrushing 
apparatus  for  reorushing  the  tailings  of  the  screening  ap¬ 
paratus,  and  a  conveyor  located  beneath  the  crushing  and 
recrushing  apparatus  and  onto  which  the  crushed  and  re- 
oruohed  material  is  deposited,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


-4* 


department  of  the  Interior, 
United  States  Patent  Office, 


Thomas  A.  Edison, 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 
31  Nassau  St. , 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

Please  find  below  a  communication  from 


Washington,  D.  o„  Jan.  29,  1900. 


Ser  No  825,  Filed  Jan.  9,  1900,  for  "Apparatus  for  Drying  and 
Screening  Ores." 


£2 . 

Commissioner  of  Patents. 


This  application  has  bean  taken  up  for  examination. 
The  claims  are  rejected  upon  the  patents  to  Cummer, 
199,  Oct.  3,  1899,  in  Driers,  Cyl. ,  Int. ,  Rot.,  Inclined. 


634,200,  Oct.  3,  1899, 
be  required  to  use  one 
reaches  the  drier,  and 


in  Driers  -Processes, 
crusher  to  crush  the 
another  to  crush  the 


,  No  invention  would 
material  before  it 
tailings  from  the  screen. 


TII0MA3  A.  EDISON 


APPARATUS  FOR  DRYING  AM)  SCREENING  ORBS 
PILED  JANUARY  9,  1900 


ROOM  NO.  861. 


SI8RJAL  NO.  025 . 


HON.  COMMISSIONER  0?  PATENTS, 

SIR; 

Reconsideration  of  the  claims  is  respect¬ 
fully  requested,  for  the  following  reasons:- 

-1»  Applicant's  invention  relates  to  an  apparatus 
for  dealing  vfith  refractory  materials,  such  as  ore,  necessi¬ 
tating  the  employment  of  crushing  devices.  The  Cummer  pat¬ 
ents  both  relate  to  apparatus  for  treating  Boft  and  easily 
iis integrntable  material,  like  garbage. 

-2»  Since  applicant,  deals  with  refractory  mater¬ 
ial,  he  employs  of  necessity  in  the  apparatus  a  crushing 
levies,  but  since  Cummer  employs  his  apparatus  with  garbage 
stc.,  he  does  not  use  a  crushing  device. 

JL..  Fitl1  applicant's  apparatus,  the  crushed,  wet 
>r  damp  material  is  mixed  with  the  recrushed,  hot  or  dry 
;ailings  or  returns  before  being  introduced  into  the  dryer, 
n  the  Cummer  patent,  the  disintegrated  tailings  from  the 
creen  are  added  to  the  fresh  garbage  at  the  hopper  of  the 
iryer,  so  that  there  is  not  an  intimate  mixture. 

_ -4-  So  far  as  the  third  claim  is  concerned,  it  is 
.  imited  specifically  to  "a  conveyor  located  beneath  the 
<  rushing  and  raorushing  apparatus  and  onto  which  the  crushed 
ind  reorushed  material  is  deposited".  By  using  a  conveyor 
<X  this  kind,  the  mixture  of  the  crushed  and  reorushed  ma- 
1  erial  is  facilitated.  An  equivalent,  therefore,  is  not 

:  ound  in  either  of  the  Cummer  patents  of  record. 

Very " re  sp  dot  fully , 

THOMAS/A.  EDISON. 

By 

New  York, February  21,1900.  His  Attorneys. 


-nifKL, 


department  of  the  Interior, 

United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d,  c„  March  6,  1900. 

T.  A.  Edison, 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  street, 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

Phase  find  below  o  i  un/a  ttco  from  the.  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  applteatt^^M 

SerNo  825,  Filed  Jan.  9,  1900,  for  "Apparatus  for  Drying  Ore,  &c" 


£Z , 

tommismonor  of  Menis. 

This  application  has  been  again  examined,  and  as  no  reason  is 
seen  for  modifying  the  previous  action,  the  claims  are  finally  re¬ 
jected  upon  the  references  of  record.  The  apparatus  shown  in  the 
references  is  described  as  intended  for  use  in  disintegrating  and 
drying  lignite  and  gypsum  as  well  as  garbage. 


i.  TS-1024, 


jandoned , 


Piled  Jan.  9,1900, 

Apparatus  for  Drying  and  Screening  Ores  and  other  Ma¬ 
terial  in  Bulk, 


1.  An  apparatus  for  .screening  and  drying  wet  or 
airp  material  in  hulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crush! 
pparatus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  v/et  or  damp  mats 
s  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  for  screening  the  drie 
rushed  material  from  the  dryer,  and  means  for  recrushing 
he  tailings  of  said  screening  apparatus  and  for  mixing 
he  recrushed  tailings  v/ith  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  mate 
Distant i&lly  as  set  forth. 

2.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  v/et  or 
?.mp  material  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushi 
pparatus ,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  v/et  Or  damp  iriate 
>.l  is  directed,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the  dried 
-ushed  material  from  the  dryer  is  directed,  a  rec rushing 
jparatus  for  recrushing  the  tailings  of  the  screening  ap. 
i rat us,  and  means  for  mixing  the  recrushed,  dry  tailings 
.th  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  material,  substantially  as 
irth. 

3.  An  apparatus  for  screening  and  drying  wet  or  dam] 
.terial  in  bulk,  comprising  in  combination  a  crushing  an- 
.ratus,  a  dryer  to  which  the  crushed,  wet  or  damp  materii 

directed,  a  screening  apparatus  to  which  the  dried, 
ushed  material  from  the  dryer  is  directed,  a  recrushing 
paratus  for  recrushing  the  tailings  of  the  screening  ap- 
ratus,  and  a  conveyor  located  beneath  the  crushing  and 
crushing  apparatus  and  onto  which  the  crushed  and  re- 
ushed  material  is  deposited,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


Smal  NbJ&gOL 


. fi&ZZT . 

. i£^j!^jS^t,,, -  Examiner’s  Room  No.  . 


. I/iber. . Page . 


c _ J2J/^?oo 

i . _ 

:  /7. /<?<?-<, 

. >^*A**«*m  ±s6c+  o&  /?**.  . 


\S^/r.  /<9  /<Poq  2 


vyuiS  . 

c&CzL*  c*>-^  /<z  /<?&-&_ 


DYER,  EDMONDS  &  DYER, 

31  Nassau  Street, 


patents  nn&  patent  anuses, 


Ifrettttoru 


So  tbe  Commissioner  of  patents: 

your  petitioner,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citisen  of  tho  United 
States,  residing  and  having  hie  poet  office  address  at  Llewellyn 
Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and  State  of  Hew  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  METHOD  OP  MAKING 
PINE  SCREENING  PLATES 


SPECIFICATION. 


|  TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  MAY  CONCERN: 

!  •  Be  it  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 

I  the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
I  of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
!  new  and  useful  METHOD  OP  MAKING  PINE  SCREENING  PLATES  (case 
;  No.  1036),  of  which  the  following  is  a  description: 

My  invention  relates  to  the  process  of  making  fine 
| screening  plates  of  the  type,  described  in  ray  application 
| for  patent  filed  June  39,  1899,  serial  No.  733,239,  said 
; plates  being  of  extreme  thinness  and  having  screening  orl- 
jfices,  preferably  Blots,  therein  of  greater  width  than  the 
| thiokness  of  the  plates.  The  object  of  the  present  inven¬ 
tion  is  to  provide  a  method  of  making  such  plates,  whereby 
I  their  durability  will  be  increased. 

In  carrying  my  process  into  effect  I  subject  the 
jBoreening  surface,  and  preferably  both  surfaces,  of  the 
plate  to  a  hardening  operation,  the  oentral  portion  of  the 
plate  remaining  in  a  malleable  condition,  so  that  the  plate 
Jwill  not  be  of  objectionable  brittleness. 

!  1°  the  accompanying  drawing  I  show  in  figure  1  a 

cross-sectional  view  of  a  screen  plate  of  extreme  thinness 
jand  provided  with  elongated  slots  therein  of  greater  width 
I  than  the  thickness  of  the  plate,  and  in  figure  2  a  similar 
jview  illustrating  the  apparatus  for  carrying  out  the  improv¬ 
ed  process  followed  in  the  partial  hardening  of  such  plates. 

In  both  of  the  above  views  Corresponding  parts  are 
represented  by  the  same  letters  of  reference. 

A  represents  a  thin  sheet  metal  plate  suitably  hard- 
jened  as  I  will  explain,  provided  with  orifioes,  preferably 
jslota,  a  therein.  The  relation  between  the  thiokness  of 

i  i 


the  plate  A  and  the  width  of  the  orifices  _a  is  suoh  that  the 
former  dimension  1b  less  than  the  latter.  In  the  specific 
instance  Illustrated  I  show  a  plate  which  is  indicated  as 
being  .006  of  an  inch  in  thickness  and  having  slots  a  there¬ 
in  which  are  indicated  as  being  of  a  width  each  of  .009  of 
an  inch. 

In  making  these  screens  I  prefer  to  proceed  substan¬ 
tially  as  follows:  A  sheet-iron  plate  A  is  first  secured, 

and  the  orifices  a  are  formed  therein  preferably  in  a  punch- 
press  with  gang-dies  or  punohes.  The  plate,  after  having 
been  punched  with  the  orifices,  is  then  dipped  in  a  bath  of 
molten  cyanide  of  potassium  for  a  few  seconds.  It  is  then 
withdrawn  and  immediately  laid  upon  a  flat  iron  plate  such 
as  B  (figure  2),  over  whioh  is  located  a  corresponding  plate 
0,  which  is  allowed  to  drop  upon  the  punched  plate  A.  The 
sudden  chilling  to  whioh  the  plate  A  will  be  subjected  by 
coming  in  contact  with  the  larger  masses  of  the  plates  B  and 
0,  serves  to  harden  the  plate  A  and  to  keep  it  perfectly 
flat  until  cooled.  Any  tendency  of  the  plate  A  to  warp  or 
buckle  during  the  cooling  operation  is  thus  overcome.  After 
the  punched  plate  A  has  sufficiently  oooled,  it  is  then  im¬ 
mersed  in  a  water  bath,  to  dissolve  off  the  cyanide  of  potas¬ 
sium,  and  after  this  bath  it  is  dried  and  oiled  in  any 
suitable  and  usual  manner.  As  a  specific  instance  of  a 
convenient  prooess  for  the  proper  hardening  of  plates  .006 
of  an  inch  in  thickness  having  punched  slots  therein  each 
of  a  width  of  .009  of  an  inch,  I  will  state  that  the  plate 
may  be  allowed  to  remain  in  the  molten  bath  of  cyanide  of 
potassium  for  thirty-five  seconds,  and  during  this  period 
the  iron  will  become  carbonated  to  a  depth  of  about  .001  of 
an  inoh  on  each  side.  The  surface  hardening  to  which  the 
screen  plate  will  be  thus  subjected  between  the  plates  B  and 
0  will  be  of  a  very  high  order,  while  at  the  same  time  the 
2 


Inner  portions  of  the  plate  will  be  left  sufficiently  soft 
and  pliable  as  to  allow  the  plate  to  be  bent  or  otherwise 
manipulated.  If  the  plate  were  allowed  to  remain  too  long 
j  in  the  bath  of  cyanide  of  potassium,  it  would  be  rendered 
|  obj eotionably  brittle,  since  the  absorption  of  carbon  would 
i  progress  entirely  through  the  same. 

Instead  of  the  special  surface  hardening  process 
:  above  described  for  the  proper  hardening  of  screen  plates 
j  of  this  specific  character,  it  will  be  understood  that  sur- 
|  face  hardening  of  said  screens  may  be  carried  out  by  the 
!  usual  method  of  cementation  by  packing  the  plates  in  char- 
j  coal,  leather,  eto.  I  consider  the  special  process  above 
described  to  be  preferable  however,  since  it  is  more  expedi- 
|  tious  and  the  depth  of  -canbeilat-i-en  is  under  entire  control. 

Having  now  described  the  invention,  what  I  claim  as 
new  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is  as  fol'lowis: 

|  1.  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  whioh 

i  consists  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifioes  in  a  sheet 
|  °f  malleable  metal,  and  in  subjecting  the  screening  surface 
|  of  said  metal  to  a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  set 
j  forth. 

|  2.  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  which 

J  consists  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifioes  in  a  plate 
j  of  malleable  metal,  and  in  subjecting  both  surfaces  of  said 
plate  to  a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

3.  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  whioh 
oonsists  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate 
of  malleable  metal,  in  dipping  the  plate  in  a  earbenitting 
liquid,  in  then  subjecting  the  screening  surfaoe  to  a  chill¬ 
ing  action,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate -to ■  remove-ouch 
tjiquld,  substantially,  as  set  forth. 

4.  The  method  of  forming  screening  plates  whioh 

3 


I  consists  In  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate 
of;  .  malleable  metal,  in  dipping  the  plate  in  molten  cyanide 
of  potassium,  in  then  subjecting  the  screening  surface  to  a 
!  chilling  action,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate  to  remove 
j  the  cyanide  of  potassium,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

5.  The  method  of  malting  screening  plates  which 
■i  consists  in  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  raal- 
|  leable  metal,  in  dipping  said  plate  in  a  bath  of  molten 
cyanide  of  potassium,  in  chilling  the  screening  surface  of 
!  said  plate,  in  maintaining  the  plate  under  a  flattened  pres- 
I  sure  until  cool.,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate  for.  the 
i  removal  of  the  cyanide  of  potassium,  substantially  as  set 
!  forth. 

6.  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  which 
j  consists  in  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  mal¬ 
leable  metal,  in  dipping  the  plate  in  a  bath  of  molten 
|  cyanide  of  potassium,  in  subjecting  the  plate  to  pressure 
; between  two  ^plates  of  larger  mass,  whereby  the  surfaoes  of 
the  screen  plate  will  be  chilled  and  the  plate  will  be  main¬ 
tained  under  pressure  during  the  cooling  operation,  and  fi¬ 
lially,  after  the  said  plate  has  been  cooled,  in  dipping  it 
in  a  bath  of  water  for  the  removal  of  the  cyanide  of  potae- 
!  sium,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


4 


©atb. 

State  of 
Coutttie  of 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  the  above-named 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  Citizen 

of  the  united  States,  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
Oounty  of  Eases,  State  of  TTew  Jersey; 

THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  BE  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 

of  the  METHOD  OP  MAKING  PINE  BOPEEHING  PLATES 


fax.  & 


|  drawing  of  your  alleged  Improvement  ii 
. .<  ° 

1  with  Fifteen  Do/lore  as  lie  first  fee  payahla  tiierei 


o  Tha  Papers  are  duly  filed,  and  your  application  for  a  patent  will  be  taken  I 
®  up  for  examination  in  its  order .  « 


You  will  be  duly  advised  of  the  examination. 

Very  respectfully, 


Case  will  be  taken  up  for 
mnution  In  about  one  month. 


c.  , 


itli,  mid  drawings  (  vvlu-to  tho  i: 

No  application  is  considered  as  complete,  nor 
truislicil  in  duo  form  by  the  inventor  or  nppluiui 


V 


United  States  Patent  Office, 


Washington,  d.  C.,  February  27  1900. 


Thomas  A.  Raison, 

Care  1).  or, Ramonas  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  Street, 


Dew  York  City. 


FEB  97  i:lC0  l) 


Please  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application,  ft 

Method  of  making  Pine  Screening-  Plates,  filed  .Tan  ary  31  1900- 
lio.  31-56. 


CZ. 

Commissioner  of  Patents . 

I’he  word  cai-frugizod  should  be  subs  nit,  uteri  for  "carbonated' 


in  line  30,  page  2,  .car  bur  iz  at  ion  j'or  "carbonation",  line  14, page 

3,  and  carburizing  for  "carbonating", line  28,  page  3. 

The  carburizing  agent  is  not  liquid  after  cooling  and  hence 
claim  3  is  incorrect  in  statement. 

What  is  meant  by  "flattened  pressure",  claim  5,  is  not  clear. 


In  claim  6  the  platss  should  be  recite 
otherwise  no  chilling  action. 

Claims  1,2,3  and  4  are  rejected  on  P, 
Savage,  A.&  T.C.&  C.H. Compounds;  the  use  of 
hardening  there  described  for  hardening  scr 

ordinary  way, would  not  involve  invention. 

Claims  5  and  6  are  rejected  on  patent 
British  No. 1037  April  25  1864, Dodge , A. &  T. 


d  as  eo  Id,  the  re  ibe-ingg 

3. Mo . 52796 ,Feby. 20 , 1836 
the  p rocsess'"of 'case 
een  plates., made  in  the 

to  Savage, taken  with 
Hard  App.  Clamps. 


t  or  inserted  in  {.lie  iippliaition  must  bo  specified 
11  such 6. ft uaff .  SlibiU’bf  ^npor 


L  tlio  precise  point  indicated 


THOMAS  A.  HDIBOJT 

METHOD  OP  HAKIHO  PINT!  flOHRPHIMO  PLATES 
PILED  JANUARY  31,  1900 
SERIAL  HO.  3456 


ROOK  HO.  149. 


I  HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 

S  I  R 

In  the  above  entitled  application,  we 

amend  as  follows: 

Page  2,  line  30,  erase  "carbonated"  and  substitute 
- —  carburized  - 

Page  3,  line  14,  erase  "onrbonation"  and  substitute 
-  carburisation  — — 

Claim  3,  line  3,  erase  "carbonating"  and  substitute 

- carburizing  - — - ;  lines  5—6 ,  erase  "to  remove 

such  liquid". 

Claim  6,  line  5,  before  "plates"  insert  cold— — 

By  the  expression  "flattened  pressure"  in  claim  5, 
applicant  means  the  application  of  pressure  Ttfiich  contains 
the  screening  plate  in  a  flattened  condition.  Re¬ 
consideration  of  the  olaim-iis  requested. 

Applicant  does  not  claim  broadly  or  specifically  a 
net hod  of  case-hardening  metal  plates.  The  claims  cover 
applicant’s  invention  of  case-hardening  screening  plates 
by  which  an  essentially  new  article  of  manufacture  will  bo 
secured.  So  far  as  applicant  knows,  no  one  before  his  in¬ 
vention  ever  made  use  of  a  screening  plate  which  approached 
in  thinness  the  plates  used  by  applicant.  By  using  ex¬ 
tremely  thin  screening  plates,  a  very  superior  screening 
operation  can  be  effected;  yet  such  plates  would  be  entire¬ 
ly  worthless  unless  they  were  made  durable  enough  for  the 
purpose,  and  to  this  end  therefore,  applicant  subjects  the 


Doreens  to  a  case-hardening  process  by  which  a  hardened 
screening  surface  can  be  secured. 

Very  respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 

By _ _ _ 

His  Attorneys. 


New  York,  March  89,  1900. 


Thomas  A.  Edison, 


Care  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 


51  Nassau  St . , 

New  York,  JT.  Y. 


f  APRV/193C 


Please  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 

No.  3456,  filed  Jan.  31,  1900, -"Method  of  Making  Pine  Screening 
Plates". 


Cojnmissioner  of  Patents. 

Amendment  filed  Mar.  3  0 ,  1900,  has  been  entered. 

Tt  is  still  held  that  the  expression  "flattened  pressure" 
is  not  descriptive,  and  the  explanation  of  what  is  meant  thereby 
contained  in  the  paper  above  referred  to,  is  equally  lacking  in 
clearness. 

Claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  5  and  6  are  again  rejected  on  the  ref¬ 
erences  cited  and  for  the  reasons  given  in  last  official  letter. 
It  is  still  held  that  there  is  no  invention  in  hardening  screen 
plates  made  in  the  ordinary  v/ay  by  old  processes  commonly  em¬ 
ployed  for  hardening  other  articles. 


Rulb  73.  In  every  Amendment  the  exact  -word  or  words  to  he  stricken  out  or  i 


TH0KA8  A.  EDISON,  ) 

METHOD  OP  MAKING  PINE  SOREENIICG  PLATES,  j 

:  ROOT'  "0.  149. 

PILED,  .JANUARY  SI,  1900,  ) 

SERIAL  NO.  3456.  j 


HON.  COJTOSSIOKBR  OP  PATENTS, 

Sir: 

In  the  above  entitled  application,  we 
hereby  appeal  to  the  Examiner s-in-Chi of  from  the  decision 
of  the  Primary  Examiner,  who,  on  April  17,  1900,  rejected 
for  a  second  time,  and  finally,  all  the  claims  of  the 
case,  and  we  assign  the  folio, /in.'  reasons  of  appeal: 

Shut,  the  Examiner  erred  in  holding  that  the 
references  of  record  meet  the  terns  of  the  rejected 
claims ; 

2.  That  the  Examiner  erred  in  holding  that 
the  references  meet  the  substance  of  the  rejected  claims; 
and 

3.  That  the  Examiner  erred  in  not  allowing  the 
r o j  oc ted  claims . 

An  oral  hearing  i3  req\iested. 

Very  respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 

31  Nassau  Rt.,  New  York, 

August  29,  1900. 


His  Attorneys. 


Very  respectfully , 


I  JL-iLj 


7 . 1 


tr...£)  vjc+- . 
. dltt&F-i' 


^■Pli.TteBeoteioa 

T°  Attorney 


UHIT3B  STATES  PATP1HT  OFFICE . 


In  re  Application  of  Thomas  A,  Edison, 
Filed  ,Tan.  31,  1900,  Ser.  ?To.  3466,- 
"”ethod  of  Making  Pine  Screening  Plates", 


Before  the 

Bxaminers-ln-Chief, 
On  Appeal, 

3)iv,3,  Sept. 19,  1900, 


Examiner's  Statement. 


The  claims  finally  rejected  arei 

in  first  °<  nak^ni3  screening  plates  which  consS^S^ 

T>iRt'  '*  series  of  orifices  in  a  sheet  of  malleabl c 

iMBubJectint;  the  screening  surface  of  said  metal’to 
a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

fi”,:  °?  rwki«e  screening  plates  which  consists 

w?+Inrfit'  *°*n*nfi  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  malleable 
metal,  and  in  subjecting  both  surfaces  of  said  plate  to  a  har¬ 
dening  process,  substantial ly  as  set  forth. 

Jhe™thn<1-  of  Making  screening  plates  which  consists 
in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  ml1  e able 

f iPPln^  !ho  pl^e  in  a  carburising  liquid,  in"t hen  sub¬ 
jecting  the  screening  surface  to  a  chilling  action,  and  in  final¬ 
ly  washing  the  plate,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

in  first  forrAnb'  screening  plates  which  consists 

in  Jirst  .  orming  a  series  o,.  orifices  in  a  plate  of  malleable 

then^suMBct??1^^'  plal!?  1)1  riolt 0n  cyanide  of  potassium,  in 
then  subjecting  the  screening  surface  to  a  chilling  action!  and 

t0  rm  *ta  •>'“»*  »f 

chtin ,tn  H  bath  of  molten  cyanide  of  potassium, 

*■»  «■“&  rvsf.ss.-1 

in  fn^mir./y?lieo^5h0fl  ^ine  screening  plates  which  consists 
in  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  malleable  metal 
in  dipping  the  plate  in  a  bath  of  molten  evanide  of  potassium! 
in  subjecting  the  plate  to  pressure  between  two  cold  Plates  of 
larger  mass,  whereby  the  surfaces  of  the  soreen  ?late  wilfbe 
the  »late  ,?U1  b«  maintained  under  pressure  dt>riSr 
the  cooling  operation,  and  finally,  after  the  said  plate  liasbecn 
*^5  .it  in  h  bevth  of  wut#r  for  the  removnl  of  the 

cyanide  of  potassium,  8Ubstantlall}y*5  sot  forth."  V1  0* 

The  references  cited  are 


&  .  '  II 

The  alleged  Invention  relates  to  the  formation  of  screen 
platen,  and,  {generally  stated,  the  process  my  be  said  to  con¬ 
sist  An  punching  holes  of  the  desired  slae  in  ordinary  sheet 
iron,  anti  then  case  hardening  one  or  both  surfaces,  The  surface  , 
harden  Ana  my  be  effected  by  any  ordinary  case  hardening  pro¬ 
cess  (see  last  paragraph  of  the  description  and  claim  1  and  8), 
but  prb'forably,  by  heating  the  plat  e  in  molten  potass  iup^aga  in 
and  chilling  between  cooled  plates,  (claims  4,  f>  and  6}, 

The  use  of  fused  potassium  cyanide  for  heating  and  carbu¬ 
rising  wrought  iron  followed  by  chilling  to  harden  the  .  surface, 
is  old  as  shown  by  the  patent  to  Ravage,  noted.  In  »a'Art\patont 
the  article  is  Amen  sort  in  a  bath  of  fused  potassium  cyanide  and 
the  patentee  sayss  ‘'living  flowed  the  metal  to  remain  in  the 
bath  as  lone  «»  desirable,  1  remove  it  told.  Aramd  lately 
“submerge  it  in  ft  cooling  bath",  4  to  9».  arid  column),* 

"I  m  thus  enabled  to  produce  the  effects  of  case  harden 
“will cable  iron  to  any  given  depth*,  (bines  19  to  81,  8n^  column}.,. 
Although  the  patentee  does  not  specify  any  particular  article 
to  bo  hardened  no  invention  or  experiment  is  necessary  to’  extend 
the  use  of  the  process  to  «ny  article  made  of  mileublo  ipm, 

The  British  Patent  to  bodge  discloses  the  use  of  hollow  ;bpxe»# 
cooled  by  a  circulating  current.  of  ■■•at  or,  and .  t  fc<j  “saw-blftde 
“plate  or  inherit  of  stool  t.o  be  hardened  is  placed  whilst!  in  a. 
"heated  state  between  thun,  whereupon  the  two  boxics  are  oaused 

"to  approach  and  compress  the  .'vrticle  between  them"'.  The  use 
lieu  of  ! 

of  this  mens  for  chilling  injiho  b£vth  of  Savagfj  does  pot  <aoount 
to  invention.  ' 

Respectfully  sub/sitted, 

'}'  \ 


JStf'r  7)1  V.  3. 


Sib: 


The  appeal 


the  decision  of  the  Examiner  in  the  case  of . 

for  a  patent  for  an  improvement  it 


filed  ..^£LMd..fJ.L.J.9.£L.,  1-8-1..,  Serial  will  be  heard  by  the 

Examiners-in- Chief, 


If  appellant,  or  his  attorney,  shall  not  appear  at  that  time  the  hearing  will 
be  regarded  as  waived,  and  the  case  will  be  decided  upon  the  record. 

Very  respectfully, 


CJ!'  < 

Commissioner  of  Patents. 


EIOMAS  A.  EDISON 

METHOD  OP  MAKING  PINES  SCREENING  PLATES 
PILED  JANUARY  31,  1900 
SERIAL  NO.  3466 


before  the 
EXAMINERS  IN  OHIEP 
ON  APPEAL. 


BRIEF  POR  APPELLANT. 


Applicant  makes  use,  in  his  ore  milling  and  cement 
plants,  of  a  large  number  of  screening  plates  slotted  in  the 
direction  of  flow  of  the  material.  He  found  that  by  making 
the  plates  extremely  thin,  there  was  much  less  liability  of 
particles  becoming  wedged  in  the  screening  openings  than  if 
the  plates  were  thick.  In  other  words,  with  very  thin 
plates  the  walls  of  the  screening  openings  are  reduced  to 
the  minimum,  and  it  becomes  practically  impossible  for  any 
partfoles  to  become  wedged  in  the  Openings  below  the  sur¬ 
face  of  the  plate,  as  frequently  does  occur  when  relatively 
thick  plates  are  used.  Taking,  for  example,  the  figures 
mentioned  in  the  drawings,  the  slots  are  less  then  one  one- 
hundredth  of  en  inch  in  width,  while  the  plates  themselves 
are  only  two- thirds  as  thick.  With  plates  of  this  extreme 
thinness,  it  was  found  that  they  became  quiokly  worn  out. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  would  be  impossible  to  punch  or  stamp 
the  plates  in  steel  in  order  that  they  might  be  durable. 

In  order,  therefore,  to  make  an  essentially  new  article  of 
manufacture,  i.e.  an-  extremely  thin  but  durable  and  flexi¬ 
ble  screen  plate,  applicant  first  forms  the  screening  slots 
in  a  malleable  sheet  and  then  surface  hardens  it  by  an  old 
and  well  known  process.  The  novel  Step  in  each  of  the 
claims  is  "forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  sheet  of  mal¬ 
leable  metal",  and  so  far.  as  the  references  disclose*  this 
is  an  entirely  new  step  in  the  method  of  making  case-hardened 


u 


screen  plates. 

In  view  of  the  commercial  and  practical  value  of  the 
Invention  and  the  difficulty  of  claiming  the  article  effec¬ 
tively  except  as  a  process,  we  think  the  claims  should  be 
allowed. 


Respectfully  submitted. 

3H0HAS  A.  EDISON, 

By  _ _ 

His  Attorneys. 


New  York,  October  11,  1900. 


provoiw.t  .tn  Kethoda  of  ’taking  Pino  .'.’ereftiOng  Pintos,  mod  Jan, 
1900.  Rorl«a  3To.  456. 


Messrs.  Dyer,  Tfidnonds  ft  Dyer  for  appellant. 


i'ho  claims  appealed  «r#j 


1.  '.'''in  method  of  nnk inf;  screening  places  which  consists 
in  first  foming  u  aeries  of  orifices  in  a  ahem;  of  lnallsn- 
ble  nof.nl,  and  in  subjecting  the  screening  surface  of  said 
110 tal  t.o  a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  sot;  forth, 

"2.  'i'ho  method  of  Making  screening  pi  a  tea  which  oonaists 
in  first  ..forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  mallea¬ 
ble  metal,  and  in  sub;!  oft  ting  both  surfaces  .of  said  pinto 
to  a  hardening  process,  subs tant. tally  as  set  forth. 

i'ho  Method  of  Making  screening  plates  which  consists 
in  first  forming  a  series  of  orificeB  in  a  plato  of  mullw 
ble  m#t»a,  in  dipping  the  plate  in  a. carburizing  liquid, 
in  tii on  subjecting  the  screening  surface  to  a  chilling 
action,  .run,  in  finally  washing  the  plate,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 


"A.  'iho  method  of  forming  soreoning” piates  which  consists 
in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in’ 'k  plate  -  of  'nal- 


>  metal,  iji  dij.ping 
potassium,  in  then  aubjee 
chilling  action,  am.  in  1 
mo«e  th«  cyanide  of  pota. 


the  plate  in  molten  cyanide  of 
the  screening  surface  to  a 
'•y  washing,  the  plate  to  ro- 


•>.  Vhe  method  of  making  screening  piatG3  wJuiCh  consists 
in  .Coming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  malleable 
■metal,  in  dipping  said  plate  .in  a  bath  of  molten  o '/an. Ido 
of  potassium,  in  chilling  the  screening  surface  of" said 
plate,  in  maintaining  the  plate  under  a  flat no nod  pressure 
until  cool,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate  for  the  re¬ 
moval  of  the  cyanide  of  potassium,  substantially  as -set 
forth.  . 


"r>*  She  method  of  making  screening  plates  which  consists 
in  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of .-malleable 
metal,  in  dipping  the  plats  in  a  bath  of  molten  cyanide  of 
potassium,  in  subjecting  .the  piafco  to  pressure  between 
two  cold  platen  of  larger  mass,  whereby  the  Surfaces  of 
the  screen  plate  will  be. chilled  and  the  plate  will  bo 
maintained  under  pressure  during  the  cooling-' operation, 
and  finally,  after  the  said  plate  has  been  cooled,  in  dip¬ 
ping  it  in  a  bath  of  water  for  the  removal  of  the  evanido 
of  potassium,  substantially  an  net  forth."  / 

-Che  references  are  IJ.  R.  patent  to 


Sftyac.e;V,  February  80,  1868*  Nb.  88,  7965 

NritfBJTpatont  No.  1,  o»v  0?  1864  to  Bodge. 

The  allege'il  Invention  in  this  ease  ainmmfcn  to  nothing  wore 
than  the  (touble  use  of  "Jin  olcl  hardening  process,  It  ia  iiwiaterial 
that  the  pro  on  fin  in  applied  after  -the  screwing  plate  is  completed 
by  the  formation  o:C  n  neries  of  orifices  with  whioh.it  must  neoensa- 
rily  be  provided,  for  it  wo eld  be  unreasonable  for, one  to  undertake 
to  produce  such  orifices  after  subjecting  the  plate  to  the  hardening 
process. 

Who  patent  to  Savage  discloses  the  particular  hardening 
procosn  which  appellant ■employs  and' the  British  patent  to  Bodge  shows 
that  it  is  old  to  compress  «n  article  between  cooled  hollow  boxes 
so  as  to  retain  the  original  shape  of  said  article. 

She  decision  of  the  Kxawiner  is  affirmed  us  to  all  of  the 
appealed  claims. 


Case  Ho.  13-1026, 


Abandoned , 


Piled  January  31,1900. 

Method  of  Making  Pine  Screening  Plates. 

Claims. 

1.  The  method  of  malting  screening  plates  which 
consists  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  sheet 
of  malleable  metal,  and  in  subjecting  the  screening  surface 
of  said  metal  to  a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

2.  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  which 
consists  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate 
of  malleable  metal,  and  in  subjecting  both  surfaces  of  said 
plate  to  a  hardening  process,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

3.  The  method  of  rraking  screening  plates  which 
consists  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate 
of  malleable  metal,  in  dipping  the  plate  in  a  carbonating 
liquid,  in  then  subjecting  the  screening  surface  to  a  chill¬ 
ing  action,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate  to  remove  Buch 
liquid,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  The  method  of  forming  screening  plates  which  con¬ 
sists-  in  first  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate 

of  malleable  metal,  in  dipping  the  plate  in  molten  cyanide  of 
potassium,  in  then  subjecting  the  screening  surface  to  a 
chilling  action,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate  to  remove 
the  cyanide  of  potassium,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

5.  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  which  con¬ 
sists  in  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  malleable 
metal,  in  dipping  said  plate  in  a  bath  of  molten  cyanide  of 
potassium,  in  chilling  the  screening  surface  of  said  plate,  , 
in  maintaining  the  plate  under  a  flattened  pressure  until... 
cool,  and  in  finally  washing  the  plate  for  the  removal  of... 
the  cyanide  of  potassium,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

6.  The  method  of  making  screening  plates  which  con- 


-1- 


si sts  in  forming  a  series  of  orifices  in  a  plate  of  malle¬ 
able  metal,  in  dipping  the  plate  in  a  bath  of  molten  cyanide 
of  potassium,  and  in  subjecting  the  plate  to  pressure  be¬ 
tween  two  plates  of  larger  mass,  whereby  the  surfaces  of 
the  screen  plate  will  be  chilled  and  the  plate  will  be 
maintained  under  pressure  during  the  cooling  operation, 
and  finally,  after  the  said  plate  has  been  cooled,  in  dippin 
it  in  a  bath  of  water  for  the  removal  of  the  cyanide  of 
potassium,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


Applicant. 


\  - Sfejial  No ' 


f  lfs± 


Examiner’s  Room  No.. 


Assignee . . . . . . . .  _ 

Ass’g’t  Exec . . . . Recorded _ Eiber. . Page.. 


Patent  No. 


Issued... . . 


DYER,  EDMONDS  &  DYER, 


31  Nassau  Street, 

NEW  YORK  CITY. 


jpetitton 


patents  an&  patent  Onuses, 


Go  the  (Commissioner  of  [patents : 

YOUR  PETITIONER  I  H  0  E  A  S  A,  E  H  I  S  (I  F  , 

a  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park, 
County  of  Essex,  State  of  New  Jaruoy,  and  whose  post  office  address 
is  Llewellyn  Park,  Kew  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE 


IMPHOVKOTB  XJT  STOCK  HOUSES  TOR  STORING  MATERI AL  '  lit  BULK , 
(Case  Bo.  1031) 

SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION  |  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT,  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 
BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 


SPECIFICATION. 


TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  KAY  CONCERN: 


Be  It.  Known  that.  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen 
of  the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  invented 
a  certain  new  and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  IN  STOCK  HOUSES  FOR 
STORING  MATERIAL  IN  BULK  (Case  No.  1031) ,  of  which  the 
following  is  a  description: 

In  preparing  bulk  material,  such  as  iron  ore 
and  cement,  for  storage  in  stock  houses  where  it  accumu¬ 
lates  ready  for  use  or  for  future  operations,  the  materi¬ 
al  is  first  passed  through  a  drying  apparatus.  A  dryer 
designed  for  the  proper  drying  of  the  material  under 
ordinary  conditions  may  not  be  of  sufficient  capacity  to 
properly  dry  the  material  when  the  latter  contains  an 
unusually  high  percentage  of  moisture,  assuming,  of  course, 
that  the  flow  of  material  through  the  dryer  is  not  reduc¬ 
ed.  Even  when  the  material  may  be  properly  dried,  and 
especially  when  it  is  more  or  less  hygrosoopio,  it  ac¬ 
cumulates  moisture  on  its  way  to  the  stock  house  and 
while  it  is  stored  therein.  For  the^e  reasons,  it  is 
desirable  that  means  should  .be  provided,  in  connection 
with  a  suitable  stock  house  or  other  place  of  storage, 
by  which  the  material  in  bulk  therein  may  be  subjected  to 
an  effective  drying  operation,  and  it  is  the  object  of  my 
present  invention  to  provide  a  suitable  stock  house  for 
the  storing  of  material  in  bulk  and  by  which  this  result 
will  be  aeoured. 


My  Invention  is  illustrated  in  the  accompanying 
drawing  forming  a  part  of  this  specification,  and  wherein 
1  show  diagramatioally  a  suitable  stock  house  for  the 
purpose,  together  with  a  dryer,  and  suitable  conveying 
and  distributing  devices. 

1  represents  a  dryer  supplied  with  hot  air 
from  a  furnace  2  and  having  inclined  baffle  plates  3 
within  its  interior  over  which  the  material  may  flow  in  a 
series  of  thin  streams,  being  subjected  in  its  fall  to 
ascending  currents  of  hot  air  and  products  of  combustion 
from  the  furnace  2.  4  is  on  elevator  or  conveyor  by  which 

the  fine  material  in  bulk,  such  as  iron  ore  or  cement, 
may  be  fed  to  the  top  of  the  dryer.  The  dried  material 
from  the  dryer  is  deposited  in  the  boot  of  an  elevator  5 
and  carried  up  to  a  distributing  conveyor  6  mounted  in  the 
top  of  a  stock  house  7.  The  conveyor  <3  is  of  any  suitable 
type,  by  which  the  material  may  be  deposited  in  the 
stock  house  in  a  series  of  separate  piles  6,  as  shown. 

At  one  side  of  the  stock  house  is  a  furnace  9  having  a 
fire-box  10  and  opening  into  the  interior  of  the  stock 
house  at  11,  as  shown.  Air  is  admitted  beneath  the  fire¬ 
box  through  tin  opening  12  having  a  dumper  therein,  and 

air  may  be  admitted  above  the  fire-box  through  an  opening 
•*'*'*'  to-Vlt.  Tt*-  S&&C- 

y  13,  also  provided  with  a  dampers  Circulation  of  air 
through  the  furnace  may  be  effected  by  a  blower  connected 
below  the  fire-box,  but  preferably  secured  by  an  exhaust 
fan  14  connected  with  the  stock  house  at  the  opposite 
end  from  the  furnace- 

In  operation,  the  material,  while  it  is  being 
deposited  in  the  stock  house  or  after  it  has  been  deposit¬ 
ed  therein,  will  be  subjected  when  necessary  to  the 


effect  of  hot  air  and  tho  products  of  combustion  passing 
through  and  over  the  fire-box  and  out  through  the  exhaust 
fan  14,  wheroby  moisture  will  be  effectively  removed 
from  such  material. 


Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  I  claim 
as  new  ancl  desire  to  secure  by  I, otters  Patent  is,  as 
follows: 


1.  In  a  stock  house  for  storing  Material  in 
bulk,  the  combination  of  a  storage  chamber,  u  furnace 
adjacent  thereto,  A.d  matins  for  causing  air  heated  by 
said  furnace  to  be  forced  through  tho  chamber  into  direct 
contact  with  the  material  stored  therein,  substantially 
as  sot  forth.  \ 

In  a  stock  house  for  storing  material  in 
bulk,  the  combination  on  u  chamber  in  tiieit  the  material 
is  stored,  a  furnace  opening  into  said  clumber,  find  means 
for  forcing  through  the  clVmbor  find  into  contact  with  the 
material  stored  therein  thA  products  of  combustion  from 
said  furnace,  substantially \s  sot  forth. 

3.  In  a  stock  housit  for  storing  material  in 
bulk,  the  combination  of  a  chamber  in  which  the  material 
is  stored,  a  furnace  opening  into  said  ch;cnber,  means  for 
forcing  through  the  chamber  and  into  contact  v/ith  the 
material  stored  therein  the  prod|ots  of  combustion  from 
said  furnace,  and  an  air  supply  aor  admitting  rtlr  above 
the  furnace,  whereby  such  air  will  bo  heated  lie  fore  en¬ 
tering  the  storage  chamber,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  In  a  stock  house  for  \storing  material  in 
bulk,  the  combination  of  a  chamber  in  which  the  material 
is  stored  in  bulk,  a  furnace  opening \into  said  chamber  at 
one  side,  and  an  exhaust  fan  connected  to  the  said  chamber 
at  the  opposite  side  for  maintaining  tli^ouji  the  chamber 

-4- 


_  t 


0 


DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 
HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF;  OR  PATENTED  OR  DESCRIBED  IN  ANY 
PRINTED  PUBLICATION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  OR  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY 
BEFORE  HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF,  OR  MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR 
TO  THIS  APPLICATION;  OR  IN  PUBLIC  USE  OR  ON  SALE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  FOR 
MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR  TO  THIS  APPLICATION,  AND  THAT  NO  APPLICATION 
FOR  FOREIGN  PATENT  HAS  BEEN  FILED  BY  HIM  OR  HIS  LEGAL  REPRESENTATIVES  OR 


Department  of  the  Interior, 


^  UL 


Washington,  D.  O,,. 


I  1 

a  I  have  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  the  petition,  specification,  oath,  and  | 
■  !  drawijg^^yaut^UegedJmpnmmnt  in _ _ .  (?J  I 

1  -  . f 


$  with  Fifteen  Dollars  as  the  first  fee  payable  thereon.  1 

3  The  papers  are  duly  filed,  and  your  application  for  a  patent  will  be  taken  i 
*  up  for  examination  in  its  order .  1 


You  will  be  duly  advised  of  the  examination. 

Very  respectfully, 


(Hi  | 


Commissioner  of  Patents.  | 


oath,  mitl (lm  wings  ( wlu-ie  tho  lioturo  of  tlio  caso  admits  of  drawings)  and  to  pny  tlio  requi’xdfco™1811  h*8p0'fc,fc5^  specification, 


_ 1 


United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d.  C.,  May  5,  1900. 


|  T.  A.  Edison, 


c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

II 

8  a  31  Nassau  Street, 

jl 

§  S  New  York,  N.  Y. 

J  I 

I  •“  Please  find  belo.w  a  communion  lion  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application. 

8*Ser  No  12,069,  filed  April  9,  1900,  for  "Stock-House  for  Storing 
SSjjMaterial  in  Bulk." 


If 


d. 


nmissiom'  of  Patents. 


This  application  has  been  taken  up  for  examination. 

§3 

1 1  The  conveyor  6,  should  be  more  fully  shown. 

■g  1  The  blower  mentioned  in  line  25,  page  2,  should  be  indicated 

a  S 

|  g,in  the  drawings. 

1 1 

u  a  Claim  3  appears  to  be  unwarranted  by  the  drav/ings. 

gp  The  claims  are  all  rejected  for  want  of  patentable  novelty  in 


I  §vj 


Stone,  No._5§£*Z4&r-Feb.  is,  1896; 

Prinz,  No.  5.1, 5-^840.,- March  6,  1894; 

Bardeen,  No.  393.532.  Nov.  27,  1888,  and 

Bell,  No.  121,925,  Dec.  19,  1871,  in  Driers  -Houses  and 


Rule  73.  In  every  amendment  tlie  exact  word  or  words  to  too  striokcn  out  or  inserted  in  the  application  must  bo  specified 
and  tire  precise  point  indicated  where  the  erasure  or  insertion  is  to  be  made.  AH  such  amendments  must  toe  on  sheets  of  pnper 


THOMAS  A,  EDISON 


RIDER  APRIL  9,  1900 
S3RJAL  NO,  12,069 


ROOM  HO.  261. 


HON.  OOHMISSTONTR  OR  PATENTS, 

SIR; 

A  new  drawing  more  fully  illustrating  tho 
conveyor  6  will  be  filed  before  tho  allowance  of  tho  case. 

Please  amend  as  follows s- 

Pago  2,  line  24,  after  "damper",  insert  - - whereby 

ouch  air  will  be  heated  before  entering  the  stock  house——. 

Cancel  claims  1,  2,  3  and  4,  and  substitute  the 
foil owing :- 

- 1,  Jn\a  stook  house  for  storing  material  in  bulk, 

the  combination  with  a  substantially  closed  storage  chamber 
and  a  conveyor  mounted  therein  near  its  upper  part  for  dis¬ 
tributing  material  in  bulk  in  the  storage  chamber  in  a  plur¬ 
ality  of  piles,  of\a  furnace  mounted  adjacent  to  the  storage 
chamber, and  means  Ar  causing  products  of  combustion  from 
such  furnace  to  enter  the  stock  house  and  to  directly  engage 
the  piles  of  material  stored  therein,  substantially  as  and 
for  the  purposes  set  forth. 

2.  In  a  stock  house  for  storing  material  in  bulk, 
the  combination  with  a  substantially  closed  storage  ohamber 
and  a  conveyor  mounted  therekn  near  its  upper  part  for  dis¬ 
tributing  material  in  bulk  in  tho  storage  chamber  in  a  plu¬ 
rality  of  piles,  of  a  furnace  mounted  adjacent  to  tho  stor¬ 
age  chamber,  means  for  causing  products  of  combustion  from 
such  furnace  to  enter  the  stock  house  and  to  directly 
the  piles  of  material  stored  t Herein,  and  an  exhaust  fan 


located  In  tSjs  stock  house  opposite  to  said  furnace  for 
creatine  a  draft  through  the  stock  house  and  furnace,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  aWl  for  the  purposes  set  forth. 

3.  Tn|a  stock  house  for  storing  Material  in  bulk, 
the  combination  \l|th  a  substantially  closed  storage  chamber 
and  a  conveyor  mounted  therein  near  its  upper  part  for  dis¬ 
tributing  material  ^|n  bulk  in  the  storage  chamber  in  a  plu¬ 
rality  of  piles,  of  furnace  mounted  adjacent  to  the  stor¬ 
age  chamber, tiaenns  fo|  causing  products  of  combustion  from 
ouoh  furnace  to  enterftho  stock  house  and  to  directly  engage 
the  piles  of  material  Itorefi  therein,  and  an  air  opening 
into  the  furnace  above  '|hc?  fire-box  thereof,  whereby  heated 
air  from  the  furnace  waA&lso  enter  the  3 took  house  to  ef- 

Ifect  a  drying  operation. -V - 

I’ho  claims  above  presented  are  limited  to  a  stock 
house  intended  specifically  for  use  in  connection  with  tho 
storage  of  material  in  bulk,  and,  therefore,  distinguished 
roa  drying  houses  or  kilns  for  drying  malt  and  for  curing 
meat  and  tobacco,  as  suggested  by  the  several  references. 
Very  respectfully, 


Pew  York,  August  PS,  1900. 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 

STOCK  HOUSE  TOR  STORING  MATERIAL  IN  BULK 
RILED  APRIL  9,  1900 
SERIAL  NO.  12,069 


I  HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OR  PATENTS, 

SIR  s - 

Please  amend  as  follows: 

Change  the  title  of  invention  to - Apparatus 

for  Drying  and  Storing  Material  in  Bulk - — 

Erase  the  claims  and  substitute: 

-  X.  In  an  apparatus  for  drying  and  storing  material 

in  hulk,  the  combination  with  a  dryer  and  an  elevator  ex¬ 
tending  therefrom,  of  a  substantially  closed  storage  cham¬ 
ber,  a  oonveyor  mounted  therein  near  its  upper  part  for  dis¬ 
tributing  material  in  bulk  in  the  storage  ohamber  in  a  plu¬ 
rality  of  piles,  said  oonveyor  receiving  material  from  said 
elevator,  a  furnace  mounted  adjacent  to  the  storage  ohamber, 
and  means  for  causing  products  of  ocmbustion  from  such  fur¬ 
nace  to  enter  the  storage  ohamber  and  to  directly  engage  the 
piles  of  material  stored  therein,  substantially  as  and  for 
the  purposes  Bet  forth. 

2.  In  an  apparatus  for  drying  and  storing  material 
in  bulk,  the  combination  with  a  dryer  and  an  elevator  ex¬ 
tending  therefrom,  of  a  substantially  closed  storage  cham¬ 
ber,  a  conveyor  mounted  therein  near  its  upper  part  for -dis¬ 
tributing  material  in  bulk  in  the  storage  chamber  in  a  plu¬ 
rality  of  piles,  said  oonveyor  receiving  material  from  said 
elevator,  a  furnace  mounted  adjacent  to  the  storage  ohamber, 
means  for  causing  products  of  ocmbustion  from  auoh  furnace 
to  enter  the  storage  ohamber  and  to  direotly  engage  the 
piles  of  material  stored  therein,  and  an  exhaust  fan  located 


I  In  the  storage  chamber  opposite  to  said  furnace  for  causing 
a  draft  through  the  storage  Chamber  and  furnace,  substan¬ 
tially  as  set  forth. 

3.  In  an  apparatus  for  drying  and  storing  material 
in  bulk,  the  Combination  with  a  dryer  and  an  elevator  ex¬ 
tending  therefrom,  of  a  substantially  olosed  storage  cham¬ 
ber,  a  conveyor  mounted  therein  near  its  upper  part  for  dis¬ 
tributing  material  in  bulk  in  the  storage  ohambor  in  a  plu¬ 
rality  of  piles,  said  conveyor  receiving  material  from  said 
elevator,  a  furnaoe  mounted  adjaoent  to  the  storage  ohamber, 
means  for  causing  products  of  combustion  from  suoh  furnaoe 
to  enter  the  storage  ohamber  and  to  directly  engage  the 
piles  of  material  stored  therein,  and  an  air  opening  in 


I  the  furnaoe  above  the  fire  box  thereof,  whereby  heated  air 
from  the  furnace  may  also  enter  the  storago  chamber  to  ef- 
feot  a  drying  operation,  substantially  as  set  forth.—— 
The  olaims  above  presented  are  drawn  with  special 


reference  to  the  state  of  the  art  as  disclosed  by  the  refer¬ 
ences  of  record,  and  it  is  hoped  that  they  may  b*  allowed. 
Very  respectfully, 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON, 


I* 

%  a 
ti 

11 

fi¬ 

ll 


n 

•II 

if 


1  8 


United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d.  c„  Sept.  6,  1901. 

T.  A.  Edison, 

c/o  Dyer,  Edmonds  and  Dyer,  , '  '' 

Orange,  N.  J. 

Plane  find,  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your 
Ser  Mo  12,069,  filed  April  9,  1900,  for  "Stock  Eouse  for  Storing 
Material  in  Bulk." 

&J. 

t  t  _  Commissioner  qf  Patents. 

This  application,  as  amended  Aug.  8,  1901,  has  been  taken  up 
for  examination. 


The  claims  are  rejected  upon  the  references  of  record,  partic¬ 
ularly  in  view  of  the  patents  to  Edison,  No.  660,845,  Oct.  30,  1900 
and  No.  662,063,  Nov.  20,  1900,  in  Mortar  Mixers. 


r/tir/tm  '/•  '■  l  Wyr/ 1 
,1 -mnurf f 
/s.WZ%«; 


a- -•  ' 

.C/jyrr, 

£0/.‘retr//y'!  (j/rr/fv/fij.*  7 aZnvn. 

■  1  f///'  ./S/'tr/s. 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON  . 
SUBJECT-MATTER : . 
PILED 
SERIAL  NO . 
EXAMINER'S  ROOM  NO. 


HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OP  PATENTS, 

SIR  : _ 

In  the  above  entitled  application,  please  ad¬ 
dress  further  communications  to  us  at  our  office,  No.  31  Nassau 
Street,  New  York  City.  " 


Very  resp^tfull} 


Case  No.  103.1  Abandoned. 

Piled  April  9,  1900. 

IlffROVSiENTS  IN  STOCK  HOUSES  EOR  STORING  MATERIALS  ! 

Claims . 

1.  In  a  stock  house  for  storing  material 

bulk ,  the  combination  of  a  storage  chamber,  a  furnace  ad¬ 
jacent  thereto,  and  means  for  causin';  air  heated  by  said 
furnace  to  be  forced  through  the  chamber  into  direct  con-  :! 

tact  with  the  material  stored  therein,  substantially  as  . j 

set  forth. 

2.  In  a  stock  house  for  storing  material  in 

bulk,  the  combination  of  a  chamber  in  which  the  material  .  i 

is  stored,  a  furnace  opening  into  said  chamber,  and  means  ’ .  j 

for  forcing  through  the  chamber  and  into  contact  with  the 
material  stored  therein  the  products  of  combustion  from 
said  furnace,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

3.  In  a  stockhouse  for  storing  material  in 
bulk,  the  combination  of  a  chamber  in  which  the  material 
is  stored,  a  furnace  opening  into  said  chamber:,  means 
for  forcing  through  the  chamber  add  into  contact  with  the 
material  stored  therein  the  products  of  combustion  from 
said  furnace,  and  an  air  supply  for  admitting  air  above 
the  furnace,  whereby  such  air  will  be  heated  before  enter¬ 
ing  the  storage  chamber ,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  in  a  stock  house  for  storing  material  in 
bulk,  the  combination  of  a  chamber  in  which  the  material 
is  stored  in  bulk,  a  furnace  opening  into  said  chamber 
at  one  side,  and  an  exhaust  fan  connected  to  the  said 
chamber  at  the  opposite  side  for  maintaining  through  the 


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Address. 


Examiner's  Roc 


1 


Liber  Page 


Patent  No. .  ..!€?...  Issued  /a ^  /  f  a  y~ 


20... 

V  o 

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f 23... 
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FRANK  L.  DYER,  -  "v 
,  Counsel,  j  '  ..’  ,7' 

ORANGE,  NEW  JERSEY."'^ 


/>mi/  Zffiytr. 


Sfiecui//(y.  ;  SU^  ^tteeJrJ. 

April  17,  1900. 


ittutiw 

1f/»mKs}ai‘  lof£ 
aj.S.-iiW&f 


Thomas  A.  Edison,  Esq., 

Orange,  N.J. 

Dear  Sir  :- 

Ve  duly  received  the  application  papers  on 
your  improved  method  of  and  apparatus  for  burning  Portland 
cement  clinker  and  other  materials.  We  have  made  the 
changes  suggested  by  you  in  both  specifications.  We  note 
that  the  claims  in  the  method  case  do  not  require  Change, 

,  and,  therefore,  beg  to  return  herewith  for  your  use  a  copy 
°f  these  In  the  apparatus  case,  we  have  referred 

in  the  specification  to  the  fact  that  one  of  the  nozzles  is 
preferably  longer  than  the  , other, so  as  to  allow  the  inertia 
of  the  fuel  to  be  overcome j  whereby  the  fuel  will  reach  the 
same  velocity  as  the  air  when  both  leave  the  nozzle.  We 
have  also  referred  in  the  apparatus  case  to  the  fact  that 
the  feed  does  not  leak  air,  and  that  by  changing  the  speed 
of  feed  the  material  can  be  regulated.  We  have  erased  the 
word  "axially"  from  the  claims,  as  referring  to  the  location 
of  the  nozzles,  and  have  used  the  expression  "a  plurality  of 
nozzles  projecting  longitudinally  with  respect  to  the  burn¬ 
er".  We  have  also  introduced  two  additional  claims,  num- 
bered  five  and  six,  and  beg,  therefore,  to  enclose  a  copy 


(T.  A.  E. ,  2) 

of  the  claims  on  the  apparatus  as  they  have  been  rewritten 
by  us.  The  cases  will  be  filed  immediately,  and  blue 
prints  of  the  drawings  will  be  sent  you  as  soon  as  received 
from  the  Patent  Office. 

Yours  very  truly,  0 

/hr"  %•<- . . 


(F.iL.D.) 

Enclosure. 


X'*  v. 


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[FROM  JOHN  ROBERT  TAYLOR] 


July  12,  1900. 


Thomas  A.  Edison,  Eaq., 

Orange, 

N.J. 

Dear  Sir, - 

Vo  have  your  pencil  memorandum  of  the  11th  inst.  in  re 
United  States  allowed  application  for  patent  on  duplicate  phono¬ 
graph  records  filed  May  4,  1900.  In  reply  we  beg  to  state  that 
"no  foreign  patents  have  been  applied  for  on  this  device,  and  in 
accordance  with  your  ijiatructions,  we  shall  at  once  prepare  pa¬ 
pers  and  forward  them  to  you  for  signature,  in  the  meantime  with¬ 
holding  the  issue  of  the  United  States  patent. 

Yours  truly. 


CJ.R.T.) 


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petition 


patents  an&  patent  aauaea, 


Co  the  Commissioner  of  patents : 

YOUR  PETITIONER  T  H  0  TT  A  f)  A.  D  11  I  F.  0  H  , 

a  oitlzen  of  the  United  States,  rosidine  at  T-lewellyn  Park, 
County  of  Essex,  and  State  of  5Tev/  Jersey,  and  whose  Post  Office 
address  is  at  said  Jilewellyn  Park,  Ran  ox  County,  New  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE 

APPARATUS  FOR  OOATIKO  PHONOGRAPH  RECORDS  OR  OTHKR  ARTICTRf? 

(Case  No.  1030), 

SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION ;  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT*  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 
BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONN 


IEW1TH. 


SPEGIEIOATION. 


TO  ALL  WHOM  IT  KAY  OOKOEHN: 

Be  It  Known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen 
of  the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex,  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  have  Invented 
a  certain  new  and  useful  APPARATUS  NOR  COATING  PHONOGRAPH 
RECORDS  OR  OTHER  ARTICLES  (Case  No.  1039),  of  which  tho 
following  is  a  specifications 

In  an  application  filed  on  even  date  herewith 
I  describe  a  process  particularly  adapted  for  coating 
phonograph  records  with  an  infinitesimally  thin  film  of 
metal  offering  a  conducting  base  for  a  more  rapid  deposit 
by  eleotrodeposltion,  wheroby  an  absolutely  aocurate  raa-;-J 
trix  or  mold  of  a  phonograph  record  can  be  secured,  said 
process  being  also  adapted  for  other  useB,  as  explained, 
and  being  intended  as  a  specific  improvement  upon  the  pro¬ 
cess  described  in  my  patent  No.  526,147,  dated  September 
18,  1894. 

My  said  process  oonsists  in  maintaining  the 
object  to  be  plated,  and  rotating  the  same,  in  an  exhaust¬ 
ed  chamber,  and  in  establishing  from  an  electrode  of  which 
the  deposit  is  to  be  made  and  a  second  electrode,  made 
preferably  also  of  the  same  matai,:..a  3ilent  or  brush 
electrical  discharge,  whereby  the  metal  will  be  vaporized 
and  caused  to  deposit  upon  the  object,  the  process  also 
consisting  specifically  in  magnetically  rotating  the  ob¬ 
ject  to  be  coated  from  the  exterior  of  the  exhausted  cham¬ 
ber. 

rl- 


My  present  Invention  relates  to  an  improved  appara¬ 
tus  for  Carrying  this  process  into  effect,  and  the  appara¬ 
tus  is  illustrated  in  the  accompanying  drawing,  showing  the 
same  in  section. 

1  represents  a  base,  and  2  a  vacuum  chamber  or  jar 
•fitted  with  an  airtight  joint  upon  the  base.  3  is  a  pipe 
connected  to  the  interior  of  the  Jar  and  by  means  of  which 
air  may  be  exhausted  therefrom  in  any  suitable  way,  all  by  • 
an  air  pump  or  by  a  Sprengel  vacuum  pump.  When  the  proper 
vacuum  has  been  secured,  it  is  retained  by  closing  a  valve 
4  in  the  pipe  3  or  by  maintaining  the  vacuum  pump  in  con¬ 
stant  operation.  5,  6  represent  two  supporting  arms 
made  preferably  of  glass  and  leading  up  within  the  interior 
of  the  Jar  or  vacuum  chamber,  said  supporting  anas  being 
preferably  further  insulated  from  the  ba3e  by  means  of  hard 
rubber  insulating  bushings  6.  A  conductor  7  leads  up 
within  each  of  the  Supporting  arms  and  is  formed. with  a 
hook  6  at  its  upper  end.  Suspended  from  each  hook  is 
an  electrode  9  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited  upon  the  ob¬ 
ject  to  be  coated,  such  electrodes  being  preferably  in  the 
form  of  thin  wires  or  strips  of  foil  of  such 
metal.  J?or  the  making  of  a  yaCuoua  deposit  upon  phono¬ 
graph  records,  the  electrodes  9  are  made  preferably  pf 
strips  of  gold  foil.  i 10  is  a  standard  mounted  between 
the  electrodes  and  carrying  a  rotatable  head  11  at  its  up¬ 
per  end,  said  head  having  a  tapered  periphery  from  which 
is  supported  a  phonograph  record  12  having  a  tapered  boro, 
as  is  common.  The  record  may  be  supported  in 

any.  other  way,  and  when  the  process  is  used  for  the  coat¬ 
ing  of  other  articles  than  phonograph  records  such 


articles  will  be  properly  supported  from  the  rotatable  ; 
head  in  any  desired  manner.  13  is  an  iron  or  steel 
armature  carried  by  the  rotatable  head  11  and  adapted 
to  be  attracted  by  a  raagnot  14  rotatable  on  the  exterior 
of  the  vacuum  chamber.  An  ordinary  horseshoe  magnet  may 
be  conveniently  used  for  the  purpose.  1  illustrate  the 
magnet  14  as  being  supported  by  an  arm  13  from  a  shaft  16 
carried  by  a  suitable  bracket  17  and  rotated  by  a  pulley 
18.  ; 

M  In  operation,  a  silent  or  brush  discharge  is 
established  between  the  electrodes  9,  9,  in  any  suitable 
way,  as,  for  example,  by  connecting  the  conductors  7  with 
the  secondary  of  a  large  induction  coil  19,  the  primary 
20  of  which  is  included  in  a  vibrator  21  and  a  source  of 
current.  22.  The  brush  or  silent  discharge  being  estab¬ 
lished  between  t,he  electrodes  and  the  magnet  14  being  ro¬ 
tated  on  the  exterior  of  the  vacuum  chamber  to  attract 
the  armature  13,  the  object  to  be  coated  will  be  rotatod 
between  the  electrodes,  while  the  metal  vaporized  by  the 
discharge  will  be  deposited  upon  said  object  in  the  fora 
of  an  infinitesimally  thin  and  practically  uniform  film. 
When  the  object  to  be  coated  is  a  phonograph  cylinder, 
the  latter  after  being  coated,  is  removed,  and  may  be 
placed  in  a.  plating  bath,  so  as  to  receive  a  heavier  de¬ 
posit  by  a  process  of  olectrodeposition,  after  which  the 
original  record  is  removed,  either  by  melting  it  out  or 
by  shrinking  it  from  the  deposited  metal,  whereby  an  ab¬ 
solutely  accurate  matrix  or  mold  of  the  original  record 
may  be  secured. 


-3- 


Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  X  claim 
as  ;;ew  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is,  as 
follows  s 

1.  Atft  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  ooating 
of  a  metal  on  an  Vbject,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  chiun- 
ber  in  which  the  object  to  be  coated  is  supported,  an 
electrode  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited  and  a  second  elec¬ 
trode  in  said  ohambeK,,  and  means  for  establishing  between 
said  electrodes  a  sil%it,  or  brush  electrical  discharge, 
substantially  a3  set  fourth. 

2.  An  improved\ apparatus  for  securing  a  coating 
of  a  metal  on  an  object,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  cham¬ 
ber  in  which  the  object  to  Be  coated  is  supported,  an 
electrode  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited  and  a  second  elec¬ 
trode  in  said  chamber,  means  fdr  establishing  between  said 
electrodes  a  silent  or  brush  electrical  discharge,  and 
means  for  rotating  the  object,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

Lv'  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coat¬ 
ing  of  a  metal  on  anVbJect,  comprising  an  exhausted  cham¬ 
ber  containing  the  object  to  be  coated,  two  electrodes 
in  said  chamber  made  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited,  said 
electrodes  being  pl&oed  diametrically  of  the  object,  and 
means  for  establishing  betweoh  said  electrodes  a  silent 
or  brush  electrioal  discharge,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

-3  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  ooating 

of  a  metal  on  an  object,  comprising  an  exhausted. chamber 
containing  t.hc  object  tA  he  coated,  two  electrodes  in 
said  chamber  made  of  the\etol  to  be  deposited,  said 
electrodes  being  placed  diametrically  of  the  object, 


-4- 


means  for  establishing  between  said  electrodes  a  silent 
or  brush  electrical \di8charge,  and  means  for  rotating  the 


object,  substantially  as  t 


5.  An  itfmroved  apparatus  f..r  securing  a  coating  J 
of  a  metal  on  an  obj\ct,  comprising  an  exhausted  chamber,  | 
means  within  thn  charter  for  securing  n  vacuous  deposit,  on  j 
tho  object,  means  for  supporting  the  object  within  the  | 


and  means  for  rotating  th&nugnet.  with  respect  to  tho 
chamber,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

<-/'  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating 

of  a  metal  on  an  object,  comprising  an  exhausted  chamber, 
two  electrodes  withiA  said  chamber  on  opposite  sides  of 
the  object  to  be  coat<m,  an  induction  ooil  the  secondary 
of  which  is  connected  Vo  said  electrodes,  and  means  for 
energising  said  induction  coil  for  producing  a  silent  or 
brush  discharge  between  said  electrodes,  substantially  as 


vi  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating 

of  a  metal  on  object,  compri sing , an  exhausted  chamber 
containing  tho  object  to  be  obated,  a  pair  of  insulating 
supports  within  the  chamber,  electrodes  carried  by  said 
supports  and  made  of  the  metal  lo  bb.  deposit ed.^and  means 
for  establishing  a  silent  or  brush  discharge  between  said 
electrodes,  substantially  as  set' forth. 


-5- 


1 


*  8m: 

S' 


Department  of  the  Interior, 

v/ccf-  C 

■  f) 

Washington,  D.  C.,  1900.  £ 


I  have  to  acknowledge  the  receipt,  of  the  petition,  specification,  oath,  and  | 
|  drawing  of  pour  alleged  Improvement  in . _ _ _  | 


|  with  Fifteen  Dollars  as  the  first  fee  payable  thereon. 

|  The  papers  are  duly  filed,  and  your  application  for  a  patent  ivill  he  taken  ! 
'&  Up  fov  examination  in  its  order _ _ _ _  '  ] 


Y ou  will  be  duly  advised  of  the  examination. 

Very  respectfully, 


Ca?c  will  be  taken  up  for 
exaiRinJon  in  about  one  month, 


I  constitute  an  application  fora  patent,  tlio  inventor  is  by  lniv  required  to  farnisb  bis  petition,  speciilcntion 
iero  the  uatnro  of  tlio  case  admits  of  drawings)  and  to  pay  tho  required  fee. 

itormo?°M,0r  Ca“  ^  0fl1°inl  aCHOn  ^  hBd  t1,e"on»  until  011  ite  !»**».  08  J,oro  specified,  arc 


Room  No.-~ 14ft* 


department  of  the  interior, 
United  States  Patent  Office, 
Washington,  d,  c., 

Thomas.,- A.  Edison, 

Care  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 

31  Nassau  St., 

New  York,  N.  Y. 


July  17,  1900. 


Please  find  below  a 


e  EXAMINER  in  eharge.  of  youv  applicah 


Claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  6,  7  are  objected  to  as  alternative  in 
the  words  "a  silent  or  brush  Electrical  discharge”;  presumably 
the  means  for  establishing  these  two  forms  of  discharge  are 
not  identical. 

Claims  3,  4,  6,  7  are  rejected  for  the  reason  that  there 
is  no  combination  between  the  device  and  the  object  to  be  coated 
which  is  contained  therein;  the  support  for  such  object  should 
be  included  and  the  eiei'ctiioijctejs should  be  located  with  reference 
to  the  structural  features  of  the  device. 

Claim  5,  line  5,  to  be  should  be  inserted  before  "connected". 

The  expression  "vacuous  deposit",  claim  5,  is  objected  to 
as  indistinct. 

Claims  1,  6,  7  are  rejected  on: 
german  82.247.  Julj/1,  1895,  Boas,  (Cathodes,  Metallizing); 
^German.  .85,435,  19,  1896,  Boas,  "  " 

f  •’TCXSlms  "2,  3^  4  are  rejected  on  the  above  patents,  taken 
/with:  ^ 

U.  S.  484,582,  Oct.  18,  1892,  Edison,  (Phonograms,  Duplicating). 
r There  would  obviously  be  no  invention  in  view  of  the  United  States 
patent,  in  applying  the  process  of  Boas  to  the  duplication  of 
sound  records. 

Claim  5  is  rejected  on  the  patents  cited,  taken  with: 

^U.  S.  548,131,  Oct.  15,  1895,  Moore,  (Lighting  Systems), 
who  shows  it  to  be  old  to  rotate  objects  contained  within  a 


serted  in  the  application  must 


m4he-papc»(previon3ly  filed,  nml  jrmten  on  bnfc  one  side 


its  of  pnper 

V.  3. 


THOMAS  A.  EDISON 

APPARATUS  POR  OOATIHU  PHONOGRAPH  RECORDS 
PILED  JUNE  16,  1900 
SERIAL  NO.  20, 386 


ROOM  NO.  149. 


HON.  COMMISSIONER  OP  PAmTS, 


SIR: 


I  Please  amend  by  erasing  claims  1  and  2  and 

substituting  the  following: - 

- 1.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating 

of  a  metal  on  an  object,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  chamber 
in  which  the  object  to  bo  coated  is  supported,  a  support 
for  the  object  within  said  chamber,  an  electrode  of  the  met¬ 
al  to  be  deposited  adj  aoent  to  said  support,  a-  seoond  elec¬ 
trode  on  the  other  side  of  said  support,  and  means  for  es¬ 
tablishing  between  said  electrodes  a  silent  or  brush  elec¬ 
trical  discharge,  substantially  as  set  forth. _ - 

Change  the  numerals  of  claims  5  and  4  to  2  and  3. 
Erase  claim  6. 

Change  the  numerals  of  claims  6  and  7  to  4  and  5, 
Present  claim  5,  line  5,  after  "deposited",  insert 
”a  support  for  the  object  between  said  electrodes—— 
The  apparatus  for  generating  a  silent  electrical 
discharge  is  the  same  as  the  apparatus  for  generating  a  brusl 
electrical  discharge  —  merely  a  difference  in  adjustment 
effects  the  character  of  the  discharge.  Hence  the  claims 
are  not  alternative. 

Regarding  claims  2,  3  and  4,  we  submit  that  the  object 
is  not  brought  into  the  oembination  as  an  element,  but  only 
as  a  convenient  way  for  characterising  or  defining  the  loca- 


tion  of  the  electrodes.  With  the  Boas  patent  No.  82,247, 
it  is  not  dear  that  the  object  is  placed,  between  the  two 
eleotrodss.  Presumably  such  la  not  the  oaae,  since  the 
object,  to  be  coated  is  a  mirror.  With  the  Boas  patent  No. 
86,438,  the  drawing  very  clearly  oho to  the  cathode  between 
the  anode  and  the  object. 

It  is  thought  the  caec  as  now  presented  should  be 

allowed. 

Very  respectfully, 

TKOHAS  A.  EDISON, 

By 

His  AttorneyB. 

New  "fork,  July  5,  1901. 


United  States  Patent  Office, 


Is  Thomas  A.  Ed  is 


Care  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer, 
Edison  Laboratory, 


Please  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  applicatU 


Amendment  filed  July  d,  1901,  has  been  entered. 

Claims  2,  3,  4,  5  are  again  rejected  for  the  reason  that 
there  is  no  combination  between  the  apparatus  and  the  object  to  be 
operated  upon;  these  claims  should  be  written  after  the  manner  of 
claim  1,  to  directly  include  the  support  for  the  object  and  to  de¬ 
fine  the  position  of  the  electrodes  with  relation  thereto. 

Claim  1  is  rejected  upon  the  patentsto  Boas,  cited.  Atten¬ 
tion  is  called  to  the  fact  that  the  disnosition  of  apparatus  em¬ 
ployed  in  the  patent  82,247  is  more  fully  described  in  the  later 
patent,  it,  being  stated  therein,  page  1,  column  1,  that  the  object 
to  be  coated  is  placed  between  the  electrodes. 

Claims  2,  3,  4,  5  are  again  rejected  on  the  references  of 
record. 


Ex'r  Div.  3 


o,AA.f/yrK 


^)yr:K 

fyrJr/fy:  (gUnAj*  .°#/,„/  7 

y > VA,. 


Swww-^^wA' 
•/..Air  23/3  fa-/. 


THOMAS  A,  EDISON, 
SUBJECT-MATTER:  £  ,-,r,  ~ 

FILED  JA~^_ 

SERIAL  NO. 

EXAMINER 1 S  ROOM  NO ,  /  / 


HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OF  PATENTS, 

SIR  :_L_ 

In  the  above  entitled  application,  please  ad¬ 
dress  further  communications  to  us  at  our  office.  No.  31  Nassau 
Street,  New  York  City. 

Very  respectfully, 


Attorneys  of  Record. 


I 


thokas  a.  EDISON 

APPARATUS  FOR  COATING  PHONOGRAPH  RECORDS 
FITTSD  TONE  10,  1900 
SERIAT,  HO.  20,566 

HOH.  COMMISSIONER  OF  PATENTS, 

SIR: 


ROOM  NO.  149. 


In  accordance  with  the  Examin¬ 
er's  request,  we  amend  by  erasing  claims  8,  3,  4  mid  6,  and 
substituting  the  following: - 

- 8.  Improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of  a 

metal  on  an  object,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  chamber  in 
vshioh  the  object  to  be  ooated  is  supported,  a  siq>port  for 
..  the  object  within  said  chamber,  two  electrodes  in  said  ohan- 
ber  made  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited,  said  electrodes  being 
placed  diametrically  of  the  support,  and  means  for  estab¬ 
lishing  between  said  oleotrodes  a  silent  or  brush  electrical 
discharge,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

3.  Improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of  a 
matal  on  an  object,  consist!^  of  an  exhausted  chamber  in 

:  which  the  object  to  be  coated  is  supported,  a  support  for. 
the  object  within  said  ohaniber,  two  electrodes  in  said  cham¬ 
ber  made  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited,  said  electrodes  being 
placed  diametrically  of  the  support,  means  for  establishing 
between  said  electrodes  a  silent  or  brush  eleotrioal  dis¬ 
charge,  and  means  for  rotating  said  support,  substantially 
.  as  set  forth. 

4.  Improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coatiig  of 
-  *  metal  on  an  object,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  ohaniber 

in  whioh  the  object  to  be  ooated  is  supported,  a  support 
i  for  the  objeot  within  said  chamber,  two  electrodes  within 
laid  ohaniber  on  opposite  Bides  of  said  support,  an  induction 


oolj.  tho  secondary  of  which  is  connected  to  sairl  electrodes, 
and  means  for  energizing  said  induction  coil  for  producing 
a  silent  or  brush  discharge  between  said  electrodes,  sub¬ 
stantially  &B  Bet  forth. 

S.  Improved  apparatus  for  scouring  a  coating 
of  a  metal  on  an  objeot,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  chamber 
in  whioh  the  objeot  to  be  coated  is  supported,  a  support 
for  the  objeot  within  said  ohomber,  a  pair  of  insulating 
standards  within  tho  ohomber  on  opposite  sides  of  said  sup¬ 
port,  eleotrodss  carried  by  said  standards  and  made  of  the 
metal  to  be  deposited,  and  moans  for  establishing  a  silent 
or  brush  d lacker 35  botween  said  elootrodes,  substantially  es 


Rcoonsideration  of  the  t 


»  is  respeotfully  request- 


X11  the  first  Boas  patent,  Ho.  82,247,  the  descrip¬ 
tion  is  manifestly  insufficient.  It  is  true  the  second 
3oas  patent,  ITo.  615,435,  in  referring  to  the  first  patent 
ts  a  part  of  the  prior  art  states  that  the  objeot  is  plaoed 
letween  the  two  electrodes,  but  the  second  patent  refers  to 
;his  arrangement  as  distinctly  disadvantageous,  and  claims 
is  an  improvement  the  pitta  ins  of  the  cathode  between  tho 
inode  and  the  objeot.  Even  if  the  roferonoos  are  oonsid- 
ired  in  the  aggregate,  they  do  not  show  the  employment  of  ,a 
ilenfc  or  brush  discharge,,  nor  do  they  show  the  making  of 
he  two  electrodes  of  the  same  metal,  and  finally  they  do 
rot  show  the  rotation  of  the  object.  In  fact,  the  two, 

3 oas  patents  appear  to  be  designed  solely  for  the  purpose  tf 
operating  on  mirrors,  and  do  not  show  processes  which  could 
le  satisfactorily  used  for  ooating  phonograph  records/ 

hoP®  that  upon-  reconsideration  the  claims  will. 

.?  e.-.  allowed.  Eesp  eotfully, 


l  Y°rk,  June  8.1902. 


United  States  Patei 


Patent  Office,  .^jCpu/gg's, 

fASHiNGTON,  d.  c.  June  19%2^^^\^ 

PM H 

1902  J  .  . 


Thoe.  A.  Edison,  0/%v?;'v> - 7#? 

Care  Dyer,  Edmonds  &  Dyer,  V  JIjN-ir,  ,  'W*“y 

31,  Nassau  St ,  1^^1902 

New  York, 

*>“*  4cfow  «  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  your  application, 

Apparatus  for  Coating  Phonograph-Records  fco.-j  Plied  June  16,1900 


The  specification  and  claims  ?.of  this  case  are  drawn  in  such 
broad  terms  as  to  include  the  working  of  metallic  mirrors  or 
similar  articles  by  means  of  a  brush  or  silent  discharge,  and 
the  onlyu  difference  set  forth  over  the  German  patents  of  record 
when  both  are  taken  together,  as  publications,  is  that  the  pho*- 
nogram  or  other  object  to  be  coated  is  rotated  with  the  discharge 
chamber.  Moreover,  Moore,  of  record,  shows  at  that  the  device  of 
rotating  objects  in  a  vaouum  chamber  by  means  of  a  rotating  magnet 
is  old  and  to  use  the  same  and  to  apply  the  Bilent  discharge  used 
by  Boas  in  his  later  patent  in  to  the  apparatus  used  by  Boas  in 
his  earlier  patent,  as  disclosed  in  his  later  patent,  would 
Obviously  be  a  mere  double  use.  Bach  claim  is  rejected'-f^Tlhis 
reason  and  on  the  references  of  record. 

It  seems  clear  to  the  Examiner  that  the  only  invention,  dis- 
olosed  in  this  oase  resides  in  the  process,  and  such  process 
being  tacitly  allowed  in  the  oopending  oase  Number  20,555,  ap¬ 
plicant's  rights  are  believed  to  be  therein  fully  protected. 


Case  No.  1039. 


Dropped 


Filed  June  16,  1900. 

APPARATUS  FOR  COATING  PHONOGRAPH  RECORDS 
AND  OTHER  ARTICLES. 

CLAIMS . 

1.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of 
a  metal  on  an  object,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  chamber  in 
vdiich  the  object  to  be  coated  is  supported,  and  electrode 

I  I  of  the  mbtal  to  be  deposited  and  a  second  electrode  in 
said  chamber,  and  means  for  establishing  between  said  elec¬ 
trodes  a  silent  or  brush  electrical  disci. arge,  substantial¬ 
ly  as  set  forth. 

2.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of 
a  metal  on  an  object,  consisting  of  an  exhausted  chamber  in 
which  the  object  to  be  coated  is  supported,  an  electrode 
of  the  metal  to  be  deposited  and  a  second  elecjrrode  in  said 
chamber,  means  for  establishing  between  said  electrodes 
a  silent  or  brush  electrical  discharge,  and  means  for  ro¬ 
tating  the  object,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

S.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of 
metal  on  an  object,  comprising  an  exhausted  chamber  con¬ 
taining  the  object  to  be  coated,  two  electrodes  in  said 
chamoer  made  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited,  said  electro¬ 
des  being  placed  diametrically  of  the  object,  and  means  for 
establishing  between  said  electrodes  a  silent  or  brush  elec 
trical  discharge,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of 
a  metal  on  an  object,  comprising  an  exhaustive chamber  con¬ 
taining  the  objrect  to  be  coated,  two  electrodes  in  said 
chamber  made  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited,  said  electrodes 
being  placed  diametrically  of  the  object,  means  for  estab¬ 
lishing  between  said  electrodes  a  silent ■'or-brushreaectric- 
al  discharge,  and  means  for  rotating  the  object,  substan- 
Ip ially  as  set  forth..; 


\ 


5.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of 
a  metal  on  an  object,  comprising  an  exhausted  chamber, 
means  within  the  chamber  for  securing  a  vacuous  deposit 
on  the  object,  means  for  supporting  the  object  within  the 
chamber,  an  armature  connected  to  the  object,  a  magnet  on 
the  outside  of  the  chamber  for  attracting  said  armature, 
and  means  for  rotating  the  magnet  with  respect  to  the  cham¬ 
ber,  substantially  as  set  forth, 

6.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating  of 
a  metal  on  an  object,  comprising  an  exhausted  chamber , 
two  electrodes  within  said  chamber  on  opposide  sides  of 
the  object  to  be  coated, an  induction  coil  the  secondary 
of  which  is  connected  to  said  electrodes,  and  means  for 
energizing  said  induction  coil  for  producing  a  silent  or 
brush  discharge  between  said  electrodes,  substantially  as 
set  forth. 

7.  An  improved  apparatus  for  securing  a  coating 
Of  a  metal  on  an  object,  comprising  an  exhausted  chamber 
containing  the  object  to  be  coated,  a  pair  of  insulating 
supports  within  the  chamber,  electrodes  carried  by  said 
supports  and  made  of  the  metal  to  be  deposited,  and  means 
for  establishing  a  silent  or  brush  discharge  between  said 
electrodes,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


Srrttfttr/ //*/': 

fivmA/.&yrn  V  //  I  ,,  .  fT..  '  JMM*a/fiOrA, 

pT  '’  — 

U— .  cX^~~  oj?  uvwiv  e.wi^  J  ’i'/fftf  Ij/o v/z'  Hay  23,  1902.  — - 

>«ra  4^-wv.jw  vC*\>  •fL*w£^  i  ^Lv.  J  l  £-vJ  oJ-e*^£g$l.  M' 

^Thomas  A.  Edison,  Esq.  j  cJlc^^= 

l w «,,.  w 

Qy^  Arf-Jt-  Y  "f  t^ 
Your  favor  of  the  22nd  instant  has  /been  ™-Jj  "\ 
Fv-et-wl  o-6-ev-f'"  ‘yG^r V— »Vs/  ,'B ('■tcvvt.a  C-trv~<s^-0 
oeived,  returning  the  allowed  claims  in  (ykir  Application  for 

electric  meters  filed  October|  1£^90(\'  and'^dl^ai^^^o^a 

list  of  questions  re  la  t  ing^^T1  fcs^*  sjate^of  the  art?  We^pre-vf  , 
_  .  ..  .  la>-^6,  <s»e/  A-&Ga_TV  eLe..ttj^&*,  a^&-exA.J 

Bent  your  questions  herewith,  together  with  our  answers  to 

the  same.  ~~&£ZSj  ~t*L~JC 

o  ■> 

lsti_  Who  was  the  first  to  use  a  scalebeam  with  the  - 

counter  on  the  beam,  in  an  electric  meter? 

£ng.«.  Mes ton,  patent  Ho,  442,705,  dated  December  16, 

1890  (copy  enclosed) .  With  the  preferred  construction,  the 
register  is  stationary  and  is  driven  from  a  toothed  wheel  0 
through  intermediate  connections,  but  the  patent  states  (p. 

3,  lines  92  jat  seq. )  that— 

v  „  JL"Th!  decimal-registering  dials  •  «  •  w 

be  fastened  to  the  lever  C  and  partake  of  its  movement? " 

We  doubt  if  this  bald  suggestion  of  a  modification  is  suffi¬ 
ciently  definite,  under  the  authorities,  to  convey  an  accu¬ 
rate  e:q)lanation  of  the  exact  oonstruotion  contemplated. 


-SWr 

tZsssz* 


rr  uvtrrb  4^.v-4m»  v( 

j  Thomas  A« 

rm  i  k-**? 


Thomas  A*  Edison,  Esq*j  *** 

1  « 


(T.  A.  B.,  2) 

Thomson,  patent  Ho.  463,558,  dated  November  17,  1891 
(copy  enclosed).  This  patent  very  clearly  shows  the  con¬ 
struction  of  the  question. 

2nd.  Who  was  the  first  to  work  such  a  beam  by  a  sole¬ 
noid  with  coil  in  series  with  the  lamps? 

Ans.  Thomson,  patent  No.  463,558  above  referred  to, 

3rd.  Who  was  the  first  to  use  soft  unmagnetized  iron 
in  such  a  solenoid? 

Ans^  We  do  not  know  of  any  patent  showing  the  exact 
requirements  of  the  question.  Thomson  shows  everything  ex¬ 
cept  the  special  solenoid  called  for,  Thomson's  solenoid  hav¬ 
ing  a  fine  wire  coil  instead  of  a  soft  iron  cote. 

Patent  to  Marks,  No.  586,559,  dated  July  20,  1897  (copy 
enclosed)  states  that— 

"In  eleotrical  meters  and  indicators  it  is  the  common 

practice  to  employ  a  coil  which  actuates  a  movable  ele¬ 
ment  made  of  soft  iron  and  whose  movement  adjusts  the 

indicator  or  recording  device"  (p.  1,  lines  12  et  Beq. ). 

4th.  Who  was  the  first  to  wind  a  fine  wire  on  such 
solenoid  to  produce  an  initial  magnetism,  such  coil  being 
across  the  line? 

Ans.  Your  application  of  October  15th,  1900,  and  the 
construction  is  covered  broadly  in  olaim  16  and  more  specif¬ 
ically  in  other  claims. 

The  Marks  patent  above  referred  to  describes  the  employ¬ 
ment  of  "an  additional  winding  within  the  solenoid  to 


pro- 


duoe  saturation  or  polarization  of  the  core,  or  the  extra 
winding  may  he  plaoed  directly  upon  the  core,  or  both  ar¬ 
rangements  may  be  employed"  (p.  1,  lines  37  et  Beg.);  but 
we  understand  that  with  your  construction  the  auxiliary 
ooil  does  not  produce  saturation  of  the  core,  and  it  was  on 
account  of  this  difference  that  your  claims  were  allowed  on 
this  feature. 

5th.  Who  was  the  first  to  wind  the  solenoid  coils  on 
a  copper  tube  to  retard  the  violence  of  the  action  of  a 
short  cirouit  on  the  beam? 

Ana.  Your  application  of  October  15th,  1900,  and  the 
feature  is  covered  generically  in  claim  6  and  specifically 
in  other  claims. 

6th,  Who  was  the  firBt  to  make  double  windings  on 
the  solenoid  to  permit  of  the  use  as  a  3-wire  meter? 

A”8*  Y°ur  application  in  question,  the  construction 
being  covered  by  the  eighth  claim. 

?th»  Who  was  the  first  to  employ  the  construction  of 
the  sixth  question  with  an  extra  ooil  to  give  an  initial 
magnetism  to  the  core,  suoh  ooil  being  across  the  line? 

Ana.  Your  application  of  October  15th,  1900, in  ques¬ 
tion,  the  two  features  being  covered  by  claims  8  aid  16,  as 
above  stated. 


(T.  A.  E., 


4) 


8th.  Who  was  the  first  to  employ  the  construction  of 
the  seventh  question  with  a  soft  iron  core? 

Ans.  Your  application  of  October  18th,  1900. 


9th.  Who  was  the  first  to  use  a  hollow  core  or  tube 
of  BOft  iron  in  a  meter  Bolenoid? 

Ans.  Maxim,  in  patents  Hos.  255,306  and  255,307  of 
March  21,  1882  (copies  enclosed),  showB  a  hollow  core  for  a 
meter  solenoid,  but  the  patents  do  not  specifically  state 
that  the  core  is  made  of  soft  iron.  trV  £■  a-  G-oyx.  <\ 

w  W<X  tw»  -  Ht^ 

10th.  Who  was  the  first  to  overbalance  the  meter  bean 
with  a  recorder  on  the  beam? 

Ans.  Mas ton  and  Thomson  before  referred  to.  “:<V 


11th.  Who  was  the  first  to  use  a  friction-driven 
wheel  connected  to  a  oounter  by  power-transmitting  mechan¬ 
ism,  so  that  a  rotation  of  the  wheel  advances  the  recorder? 

Ans.  Heckenaaun,  patent  Ho.  437,763,  of  October  7, 
1890,  shwws  this  construction;  also  Edison  patent  Ho.  660,- 
293  of  October  23rd,  1900  (copy  enclosed). 


12th.  Who  was  the  first  to  use'  the  construction  of 
the  eleventh  question,  and  to  also  have  the  wheel  so  ar¬ 
ranged  that  it  is  free  to  lift  when  it  comes  in  contact  with 
an  extraneous  body  in  motion  and  produce  traction  for  driv¬ 
ing  the  wheel? 

Ana.  EdiBon,  patent  Ho,  660,293,  above  referred  to. 


(T. 


5) 


Who  was  the  first  to  use  a  revolving  integrat- 

The  patents  to  Maxim,  to  Reckenzaun,  to  Meston, 
and  to  Edison  (Mo.  660,295),  all  show  this  fea- 

14th.  Who  was  the  first  to  drive  an  integrating  wheal 
hy  a  worn? 

Ana.  Maxim  patents  above  considered. 

15th.  Who  was  the  first  to  form  such  a  wheel  so  that 
its  surface  shall  at  all  points  he  of  app roxlmately  the  same 
radius  or  sweep  of  the  traction  wheel  on  the  beam? 

Ana.  Thomson  before  considered. 


15  th. 
ing  wheel? 
Ans. 

to  Thomson 
ture. 


16th.  Who  was  the  first  to  drive  any  kind  of  an  in¬ 
tegrating  device  by  a_motor  aoross  the  line?  [i  VH.*-****  «  ruWWH 
Ans.  Maxim  patent  Mo.  255,507.  British  patent  to 
Varley  and  Greenwood,  Ho.  2248  of  1882  (copy  enclosed).  See 
also  Edison  patent  Ho.  660,293. 


17th.  Who  was  the  first  to  drive  any  kind  of  an  in-  j  ^ 
l  tegrating  device  by!,a  motor  aoross  the  line  wiljh  any  device 
^operated  by  a  solenoid  in  series  with  the  lights? 

Maxim,  Ho.  255,507;  Varley  and  Greenwood  Brit- 
jjjijbh  patent  Ho.  2248  of  1882;  Edison,  Ho.  660,295. 

18th.  Who  first  used  a  motor  with  a  governor  worked 
by  friotion  run  continuously  and  placed  aoross  the  line? 


(T.  A.  B. ,  6) 

Ans^  Edison,  Ho.  660,295,  and  covered  broadly  in 
claims  1  and  2. 

_19th«  Who  was  the  first  to  use  the  construction  of 
the  eighteenth  question  with  the  addition  of  a  beam  with  the 
counter  thereon  and  a  solenoid  in  series  and  containing  a 
soft  iron  core? 

Ansj_  We  know  of  nothing  complying  exactly  with  the 
requirements  of  this  question,  except  the  application  of 
October  15th,  1900,  under  consideration# 

Edison  patent  Ho.  660,293  showB  a  friotionally  governed 
motor  across  the  line,  and  patents  to  Thomson,  to  Meston  and 
to  Marks  show  the  other  features  of  the  qvestion. 

20th«  was  the  first  to  make  a  motor  having  a 

governor  with  pendulous  governor  arms  engaging  glass  to 
provide  the  friction  of  retardation? 

Ansj,  Application  of  October  15th,  1900,  and  covered 
in  claim  12. 

We  beg  to  return  the  copy  of  allowed  claims  here¬ 
with,  together  with  all  the  patents  above  referred  to  except 
that  to  Reckenzaun,  with  whioh  we  Relieve  you  are  familiar, 
and  shall  be  glad  to  have  your  views  as  to  whether  the  claims 
are  sufficient  in  your  opinion.  You  will  note  that  your 
patent  Ho.  660,293  covers  the  broad  claims  on  meters  of  this 


(T.  A.  E. ,  7) 

type,  and  the  present  epplioation  was  filed  only  for  the 
purpose  of  claiming  details. 

Yours  very  truly, 

-r  afe.  -  - 


eld/im. 

Enclosures. 


THOMAS  A.  TO IS ON 
ELECTRIC  METERS 
PILED  OCTOBER  15,  1900 
SERIAL  NO.  33,034 


CLAIMS  ALLOWED. 


1.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  an 
overbalanced  beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam, 
a  stationary  coil  surrounding  said  core  and  traversed  by  the 
current  to  be  measured,  a  register  connected  to  and  movable 
with  the  beam,  and  a  friction  wheel  movable. with  the  beam 
and.  connected  with  said  register,  /of  a  camVith  which  said 
friction  wheel  periodically  cooperates , and  an  electric  mo¬ 
tor  connected  across  the  line  for  rotating  said  cam  at  a 
constant  speed,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


2.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  an 
overbalanced  beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam, 
a  stationary  coil  surrounding  said  core  and  traversed  by  ;the 
current  to  be  measured,  a  register  connected  to  and  movable 
with  the  beam,  and  a  friction  wheel  movable  with  the  beam 
and  connected  with  said  register,  of  a  cam  with  which  said 
friction  wheel  periodically  cooperates,  an  electric  motor 
connected  across  the  line  for  rotating  said  cam  at  a  constant 
3peed,  and  an  auxiliary  coil  of  high  resistance  surrounding 
the  core  for  overcoming  magnetic  inertia  without  producing 
saturation  or  polarization  thereof,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 


•3.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  an 
Overbalanced  beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam, 
tationary  coil  surrounding  said  core  and  traversed  by  the 


L 


current  to  tie  measured,  a  register  connected  to  and  movable 
with  the  beam,  and  a  friction  wheel  movable  with  the  beam 
and  connected  with  said  register,  of  a  cam  with  which  said 
friction  wheel  periodically  cooperates,  an  electric  motor 
connected  across  the  line  for  rotating  said  cam  at  a  con¬ 
stant  speed,  and  an  auxiliary  coil  of  high  resistance  sur¬ 
rounding  the  core  for  overcoming  magnetic  inertia  without 
producing  saturation  or  polarization  thereof,  said  core 
being  in  series  with  the  motor,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
beam,  a  current  indicator  for  moving  said  beam,  a  magnetic 
cutout  in  series  with  the  current  indicator  for  short-cir¬ 
cuiting  the  latter  when  a  destructive  current  traverses  the 
cutout,  and  a  register  connected  to  and  movable  with  the 
beam,  of  a  variable  speed  gearing,  one  element  of  which  is 
movable  with  the  register,  and  a  motor  for  operating  the 
other  element  of  said  gearing,  substantially  as  and  for  the 
purposes  set  forth. 

5.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
current  indicator  having  a  movable  element,  a  beam  to  which 
said  element  is  connected,  elastic  buffers  for  limiting  the 
extreme  movements  of  said  element,  and  a  register,  of  a 
variable  speed  gearing  the  position  of  whose  elements  is 
determined  by  the  position  of  said  beam,  and  a  motor  for 
driving  the  register  through  said  variable  speed  gearing, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

6.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam,  a  copper 
tube  surrounding  said  core  and  in  which  the  core  is  freely 
novable,  an  ampere  coil  wound  on  the  tube  and  traversed  by 
the  current  to  be  measured,  and  a  register,  of  a  variable 
speed  gearing  the  position  of  whose  elements  is  determined 


■by  the  position  of  said  beam,  and  a  motor  for  driving  the 
register  through  said  variable  speed  gearing,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

7.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  comb ination  with  a 
beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam,  a  copper 


tube  surrounding  said  core  and  in  which  the  core  is  freely 
movable,  an  ampere  coil  wound  on  the  tube  and  traversed  by 
the  current  to  be  measured,  elastic  buffers  for  limiting 
the  extreme  movements  of  said  core,  and  a  register,  of  a 
variable  speed  gearing  the  position  of  whose  elements  is 
determined  by  the  position  of  said  beam,  and  a  motor  for 
driving  the  register  through  said  variable  speed  gearing, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

8.  In  a  three-wire  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam,  a  copper 
tube  surrounding  said  core  and  within  which  the  core  is 
freely  movable,  four  ampere  coils  wound  helically  and  con¬ 
centrically  upon  said  tube,  the  outer  and  inner  coils  being 
connected  in  series  with  one  of  the  outside  mains  and  the 
two  inner  coils  being  connected  in  series  with  the  other 
outside  main,  and  a  register,  of  a  variable  speed  gearing 
the  position  of  whose  elements  is  determined  by  the  positior 
of  said  beam,  and  a  motor  for  driving  said  register  through 
said  variable  speed  gearing,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

9.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam,  an  ampere 
coil  surrounding  the  core  and  traversed  by  the  current  to 
be  measured,  and  a  register,  of  a  variable  speed  gearing 

the  position  of  whose  elements  is  determined  by  the  positior 
of  said  beam,  a  motor  for  driving  said  register  through  said 
variable  speed  gearing,  and  an  auxiliary  coil  enclosing  the 
core  for  overcoming  the  magnetic  inertia  thereof  without 

producing  saturation  or  polarization,  substantially  as  set 
-3- 


forth. 

10.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  c ombination  with  a 
beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam,  an  ampere 
coil  surrounding  the  core  and  traversed  by  the' current  to 


be  measured,  and  a  register,  of  a  variable  speed  gearing  tte 
position  of  whose  elements  is  determined  by  the  position  of 
said  beam,  a  motor  for  driving  said  register  through  said 
variable  speed  gearing,  and  a  stationary  auxiliary  coil  en¬ 
closing  the  core  and  in  series  with  said  motor,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

11./  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
beam,  an  ampere  indicator  the  movable  element  of  which  is 
connected  with  said  beam,  said  indicator  including  a  coil 
traversed  by  the  current  to  be  measured,  a  register,  and  a 
motor  for  operating  said  register,  of  a  magnetic  cutout  ar¬ 
ranged  to  dose  a  shunt  around  the  ampere  coil  v/hen  said 

cutout  is  influenced  by  an  abnormal  current,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 


12.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
register,  an  ampere  indicator,  and  a  variable  speed  gearing 
the  position  of  whose  elements  is  determined  by  said  indi¬ 
cator,  of  a  constant  speed  motor  for  driving  the  register 
through  the  variable  speed  gearing,  and  a  centrifugal  speed 
regulator  for  said  motor  employing  a  weighted  bell-crank 
carrying  a  friction  pad  which  cooperates  with  a  glass  fric¬ 
tion  surface,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

13.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
register  and  a  driving  motor,  of  an  ampere  indicator  com¬ 
prising  a  beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam, 

a  coil  for  influencing  the  core  traversed  by  the  current  to 


"be  measured,  and  a  copper  tube  on  which 
and  in  which  the  core  is  freely  movable, 
set  forth. 

-4- 


the  coil  is  wound 
substantially  as 


t 


14.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
register  and  a  driving  motor,  of  an  ampere  indicator  com¬ 
prising  a  beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam,  a 
ooil  for  influencing  the  core  traversed  by  the  current  to  be 
measured,  a  copper  tube  on  which  the  coil  is  wound  and  in 
which  the  core  is  freely  movable,  and  elastic  buffers  for 
limiting  the  extreme  movements  of  said  core,  substantially 
as  set  forth. 

15.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
register  and  a  driving  motor,  of  an  ampere  indicator  com¬ 
prising  a  beam,  a  core  connected  to  one  end  of  said  beam, 

a  coil  for  influencing  the  core  traversed  by  the  current  to 
be  measured,  a  magnetic  cutout  in  circuit  with  said  coil  for 
shunting  the  same  when  a  destructive  ourrent  is  traversing 
the  coil,  and  a  copper  tube  on  which  the  coil  is  wound  and 
in  which  the  core  is  freely  movable,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

16.  In  an  electric  meter,  the  combination  with  a 
register  and  a  motor  for  operating  foe  same,  of  an  ampere 
indicator  comprising  a  coil,  a  core,  and  an  auxiliary  coil 
for  subjecting  the  core  to  an  initial  magnetizing  effect 
without  producing  polarization  or  saturation  thereof,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  set  forth. 


-5- 


*  * 


petition. 


<Xo  tbe  (Commissioner  of  ipatents : 

your  petitioner  THOMAS  A«  53)iaOK,  ft  oibizen  of  the  United 
States,  residing  and  having  his  Post  office  address  at  Llewellyn 
Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and  state  of  New  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE 

REVERSIBLE  GALVANIC  BATTERIES 


HIPROVERTOTT  IN 


BPEOIPI  CATION, 


TO  WOU  JT  KAY  CONCERN : 

Bo  it  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park  in  the  County 
of  Essex  and  State  Of  Hew  Jersey,  have  invented  a  certain 
new  and  useful  IMPROVEMENT  IN  REVERSIBLE  GALVANIC  BATTERIES 
(oase  No.  1060),  of  which  the  following  is  a  description? 

My  invention  relates  to  improvements  in  reversible 
or  so-oalled  storage  batteries,  and  my  object  is  to  produce 
a  reversible  galvanic  cell  of  great  permanenoy  and  of  re¬ 


markably  light  weight  per  unit  of  energy. 


In  my  application  for  Letters  Patent  filed  October 


31st  1P00  Berlal  No.  34,904,  I  describe  an  improved  rever¬ 
sible  galvanic  cell  wherein  the  metals  cadmium  and  copper 
are  employed  as  the  elements  in  an  alkaline  eleotrolyte, 
and  by  means  of  whioh  I  secured  a  very  permanent  cell,  one 
wherein  the  initial  and  final  states  of  the  eleotrolyte  are 
the  same,  and  finally  one  which  up.  to— thafr-tfac  was  capable 

of  storing  a  greater  amount  of  energy  per  pound  of  cell 
;  e^w'Vvv«'veWA|  GtArriu  , 

than  batteries  theFetofore^lsuggeaiid- 

My  present  invention  is  designed  to  further  lighten 
the  weight  of  the  cell  in  comparison  to  the  Stored  energy, 
and  to  deliver  the  energy  to  the  exterior  circuit  at  a 
higher  rato.  J 

In  the  alkaline  zineate  type  of  battery,  so  far  os  I 
.  A 

know,  copper  oxide  has  heretofore  been  used  exclusively  as 

,the  oxygen-furnishing  element  when  the  battery  is  discharged, 
the  copper  being  reduced  to  the  metallic  state.  The  'only 

unuvdtj  6*4. 

Qthor  elments  which  have  beeh  suggested  a*  available  aa 
substitutes  for  copper  in  theso  batteries,  have  been  those 
lower  in  the  electrolytic  series,  such  as  mercury  and  all- 


ver,  but  so  far  as  I  know,  these  metals  have  not  been 
satisfactorily  or  commercially  utilised  on  account  of  the 
difficulties  arising  from  their  application  in  alkaline 
electrolytes  as  well  as  because  of  their  expense,  especial¬ 
ly  in  regard  to  silver,  which  metal  possesses  the  further 
disadvantage  of  being  parliaily  soluble  in  the  electrolyte, 
I  Have  sought,  by  a  great  many  experiments,  for  an 
element  or  compound  capable  of  being  used  in  an  alkaline 
electrolyte,  whose  heat  of  formation  of  its  oxide  should 
be  as  low  or  lower  than  that  of  mercury,  and  in  this  X  havo 
been  successful,  the  result  being  the  discovery  of  an  ele¬ 
ment  for  furnishing  the  oxygen  to  the  oxidizable  element 
on  discharge  wi th  even  greater  freedom  than  oxide  of  mer¬ 
cury,'  while  at  the  samb  tine ;; the  new  element  1b  less  ex¬ 
pensive,  is  of  less  weight,  is  of  greater  permanency,  and 
finally  is  of  greater  insolubility  in  the  eleotr01yte,;  .  I 
have  also  sought,  by  experiment,  for  an  element  superior 
to  cadmium  as  the  oxidizable  element  on  discharge,  with  the 
objects  in  view  of  further  reducing  the  weight  and  cost  of 
the  cell,  and  I  have  discovered  an  element  for  the  purpose 
possessing  these  desirable  characteristics.  As  a  result, 
a  reversible  galvanic  cell  equipped  with  the  new  elements 
is  of  great  permanence,  is  relatively  light  and  inexpensive, 
and  is  of  great  power.  These  elements  are,  as  stated, 
preferably  used  in  the  same  cell,  but  obviously  the  oxygen¬ 
furnishing  element  may  bo  employed  in  connection  with  otixer 
oxidizable  elements,  while  the  new  oxidizable  element  may 
be -employed  in  connection  with  other  oxygen-furnishing  ele¬ 
ments; 

The  elements  are  also  preferably  carried  or  support¬ 
ed  by  hollow  perforated  plates,  forming  receptacles  or 
pockets,  which  are  illustrated  in  the  accompanying  draw- 
3 


Ilnga  forming  part,  of  this  specification  and  in  whioh  figure 
1  is  a  face  view  of  one  of  the  plates  having  three  poolcets 
or  receptacles,  showing  the  front, wall  partly  broken  away; 
figure  a  is  a  section  on  the  line  2 — 2  of  figure  1; 
figure  3  is  a  plan,  showing  two  of  the  plates  forming  a 
single  combination}  and  figure  4  an  enlarged  detailed  sectio 
In  all  of  the  above  views,  corresponding  parts  are 
represented  by  the  some  numerals  of  reference. 

Bach  plate  is  formed  with  two  walls  1  and  2  con¬ 
structed  preferably  of  a  single  continuous  sheet  made 
preferably  of  very  thin  sheet  nickel,  say  about  .005  of 
an  ineh  in  thickness,  and  bent  at  its  bottom  around  a  hori¬ 
zontal  frame  3  from  which  extends  the  vertical  spacing 
frames  4,  4,  to  all  of  which  frames  the  sheet  is  secured 
by  means  of  nickel  rivets,  as  shown,  to  form  a  strong, 
rigid,  hollow  Plate  with  pockets  or  receptacles  between 
the  vertical  frames  4,  4.  The  walls  1  and  2  of  the  plate, 
as  shown,  are  perforated  with  small  holes  arranged  very 
closely  together  and  each  about  ,015  of  an  inch  in  diambter. 
i  prefer  to  use  nickel  in  the  cons  traction  of  the  plates, 
since  that  metal  is  not  oxidisable  by  electric  oxidation 
in  an  alkaline  solution.  Iron,  on  the  other  hand,  is 
slightly  oxidized  under  these  conditions  and  id  not  so  de¬ 
sirable,  but  if  very  carefully  and  perfectly  plated  with 
nickel,  it  may  be  used  satisfactorily  for  the  construction 
of  either  the  plates  or  the  frames.  Obviously  the  frames 
3  and  4  may  be,  and  in  some  instances  preferably  are,  con¬ 
structed  of  hard  rubber  or  other  inert  material,  to  which 
the  perforated  sheet  is  riveted,  ae  explained.  Scoured  to 
one  or  both  of  the  sides  of  the  plate  are  a  number  of  insu¬ 
lated  spacing  blocks  5,  5,  to  prevent  adjacent  plates  from 
touching  when  immersed  in  the  electrolyte. 

3  ' 


In  the  manuf ae  ture  or  my  new  oxidisable  element  for 
use  in  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  I  first  preferably  take 
monosulphlde  of  iron  and  reduce  it  by  a  crushing  operation 
until  the  particles  thereof  may  be  passed  through  a  screen 
having  about  4 ,000d openings  per  square  inoh,  and  I  inti¬ 
mately  mix  about  eight  parts  by  weight  of  the  powdered  mono- 
sulphide  With  about  two  parts  by  weight  of  flake  graphite 
of  a  sise  considerably  larger  than  the  perforations  in  the 
walls  of  the  pockets  or  receptacles'^"  This  mixture  is  then 
moistened  with  a  tv/enty-peroent  solution  of  potassic  hydrox¬ 
ide,  and  the  dampened  mass  is  packed  into  the  pockets  or 
receptacles  of  the  proper  plates  by  a  suitable  tamping  tool. 
After  each  pocket  or  receptacle  has  been  tightly  packed 
With  the  maaa  almost  to  its  top,  a  wad  of  asbestos  fiber  6 
about  a  quarter  of  an  inch  in  thickness  is  introduced  into 
the  pocket  or  receptacle  above  the  mass,  and  on  top  of  this 
packing  is  placed  a  strip  of  sheet  nickel  7  entirely  cover¬ 
ing  the  asbestos  and  filling  the  mouth  of  the  pocket,  which 
strip  is  permanently  secured  in  position  by  nickel  wires  8 
threaded  through  the  openings  near  the  top  of  the  pocket, 
as  shown  particularly  in  figure  2,  The  element  thus  form¬ 
ed  is  subjected  to  electrolytic  oxidisation  in  a  solution 
of  potassic  hydroxide,  whereby  sulphur  will  be  Set  free  and 
combining  with  the  alkali  forms  a  sulphide  of  potassium 
which  diffuses  out  of  the  mass,  while  the  iron  is  converted 
to  ge* oxide  thereof.  This  diffusion  of  the  alkaline  sul¬ 
phide  out  of  the  plate  is  hastened  and  facilitated  by  sub¬ 
jecting  the  contents  of  the  plate  to  alternate  oxidisation 
and  reduction  by  alternately  reversing  the  Oxidising  Cur¬ 
rent,  and  by  several  of  these  operations  the  whole  of  the 
sulphur  will  be  eliminated  and  the  element  will  be  ready 
for  use  after  the  iron  has  been  reduced  to  the  metallic 


state.  Since  iron  does  not  decompose  water,  there  will 
obviously  be  no  local  action  between  it  and  the  graphite. 
The  oxide  formed  from  the  sulphide  increases  in  bulk,  and 
being  intermediately  mixed  with  the  graphite,  produces  con¬ 
siderable  pressure  on  the  walls  of  the  plate,  which  pre¬ 


vents  any  disturbance  of  the  initial  state  of  the  mass  even 
when  it  is  subjected  to  strong  gassing  within  the.  pores  by 
overcharging  the  element  electrically i  The  object  of  us¬ 
ing  the  mohosulphide  is  to  secure  the  greatest  amount  of 
iron  oxide  in  the  smallest  space  and  in  a  form  capable  of 
being  reduced  to  the  metallic  state  electrolytically. 

My  attempts  to  utilise  iron  as  the  oxi disable  ele-' 
^QMj^^^alk^ne  rfverspie  battery  were  for  a  long  time 
frustrated  by  the  facts^  that: dried  oxides  of  iron  were  not 
reducible  to  any  extent  by  the  current;  that  spongy. iron 
reduced  by  hydrogen  from  different  iron  salts  was  not 
oxidizable  to  any  considerable  extent  by  the  current;  that 
the  hydrates  of  iron  were  very  bulky  and  difficult  of ;use 
Without  drying,  which  operation  effected  some  obscure 
chang?  therein  to  render  them  nearly  inert  in  the  presence 
of  idie  reducing  current;  that  bulky  ferric  oxide  was  not 
capable  of  any  considerable  reduction  by  the  current;,  and 
finally  that  ferrous  oxide^as  very  difficult  to  prepare  oh 
account  of  atmospheric  oxidation.  The  formation  of  the/*' 
oxide  in  the  first  instance  within  the  pockets  or  recep-  % 
taoles  did  away  with  the.  objections  due  to  the  bulk  of  the 
hydrates,  while  the  oxide  thus  formed  is. perfectly  reduci¬ 
ble’  by  the  current.  Instead  of  forming  the  oxide  in  this 
way  by  oxidising  the.  monosulphide  in  an  alkaline  solution, 
it  will  bo  obvious  that  salts  of  iron,  like  ferrous  chloride 
nay  be  packed  with  the-  graphite  and  when  placed  in  .atj/aika- 
:  iiif.d.  solution  form  chloride' of.  the  alkali  a^. oxide-. iron, 


tho  alkaline  chloride  diffusing  out  of  the  mass,  The  re¬ 
sults,  however,  are  not  ao  good  as  when  the  sulphide  of 
Iron  la  used,  since  the.  quantity  of  finely  divided  Iron 
produced  thereby  is  considerably  less  and  is  also  less 
porous,  offering  therefore  a  reduced  Opportunity  for  the 
solution  to  penetrate  the  mass,  and  lowering  in  consequence 
its  current-conducting  capacity,  Metallic  iron,  even  when 
finely  divided  as  produoed  by  electrolytic  reduction,  does 
not  of  itself  oxidize  in  solutions  of  the  fixed  alkalies, 
and  the  oxide  of  iron  is  not  appreciably  soluble,  Compact t 
iron,  i.e.  iron  having  relatively  large  particles,  when 

subjected  to^igereed  electrolytic  oxidation,  forms  a  soluble 

A. 

ferrate  of  the  alkali  and  dissolves  in  the  electrolyte.  On 
the  other  hand,  finely  divided  iron  obtained  as  described, 
when  subjected  to  electrolytic  oxidation,'  does  not  form  a 
soluble  ferrate  but  Is  converted. into  the  insoluble  ferrous 
oxide.  My  improved  oxidizable  element  is  therefore  abso¬ 
lutely  permanent,  so  that  in  the  operation  of  the  battery, 

the  electrolyte:  JajqeJj  changed  at  any  stage  of  the  working, 

*edhJbiJh-\ 

Having  described  the  advantages  and  characteristics 
of,  and  the  preferred  manner  of  making,  the  oxidizable  ele¬ 
ment,  reference  will  now  be  made  to  the  preferred  oxygen- 
fumiahing  or  storing  element  of  the  cell, 

.1  have  discovered  by  experiment  that  the  lower 
oxides  of  nickel  and  cobalt,  when  in  contact  with  a  con¬ 
ductor  in  a»i  alkaline  solution,  can  be  almost  Wholly  raised 

from  the  lower  to  a  higher  stage  of  oxidation  electrolyti- 

o- 

cally  and  that  these  higher  oxides  revert  to  -tfce  lower 
stage  by  reduction  with  extreme,  ease,  and'  availing  myself 
of  this  fact,  I  have  constructed  an  oxygen-storing  element 
capable  of  greater  oapaclty,  of  lesa .weight,  and  of  higher 
permanence  than  any  electrode,  for  the  purpose,  which,  ad  far 

e 


I 


as  I  know,  has  heretofore  been  applied.  Keither  the  oxide 
of  nickel  nor  of  cobalt  is  appreciably  soluble  in  an  alka¬ 
line  electrolyte,  and  both  nickel  and  cobalt,  give  nearly 
the  same  voltage  in  use,  but  since  nickel  is  leas  expensive 
than  cobalt,  X  prefer  to  use  the  former  element  for  the 
purpose. 


The  .preferred  pro< 


on',  plat  ecu'  ,tjnd  'slowly,  drying  the1'  saw^t  ^rdln^^^^pya- 
..turea  .  powdered,  and'  screened 


Ls  tti4i  powdered,  and''  s 
,  %,06(mhal/a  per  squa 


throufjft  a  sieve  having  say,  4,000dhoi^!3  per  square  inch. 
About  seven  parts  by  weight  of  the  finely  powdered  hydrate 
and  three  parts  by  weight  of  flake  graphite  are  then  in¬ 
timately  mixed,  and  moistened  with  a  small  quantity  of  a 
strong  solution  of  potaasic  hydroxide  so  as  to  dampen  the 
mass,  which  is  then  inserted  in  the  pockets  or  receptacles 
of  the  proper  plate3  in  small  quantities  at  a  time  and 


thoroughly  tamped  at  each  accession.  Finally  the  mass  is 
covered  with  a  layer  of  asbestos,  held  in  place  by  a  plats 
of  nickel  secured  in  position  by  nickel  Wires,  as  X  have 
described  in  explaining  the  makeup  of  the  oxldiaable  ele¬ 
ment,  The. plates,  the  pockets  of  which  are  thus  supplied 
With  the  mixture  of  the  hydrated  oxide  end  graphite,  are 


then  immersed  in  a  solution  of  potassic  hydroxide  in  water 
and  subjected  for  a  considerable  time  to  an  oxidizing  cur¬ 
rent  pf  about  fifty  milamperes  per  square  inch  of  surface^ 


,  The  object  of  employing  graphite,  which  is  not  af¬ 
fected  by  electrolytic  oxidation,  is  to  offer  a  great  ex¬ 
tent  of  surface  against  which  the  Whole  of  the  oxide  Is.  in 


contact,  a  large  conducting  surface  being  necessary  since 
the  electrolytic  reduction  and  oxidation  for  practical  pur¬ 
poses  only  extend  a  small  distance  from  the  conducting 
surface  against  which  the^oxide  is  in  contact.  This  is 
admirably  effected  by  the  use  of  graphite  in  its  mloaoeous 
form,  the  proportions  indicated  being  such  as  to  practical¬ 
ly  insure  that  the  electrolytic  action  need  not  penetrate 
a  greater  distance  from  the  contact  surface  than  the  thick- 

ness  of  a  single  particle  or  the  oxide.  Furthermore, 

/ 

there  is  no  local  action  between  the  nickel  or  cobalt 
oxides  and  the  graphite. 

The  reason  why  nickel  hydrate  is  preferably  used  in¬ 
stead  of  other  compounds  of  nickel,  is  that  the  metal  itself 
when  finely  divided  (as  obtained  by  reducing  a  nickel  com¬ 
pound  by  hydrogen  or  electrolysis),  is  not  oxidisable  to 
any  considerable  extent  when'  subjected  to  electrolytic  oxi¬ 
dation  in  an  alkaline  solution*  and  It  ta  nrnhnhiy  due-.to. 
this  fact  that? tile  availability  of  nickel , and  cobki.tia«-thn 
oxygeiffatorlng/  element  in  ap  alkaline  /electrolyte -haa-no-t.. 
^ISSlh.JpdcgBiasd r~  The  sulphide  of  nickel  is  not  decomposed 
by  electrolysis  under  the  conditions  of  battery  work,  and 
the  sulphide  of  cobalt  only-  Imperfectly;  hence  the  hydrates 
are  the  most  available  compounds  for  use,  since  they  do  not 
become  inert  to  the  same  extent  as  hydrates  of  the  oxides 
of  iron  after  drying,  they  are  easily  prepared,  and  by:  ab¬ 
sorbing  the  solution  they  swell  within  the  pockets  or  re¬ 
's  eeptacles  so  as  to  insure  intimate  contact  and  stability.^- 
Having  teas  constructed  the  two  elements  of  the  bat- 
tery,  they  are  preferably  utilised  together  in  a  solution 
of  twenty-five  percent  of  potasaio  hydroxide  in  water,  and 
the  oell  is  ready  for  use,^  ^^ 

Owing  to  several  obscure  reSoTio^"which  take  place 


when  the  battery  is  discharged*  and  also  to  a  change  of  re¬ 
sistance  within  the  electrodes*  the  voltage  is  variable*' 
but  the  average  voltage  over  the  whole  discharge  is  about 
1  volt,  rising  as  high  as  1.33  volts  and  sometimes  higher 
when  freshly  charged. 

My  improved  battery  can  be  ovor-charged,  fully  dis¬ 
charged,  or  even  reversed  and  charged  in  the  opposite  di¬ 
rection  without  any  injury.  Over-gassing  does  not  dis¬ 
turb  the  initial  state  of  the  materials  in  the  pockets,  all 
the  ingredients  are  insoluble,  the  plates  are  unattacked; 
by  electrolytic  oxidation,  and  the  Whole  operation  is  inde¬ 
pendent  of  the  strength  of  the  solution,  so  that  the  bat¬ 
tery  is  of  great  permanence,  while  at  the  same  time  more 
energy  will  he  stored  per  unit  of  weight  than  with  any.p^,, 
practical  combination  heretofore  suggested. 


Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  I  claim  as 
new  and  desire  to  secure  by  Letters  Patent  is  as  follows: 

1.  In  a  revers^le  galydiiic  battery/  one  element 

{ ©**-pole;  employing  iron/as  the  active  material  and  the  othor 
Clement,  oj^-pole^  employing  oxide'  of-iiickel’  or  cobalt  as  the 
active  material, /sithstantially-  as  set  .‘forth  . 

2 .  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery  employing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  one  element;  or  pole.)eaploying  iron 

Ploying^oxide  of  nickel  or  cobalt/las ' the  active  material, 
substantially  as  set  'forth. 

3.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery,  an  active 
...  ■ 

element-  therefore containing  the^oxldes  of  nickel  or  cobalt. 

‘  • 

substantially  as'  set  forth. 

4.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery  employing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  an  active  element  therefor  containing 
the  oxides  of  nickel  or  cobalt,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


I 


■oversale  galvanic  h^exy^aa'^'pffe 
•t  th'pfo&r  containing  t lneljp/Wvid^l^a/  substan¬ 
tially  as^et  forth.  /  / 


6.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery  employing  an 

alkaline  electrolyte,  an  active  element.. therefor  containing 

u<  *>£.4h  ■  ef„t£u\nr 

finely  divided  iron, ^substantially  as  sat  forth. 

7.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  containing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  an, active  element  therefor  containing 
an  iron  compound  reducible { byTrronnrt±en  \ to  the  metallic 
stated  and>formod--ln--8l-tu--.by;-;electrolytica-l-ly-agt-inff~unon 

■  the-iXQ^compound-^ot-<locmuasahle--bv--the--nrHcn^i'-of  the 
substantially  as  sot  forth. 

8.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  a  perforated  me¬ 
tallic  pookot  containing  an  active  material  under  pressure, 

.substantially  as  set  forth. 

9.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  a  perforated 
nickel  pocket  containing  an  active  material  under  pressure, 
substantially  a3  set  forth. 


10.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  a  perforated 
metallic  pocket  containing  an  active  material,  and  a  sepa¬ 
rate  closing  device  for  covering  the. opening  to  the  poclcot 
after  the  material  is  introduced  therein,  substantially  as 
3et  forth. 

Hr  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  employing  an  al¬ 
kaline  electrolyte,  an  active  material  therefor  mixed  with 
graphite  for  making  oontact  therewith, , substantially  as  set 
forth. 

13.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  containing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  an  active. element  employing  an  oxide 
of  nickel  or  cobalt  and  graphite  for  making  contact  with 
the  oxide,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

13.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  employing  an 


10 


X 


alkaline  electrolyte,  an  active  element  comprising  finely 
divided  iron^or  its  oxidejand  graphite  for  making  contact 
therewith,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

14.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  employing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  a  perforated  metallic  pocket,  and  an 
active  material  rigidly  secured  therein  so  as  not  to  be 
disturbed  when  subjected  to  electrolysis,  substantially  as 
set  forth.  ‘ 

IB.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  coll,  the  formation 
of  ferrous  oxide  from  iron  compounds  by  electrolytic  action 
within  the  liquid*  substantially  as  set  forth. 

16.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  the  formation 
of  ferrous  oxide  from  sulphide  of  iron  by  electrolytic  ac¬ 
tion  within  the  liquid,  substantially  as  set  forth; 

IV •  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell*  the  formation 
of  ferrous  oxide  within  the  element  by  precipitating  the/' 
oxide  from  a  ferrous  salt  by  the  action  of  an  alkali,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  8e t  forth; 


11 


©atb. 


State  of  sic^. 

(Count?  Of 


03.: 


THOMAS  A.  KDJR0H  ,  the  above-named 

PETITIONER,  BEING  DULY  SWORN,  DEPOSES  AND  SAYS  THAT  HE  IS  A  OltlSOn 

of  the  United  States  and  r  resident  of  Mewellyn  Park,  in  tlie 
County  of  Ms sex  and  State  of  New  Jersey} 


THAT  HE  VERILY  BELIEVES  HIMSELF  TO  BE  THE  ORIGINAL,  FIRST  AND  SOLE  INVENTOR 
OF  THE  JWROWMBW  IK  RMVKRSraiJ)  9.WA1TK!  BATTERIES* 


DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 
HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF;  OR  PATENTED  OR  DESCRIBED  IN  ANY 
PRINTED  PUBLICATION  IN  THE  U.NITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  OR  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY 
BEFORE  HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF.  OR  MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR 
TO  THIS  APPLICATION;  OR  IN  PUBLIC  USE  OR  ON  SALE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  FOR 
MORE  THAN  TWO  YEARS  PRIOR  TO  THIS  APPLICATION,  AND  THAT  NO  APPLICATION 
FOR  FOREIGN  PATENT  HAS  BEEN  FILED  BY  HIM  OR  HIS  LEGAL  REPRESENTATIVES  OR 
ASSIGNS  IN  ANY  FOREIGN  COUNTRY. 


I 


/'/ 


Department  of  the  Interior, 


ISERIES  OF  1900. 


Room  No.... X/$. 


..  c,iM„ . 11, . . 


DEPAnTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR, 

United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  o.  c., 

Thorns  A.  Hdison, 

Care  Dyer,  Rdnonds  ft  Dyer, 

31  Has  sail  Rt . , 

Hew  York,  H»  Y. 

Please  find  below  a.  eom.m.n.niaation,  fi'rttU  the  EXAMINER  in.  charge  of  your  application. 

Ho.  41,373,  filed  Dec.  28,  1900, -"Reversible  Galvanic  Batteries". 


CZ. 


:r^ 


It  is  requested  that  some  evidence  be  furnished  to  substan¬ 
tiate  the  statement  made  in  lines  14,  IS,  16  and  17,  pace  5. 
first  that  dried  oxides  of  iron  are  not  reducible  to  any  extent 
by  the  current,  and,  second,  that  sponcy  iron  reduced  by  hy¬ 
drogen  iB;  not  oxidizable  to  any  considerable  extent  by  the  cur-- 
rent.  The  last  statement  is  apparently  contradictory  to  that 
made  in  lines  11,  12  of  page  6,  in  which  it  is  stated  that  corn-pact 
;;iron  'when':.-'  subjected  to  forced  electrolytic  oxidation  forms  a  S' 

soluble  ferrate,  etc. 

The  words  "dried  hydrate"  in  line  11,  page  7,  afe  objected 
to  for  the  reason  that  when  the  hydrate  of  nickel  y£s  dried  it 
is  no  longer  a  hydrate;  it  is  then  an  oxide;  see/- 
Watt's  "Dictionary  of  Chemistry",  London,  1866,  Vol.  4,  p.41,li.  9. 

The  stat  ementcontaineT'a t~  tlie~r6ij'"oT"page~  8  that  when  a  ' 

mass  of  oxide  is  employed  the  electrolytic  reduction  and  oxida-  T 
tion  will  extend  only  a  small  distance  from  the  conducting  sur-  'L vtr^ 
face,  is  not  thought  to  be  strictly  correct,  for  the  reason  that 
in  the  ordinary  De  Lelande  type  of  cell  the  reduction  of  copper 
oxide  will  extend  to  the  center  of  the  depolarizer.  i. 

It  is. requested  that  some  evidence:  be  furnished  to  substan-. 
tiate  the  statement  made  in  lines  14-16,  page  8,  that  finely  di-  }W' 

.  vided  reduced  nickel  is  not  oxidizable  to  any  considerable  ex-  d  IK"- 
tent  when  subjected  to  oxidation  in  an  alkaline  solution. 

The  word"plates"  as  used  in  line  10,  page  9  is  indefinite 
in  that  it  is  not  clear  whether  it  refers  to  the  holder  or  the 
-complete-aleatrode- - 


t - 


c  Application  must  be  specified 


'V 


It  is  requested  that  a  working  cell  be  furnished  in  order  /O 
that  the  effect  of  the  caustic  solution  on  finely  divided  iron  ^ 
mty  be  determined  and  also  to  determine  whether  more  energy  will  ? 
be  atorbd  per  unit  of  weight  in  applicant's  cell  than  in  any  r 
other  combination  heretofore  suggested  as  stated  in  lines  14* 

15,  16,  page  9. 

She  words  "or  pole"  should  be  canceled  from  claims  1,  2. 

Claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  12  are  objected  to  as  being  alternative 
in  the  words  "nickel  or  cobalt". 

Claims  2,  4,  6,  7,  11,  12, -13,  14,  are  objected  to  as  being 
indirect  in  th.at  the  alkaline  electrolyte  referred  t,6  has 
not  been  made  a  positive  element  of  the  claims. 

It  is  suggested  that  the  words  "by  reduction"  be  canceled  ' 
from  line  3  of  claim  7.  The  last  three  lines  of  claim  7  are  ob¬ 
jected  to  for  the  reason  that  they  refer  to  the  manner  of  man¬ 
ufacture;  the  article  should  be  defined  by  a  statement  of  its 
structure. 

Claim  13  is  objected  to  as  being  alternative  in  the  words 
"finely  divided  iron  or  its  oxide",  since,  these  are  not  equiv- 


Clriims  15,  16  are  objected  to  as  being  indirect  in  that  the 
liquid  referred  to  in  line  3  has  not  been  positively  included. 

The  claims  in  this  case  are  considered  to  cover  four  differ¬ 
ent  inventions:  (1)  the  battery • covered  by  claims  1,  2,  3,  4, 

5,  6,  7,  11,  12,  13;  (2)  the  metallic  pocket  for  containing  act¬ 
ive  material,  which  my  be  employed  in  various  cells,  covered 
by  claims  8,  9,  10,  14;  (3)  the  process  of  making  ferrous  oxide 
covered  by  claims  15  and  16,  and,  (4)  the  process  of  making  fer¬ 
rous  oxide,  covered  by  claim  17.  In  advance  of  further  action 
upon  the  merits  the  claims  should  be  limited  to  a  single  invent 


Claims  1,  2,  3,  4,  are  each  rejected  upon: 

U.  S.  274,110,  ’.tar.  20,  1883,  He  Lelande,  et  al . ,  (Batt . ,  1-fl . , 

Zn., Oxides), 

see  line  30,  page  1,  taken  in  connection  with: 

British  15.370.  July  26.  1899,  Kichelowski,  (Batt . , Sec . ) . 

Claim  5,-0,  7  are  each  rejected  upon  DeLelande,  above 
cited . 

Claims  8,  9,  10,  14,  are  each  rejected  upon: 

Brit-lsh  7892,  Apr.  14,  1899 ,  Jungner ,  (Bat t . , Se c . ) , 
taken  "irT’c  omecTTon  wf£Tf?~“ 

U.  S.  555.078.  Jan.  29,  1890.  O'Toole, (Bat t ., 1-fl ., Zn. , Oxides) . 

'  Clatoi  lT "Ys  re jecterr  upon  DeLelande,  above  cited;  see  line 
59,  page  1.  Carbon  is  considered  to  be  the  equivalent  of  graphite 
in  this  connection.  It  is  further  rejected  upon: 

Farbaky ,  (Bat  t . ,  Sec  . ), ; 

Pullen,  (Batt. ,  1-fl.  ,Zn.,  Oxides)., 
on  the  references  cited  against  claim 
Michelowski,  above  cited,  and: 

German  38,383,  Dun,  (Bat t ., 1-fl ., Zn. , Oxides) . 

- - "Action  upon  the  merits  of  claims  15,  16  and  17  is  suspended. 


Til  Ԥ^"585^699!"  July  tii; 

Claim  12  is  rejected  upi 
11,  taken  in  connection  with 


Fx'r  Bj 


THOMAS  A.  EDI  SOM 
REVERSIBLE  galvanic  batteries 


PJl 


PILED  DECEMBER  28,  1900 
SERIAL  NO.  4ff3f& 


HONORABLE  COMMISSIONER  OR  PATENTS: 


I  hereby  abandon  the  above  entitled  application 
(without  relinquishing  any  rights  in  and  to  the  invention 
described  therein)  in  favor  of  two  applications  embodying 
|  the  same  invention  and  executed  on  even  date  herev/lth,  said 
applications  being  numbered  in  my  aeries  of  oases  1066  and 
1086  respectively. 

Very  respectfully, 


Signed  at  Orange,  New  Jersey) 
Eebruary  23rd  1901,  j 

In  prjyj^anoa  of  j 


Case  No  .  1050 


Abandoned 


Filed  December  28,  1900. 

RNVERSIEJjR  GALVANIC  BATTPIRIIIS . 
Claims. 


1.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery,  one  element 

or  pole  employing  iron  as  the  active  material  and  the  other 
element  or  pole  employing  oxide  of  nickel  or  cobalt  as 
the  active  material,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

2.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  bo.ttery  employing  an  al  - 
kaline  electrolyte,  one  element  or  pole  employing  iron 

as  the  active  material  and  the  other  element  or  pole  em¬ 
ploying  oxide  of  nickel  or  cobalt  as  the  active  material, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

3.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery,  and  active  ele¬ 
ment  therefor  containing  the  oxides  of  nikk< 1  or  cobalt, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

4.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery  employing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  an  active  element  therefor  contain¬ 
ing  the  oxides  of  nickel  or  cobalt,  substantially  as  set 
forth. 

5.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery,  an  active  ele¬ 
ment  therefor  containing  finely  divided  iron,  substantially 
as  set  forth, 

6.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  battery  employing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  an  active  element  therefor  contain¬ 
ing  finely  divided  iron,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

7.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  containing  an 
alkaline  electrolyte,  an  active  element  therefor  containg 
an  iron  compound  reducible  by  reduction  of  the  metallic 
state  and  formed  iri  situiby  electrolytically  acting  upon 
the  iron  compound  not  decomposable  by  the  alkali  of,  the 


electrolyte,  substantially  as  set  forth, 

8.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  a  perforated  met¬ 
allic  pocket  containing  an  active  material  under  pressure, 
substantially  as  set  forth, 

9,  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  a  perforated 
.mickel  po  cket  containing  an  active  material  under 
pressure,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

10.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  a  perforated 
metallic  pocket  containing  an  active  material,  and  a  sep¬ 
arate  closing  device  for  covering  the  opening  to  the  pock¬ 
et  after  the  material  is  introduced  therein,  substan¬ 
tially  as  set  forth. 

11.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  employing  an  al¬ 
kaline  electrolyte,  anactive  material  therefor  mixed  with 
graphite  for  making  contact  therewith,  substantially  as 
set  forth. 

12.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  containing  an  alka- 
. line  electrolyte,  an  active  element  employing  an  oxide 

of  nickel  or  cobalt  and  graphite  for  making  contact  with 
the  oxide,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

13.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  employing  an  al¬ 
kaline  electrolyte,  anactive  element  comprising  finely 
divided  iron  or  its  oxide  and  graphite  for  making  con¬ 
tact  therewith, substantially  as  set  forth 

14.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell  employing  an  alka¬ 
line  electrolyte,  a  perforated  metallic  pocket,  and  an  ac¬ 
tive  material  regidly  secured  therein  so  as  not  to  be'  dis¬ 
turbed  when  subjected  to  electrolysis ,. substantially  as 
set  forth. 

15.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  the  formation 
of  ferrous  oxide  from  iron  compounds  by  electrolytic: ad.fcion 
within  the  li.quid,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


16.  in  a  reversible  galvanic  cell,  the  formation 
OJ.  ferrous  oxide  from  sulphide  of  iron  by  electrolytic 
action  within  the  liquid,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

17.  In  a  reversible  galvanic  '  cell ,  the  formation 
of  ferrous  oxide  within  the  element  by  precipitating  the 
oxide  from  a  ferrous  salt  by  the  action  of  an  alhali,  sub¬ 
stantially  as  set  forth. 


DYER,  EDMONDS  &  DYER. 

Patents  ant)  patent  Causes, 


petition. 


Go  the  Commissioner  of  patents : 

YOUR  petitioner  THOJSj^  A.  ®IG0N,  u  citizen  of  the  United 
States,  reaiding  and  having  hie  poatoffioe  address  at  Llewellyn 
Park,  in  tho  (Jaunty  of  Essex  and  State  of  Now  Jersey, 

PRAYS  THAT  LETTERS  PATENT  MAY  BE  GRANTED  TO  HIM  FOR  THE  IMPROVEMENT  ITT 

3T0RA0E  BATTERIES 


SET  FORTH  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION  I  AND  HE  HEREBY  APPOINTS  DYER,  EDMONDS 
AND  DYER  (A  FIRM  COMPOSED  OF  RICHARD  N.  DYER,  SAMUEL  O.  EDMONDS  AND  FRANK  L. 
DYER),  OF  NO.  31  NASSAU  STREET,  NEW  YORK  CITY,  HIS  ATTORNEYS,  WITH  FULL  POWER  OF 
SUBSTITUTION  AND  REVOCATION,  TO  PROSECUTE  THIS  APPLICATION,  TO  MAKE  ALTERA¬ 
TIONS  AND  AMENDMENTS  THEREIN,  TO  RECEIVE  THE  PATENT,  AND  TO  TRANSACT  ALL 
BUSINESS  IN  THE  PATENT  OFFICE  CONNECTED  THEREWITH. 


SPBOTPICATTOH. 


TO  AIL  m0U  IT  KAY  OOHQBRN: 

Ba  it  known  that  J,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  oitizan  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 

of  Ebssx  and  state  of  Hew  Jersey,  have  Invented  a  certain 
(Case  Ho.  1052) 

new  and  useful  IHPROVEIOTT  JN  STORAGE  BATTER  TE£^,  Of  which  the 
following  is  a  specification:  - 

In  my  application  for  patent  filed  December  26, 

1900,  Serial  No.  41,373,  I  describe  an  improved  storage  bat¬ 
tery  wherein  the  active  materials  are  carried  in  perforated 
pockets  or  receptacles,  one  of  the  active  materials  being 
nickel  or  oobalt  oxide,  and  the  other  active  material  being 
finely  divided  iron,  each  of  the  active  materials  being  mlx«a 
with  flake  graphite  to  form  an  electrically  conducting  mass. 
Tn  describing  the  manufacture  of  my  improved  battery  platan, 

T  stated  that  the  active  materials,  whether  in  their  ulti¬ 
mate  form  or  not,  were  introduced  into  the  perforated  pock¬ 
ets  or  receptacles  in  small  portions  at  a  time  and  suitably- 
tamped  at  each  accession.  Jt  is  desirable  that  as  much  of 
the  active  material  as  possible  should  be  introduced  into 
eaoh  pocket,  in  order  that  the  capacity  of  the  battery  may 
be  increased  and  conductivity  between  the  particles  improved. 

The  object  of  my  present  Invention  is  to  facilitate 
this  result,  and  to  this  end  the  invention  consists  of  load¬ 
ing  the  pockets  or  receptacles  forming  the  positive  and  noga- 
tive  elements  of  the  battery  with  compressed  plates  of  the 
active  materia!),  formed  by  subjecting  the  proper  quantity  of 
such  active  material  to  great  pressure;  say  about- seven 
thousand  pounds  per  square  inoh,  and  by  then  inserting  such 
compressed  plates  into  the  perforated  pockets  or  receptacles. 

_ -1"  \ 


Jn  this  to y  the  amount  of  material  which  can  be  inserted 

I  in  the  pockets  or  receptacles  is  greatly  increased,  and  sino,i 
the  internal  contact  between  the  particles  is  improved,  a 
greater  amount  of  active  material  becomes  effective. 

Jn  constructing  the  plates  for  the  oxygen-storing 
element,  either  nickel  or  cobalt  hydrate  is  preferably  used, 
which  having  been  dried  and  finely  powdered  is  mixed  in  the 
proportions  of  about  seven  parts  of  hydrate  to  three  parts 
of  flake  graphite.  This  mixture  is  then  subjected  to  groat 
pressure  and  is  molded  into  plates  having  the  width  and 
thiokness  to  closely  fit  within  the  pockets  or  receptacles. 
When  the  pockots  or  receptacles  are  relatively  long,  as  is 
preferable,  a  number  of  these  plates  are  inserted  one  above 
the  other,,  to  completely  fill  each  pocket*  When  the  pock¬ 
et  or  receptacle  having  thus  been  filled  is  placed  in  the 
solution,  the  material  of  the  plate  by  absorption  swells 
considerably,  so  as  to  plaoe  the  material  under  pressure 
against  the  walls  of  the  pocket,  which  pressure  is  always 
present  in  operation,  to  thereby  afford  a  good  contact  be¬ 
tween  the  active  material  and  the  pocket  and  also  internal¬ 
ly  between  the  particles  of  active  material. 

In  the  manufacture  of  the  oxldizable  element,  iron 
sulphide  is  preferably  first  finely  ground  and  then  mixed 
with  flake  graphite,  the  whole  being  slightly  moistened  with 
strong  caustic  potash,  and  t,ho  mass  thus  formed  is  comprecoa! 
under  great  pressure  into  plates  of  the  desired  size  and 
inserted  in  the  pockets  or  receptacles . 

While  I  prefer  to  make  use  of  nickel  or  oobalt  as 
the  oxygen-storing  element  and  of  iron  as  ’the  oxldizable 
element  of  the  storage  battery, .  it  will  be  understood  that 
other  aotive  materials  suitable  for  the  purpose  may  be  first 
compressed  into  plates  or  blocks  and  inserted; in  position 
-2- 


j  in  perforated  pockets  or  receptacles  in  manufacture. 

I  I  In  order  that  the  improvement  may  be  better  under¬ 

stood,  attention  is  directed  to  the  accompanying  drawings, 
forming  part  of  this  specification,  and  in  which  figure  1  is 
an  elevation,  partly  in  section,  of  a  battery  plate  having 
three  pockets  or  receptacles  therein,  as  I  describe  in  my 
said  application,  and  figure  2  a  separate  perspective  view 
of  one  of  the  molded  or  compressed  blocks  of  active  mater¬ 
ial. 

Xn  figure  1,  the  plate  is  made  of  thin  nickel  sheets 
numerously  perforated  and  bent  around  a  bottom  frame  a  to 
form  parallel  vralls  and  jo.  The  plate  is  secured  alG.o  to 
vertical  frames  d  by  means  of  nickel  rivets*  whereby  a  se¬ 
ries  of  vertically  long,  narrow  pockets  will  be  formed  be¬ 
tween  said  vertical  frames.  Into  these  pockets  are  in¬ 
serted  blocks  «i  of  active  material  compressed  tinder  very 
heavy  pressure  as  explained,  and  which  by  immersion  in  the 
solution  are  caused  to  swell  so  as  to  tightly  engage  the 
walls  of  the  pockets. 

Having  now  described  my  invention,  what  I  claim  as 
now  and  desire  to  secure  by  letters  Patent  is  as  follows :- 

1.  In  a  storage  battary,  an  active  material  formed 
into  compressed  plates  or  blocks  and  inserted  in  perforated 
pockets  or  re«eptaole3,  substantially  as  set  forth, 

2.  In  a  storage  battery,  nickel  or  cobalt  com¬ 
pounds  formed  into  compressed  blocks  or  plates  and  inserted 
in  perforated  pockets  or  receptacles,  substantially  as  sot 
forth. 

3.  In  a  storage  battery,  an  active  element  mixed 
with  graphite  and  formed  into  compressed  plates  or  blocks 
inserted  into  perforated  pockets  or  receptacles,  substan¬ 
tially  as  set  forth. 


j  4.  In  a  storage  battery,  an  active  element  com- 

Ijprising  nickel  or  oobalt  compounds  and  flake  graphite, 
fcjined  into  compressed  plates  or  blocks  and  inserted  in  per¬ 
forated  pookots  or  receptacles,  substantially  as  set  forth. 

5.  In  a  storage  battery,  an  active  element  com¬ 
prising  an  iron  compound  formed  into  compressed  plates  or 
blocks  and  inserted  in  a  perforated  pocket  or  receptacle, 
substantially  as  set  forth. 

6.  In  a  storage  battery,  an  active  material  com¬ 
prising  a  mixture  of  an  iron  compound  and  flake  graphite 
formed  into  compressed  plates  or  blocks  and  inserted  in  a  - 
perforated  pocket  or  receptacle,  substantially  as  set  forth. 


SPECIFICATION  SIGNED 


WITNESSEI 


Wllltncsscs : 


DESCRIBED  AND  CLAIMED  IN  THE  ANNEXED  SPECIFICATION;  THAT  HE  DOES  NOT 
KNOW  AND  DOES  NOT  BELIEVE  THAT  THE  SAME  WAS  EVER  KNOWN  OR  USED  BEFORE 
HIS  INVENTION  OR  DISCOVERY  THEREOF;  OR  PATENTED  OR  DESCRIBED  IN  ANY 


IBLICATK 


INITED  STATES 


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FINANCIAL  CONTRIBUTORS 


PRIVATE  FOUNDATIONS 
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Companies 

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York,  Inc. 

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BOARD  OF  SPONSORS 


Rutgers,  The  State  University  of  New 
Jersey 

Francis  L.  Lawrence 
Joseph  J.  Seneca 
Richard  F.  Foley 
David  M.  Oshinsky 
New  Jersey  Historical  Commission 
Howard  L.  Green 


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EDITORIAL  ADVISORY  BOARD 

Janies  Brittain,  Georgia  Institute  of  Technology 
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THOMAS  A.  EDISON  PAPERS 


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Copyright  ©  1999  by  Rutgers,  The  State  University  ■  ■  • 

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The  original  documents  hi  this  edition  are  from  the  archives  at  the  Edison  National  Historic  Site 
at  West  Orange,  New  Jersey. 


ISBN  0-89093-703-6 


ilfco ru  lap&iA 


A  SELECTIVE  MICROFILM  EDITION 

PARTIV 

(1899-1910) 


Thomas  E.  Jeffrey 
Lisa  Gitelman 
Gregory  Jankunis 
David  W.  Hutchings 
Leslie  Fields 


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